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    supporting teachers, using mechanisms like professional development schools.

  • Suggest that the research conducted by universities include the development and execution of peer-reviewed studies that focus on (1) ways to improve teacher education, (2) the art of teaching, and (3) how people of different ages learn.

  • Work for adequate funding for ongoing professional development.

  • Provide teachers with significant professional development opportunities to improve their teaching through in-depth study in the context of inquiry groups and summer institutes.

  • Establish induction programs to ensure that new teachers receive the support they need to be effective.

  • Establish programs and policies that develop teacher leaders who facilitate the continuous learning of their colleagues.

  • Ensure that teachers and other school staff have electronic and other forms of access to the ever-expanding knowledge base about teaching.

  • Work to develop career-long incentives and rewards for effective teachers that encourage them to remain in teaching and to continually upgrade their skills.

  • Encourage students to consider teaching as a profession.

In addition, using The Mathematical Education of Teachers as a guide, faculty members, administrators, and policymakers—particularly at institutions of higher education—who are concerned with what mathematics content teachers should know can:

  • Ensure that the courses offered by two- and four-year colleges and universities provide teachers and prospective teachers with strong exposure to appropriate content and model the kinds of pedagogical approaches appropriate for teaching that content.

  • Review certification requirements to ensure sufficient and appropriate coursework in mathematics, particularly courses that focus on teaching and understanding the fundamental ideas of school mathematics.

  • Foster greater collaboration among mathematicians, mathematics education faculty, and K–12 classroom teachers when designing and implementing programs for prospective teachers.

  • Advocate the use of mathematics specialists for all mathematics instruction in grade 5 and beyond.

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