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Scientific and Medical of Aspects: Human Reproductive Cloning Appendixes
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Scientific and Medical of Aspects: Human Reproductive Cloning A Panel and Staff Biographical Information PANEL Provided below is biographical information for the members of the Panel on Scientific and Medical Aspects of Human Cloning. Most panel members receive funding from federal agencies, particularly the National Institutes of Health and the National Science Foundation, and the Department of Energy, to support their research. In addition, many belong to professional scientific disciplinary societies. As is the case with many such scientific organizations, these societies frequently take public positions in favor of increased government funding for research. No panel members are involved with corporations or personally conduct research in reproductive cloning or in the use of nuclear transplantation to produce embryonic stem cells. Irving L. Weissman (chair) is Karel and Avice Beekhuis Professor of Cancer Biology and professor of pathology and developmental biology at Stanford University. Dr. Weissman was a member of the Scientific Advisory Board of Amgen (1981-1989), DNAX (1981-1992), and T-Cell Sciences (1988-1992). He was a cofounder of SyStemix and was chairman of its Scientific Advisory Board and a member of its Board of Directors in 1988-1997. He also cofounded StemCells, Inc. and is a director and chair of its Scientific Advisory Board. His main research interests are hematopoietic stem cells, lymphocyte differentiation, and phylogeny of the immune system. He is past president (1994) of the American Association of Immu-
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Scientific and Medical of Aspects: Human Reproductive Cloning nologists. Dr. Weissman is a member of the National Academy of Sciences and the recipient of several awards, including the Leukemia Society of America de Villier’s International Achievement Award, and the E. Donnall Thomas Prize of the American Society of Hematology. Arthur L. Beaudet is Henry and Emma Meyer Professor and Chair of the Department of Molecular and Human Genetics and professor in the Department of Molecular and Human Genetics, Department of Pediatrics, and Department of Cell Biology at the Baylor College of Medicine in Houston, Texas. He received his BA from Holy Cross and his MD from Yale University School of Medicine. His research interests include the molecular abnormalities that cause Prader Willi syndrome and Angelman syndrome. Dr. Beaudet is a member of the Institute of Medicine. Patricia K. Donahoe is chief of Surgical Pediatric Services and director of Pediatric Surgical Research Laboratories at Massachusetts General Hospital, where she has worked virtually her entire career. She is the Marshall K. Bartlett Professor of Surgery and a member of the biochemical and biological sciences graduate program at the Harvard Medical School. She is chair of the Scientific Advisory Board of St. Jude’s Medical Center and has been a member of the Scientific Advisory Board of Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center and of the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development National Advisory Council. Dr. Donahoe received her MD from Columbia University and her BS from Boston University, where she now serves on the Board of Trustees. She is a member of the National Academy of Sciences and of the Institute of Medicine. David J. Galas is vice president, chief academic officer and Norris Professor of Applied Life Science at Keck Graduate Institute of Applied Life Sciences (KGI). Before helping to found and develop KGI, a research and educational institution in the applied life sciences, Dr. Galas served as president and chief scientific officer of Seattle-based Chiroscience R & D Inc., a genomics and drug-discovery company formed through the acquisition of Darwin Molecular Corporation, which Dr. Galas helped to start in 1993. Before his involvement in biotechnology, Dr. Galas served as director for health and environmental research at the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Energy Research, where he headed DOE’s Human Genome Project from 1990 to 1993. He was professor of biological sciences at the University of Southern California from 1981 to 1993. He is on the board of directors of Impath Inc. and the scientific advisory boards of several companies (none of which are engaged in cloning research of any kind). He received his PhD in physics from the University of California, Davis-Livermore and his undergraduate degree in physics from the
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Scientific and Medical of Aspects: Human Reproductive Cloning University of California, Berkeley. He has held positions at the University of Geneva, Switzerland, and the University of California’s Lawrence Livermore Laboratory. Judith G. Hall is a clinical geneticist and pediatrician. She trained at Wellesley College, the University of Washington School of Medicine, and Johns Hopkins Hospital. She is professor of pediatrics and medical genetics at the University of British Columbia based at Children’s & Women’s Health Centre of British Columbia in Vancouver, BC Canada. Her research interests are human congenital anomalies, including neural tube defects; the genetics of short stature; newly recognized mechanisms of disease, such as mosaicism and imprinting; the natural history of genetic disorders; the genetics of connective tissue disorders, such as arthrogryposis; dwarfism; and monozygotic twins. She has described numerous new syndromes and defined the natural history of many disorders. The book she coedited on human malformations received the Association of American Publishers Award for best medical book published in 1993. Dr. Hall is a member of many professional organizations, editorial boards and councils. Most recently, she has been president of the American Society of Human Genetics and the American Pediatric Society. She is an officer of the Order of Canada. Brigid L.M. Hogan is an investigator with the Howard Hughes Medical Institute and Hortense B. Ingram Professor in the Department of Cell Biology at Vanderbilt University School of Medicine. She obtained her PhD from Cambridge University, England, and carried out postdoctoral training at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Before moving to the United States, she was head of the Laboratory of Molecular Embryology, first at the Imperial Cancer Research Fund and then at the National Institute of Medical Research in London. Dr. Hogan is a member of the European Molecular Biology Organization and the Institute of Medicine. She is also a Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences and a Fellow of The Royal Society of London. Robert B. Jaffe is Fred Gellert Professor of Reproductive Medicine and Biology and director of the Center for Reproductive Sciences, Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Sciences at the University of California, San Francisco School of Medicine. He received his MD from the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor and an MS in endrocrinology from the University of Colorado, Denver. His expertise and research interests are in endocrinology and metabolism and in obstetrics and gynecology. He is a Fellow of the Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists and a member of the Institute of Medicine.
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Scientific and Medical of Aspects: Human Reproductive Cloning Edward R.B. McCabe serves as professor and executive chair of the Department of Pediatrics at the UCLA School of Medicine. He is responsible for establishing the UCLA Children’s Hospital (renamed the Mattel Children’s Hospital at UCLA), where he serves as physician-in-chief. He is the director of the UCLA Center for Society, the Individual and Genetics. He is chair of the Secretary’s Advisory Committee on Genetic Testing. His memberships include the American College of Medical Genetics (president, 2001-2002) and the American Board of Medical Genetics (president, 1995-1996). For the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP), he was the chair of the Committee on Genetics (1987-1991), and co-founder (1990) and chair of the executive committee (1993-1995) of the Section on Genetics and Birth Defects. He also co-chaired the Newborn Screening Taskforce (1999) which was sponsored by the AAP and the Health Resources and Service Administration. He is a member of the American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, and the American Society of Human Genetics. Dr. McCabe received his BS in biology from Johns Hopkins University and his MD and PhD from the University of Southern California. His research focuses on developmental molecular genetics. He is a member of the Institute of Medicine. Anne McLaren is principal research associate of The Wellcome Trust and Research Campaign, Institute of Cancer and Developmental Biology, at the University of Cambridge. She did her undergraduate and postgraduate studies at Oxford University. She was director of the Medical Research Council’s Mammalian Development Unit in London for 18 years, until 1992. For the previous 15 years, she worked for the Agriculture Research Council, in C.H. Waddington’s Institute of Animal Genetics in Edinburgh. She was a member of the UK government’s Warnock Committee on Human Fertilisation and Embryology, served on the Voluntary (later Interim) Licensing Authority for human in vitro fertilization and embryology, and is now a member of the UK Human Fertilisation and Embryology Authority that regulates in vitro fertilization and human embryo research in the UK. She chaired the scientific and Technical Advisory Group of the World Health Organization’s Human Reproduction Programme and has been a member of the Nuffield Foundation’s Bioethics Council. She is a member of the European Group on Ethics that advises the European Commission on social and ethical implications of new technologies. Gerald M. Rubin is vice president for biomedical research at the Howard Hughes Medical Institute. He is also professor of genetics at the University of California, Berkeley and adjunct professor of biochemistry and biophysics at the University of California, San Francisco, School of Medi-
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Scientific and Medical of Aspects: Human Reproductive Cloning cine. He received his BS in biology from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and his PhD in molecular biology from the University of Cambridge, England. Dr. Rubin’s postdoctoral work was done at Stanford University with David Hogness. He has held faculty positions at Harvard Medical School and the Carnegie Institution of Washington. Dr. Rubin is a member of the National Academy of Sciences and counts among his honors the American Chemical Society Eli Lilly Award in biological chemistry. Mark Siegler is the Lindy Bergman Distinguished Service Professor at the University of Chicago, professor in the Department of Medicine, and director of the MacLean Center for Clinical Medical Ethics. An honors graduate of Princeton University, he received his MD in 1967 from the University of Chicago. In 1984, the University of Chicago established the Center for Clinical Medical Ethics, one of the first centers in the nation devoted to this clinical specialty, and appointed Dr. Siegler as its director. He has practiced general medicine for more than 30 years and is one of the few physicians who combines expertise in medical ethics with active medical practice. Dr. Siegler currently serves on the ethics committee of the American College of Surgeons, on the advisory board of the Spanish Bioethics Institute (Madrid), and is a member of the Association of American Physicians. INSTITUTIONAL OVERSIGHT President, Institute of Medicine Kenneth I. Shine is professor of medicine emeritus at the University of California, Los Angeles, School of Medicine. He is the school’s immediate past dean and provost for medical services and he was director of the Coronary Care Unit, chief of the Cardiology Division, and chair of the Department of Medicine. Dr. Shine has served as chairman of the Council of Deans of the Association of American Medical Colleges and as president of the American Heart Association. His research interests include metabolic events in the heart muscle, the relation of behavior to heart disease, and emergency medicine. Chair, Committee on Science, Engineering, and Public Policy Maxine F. Singer is president of the Carnegie Institution of Washington (Washington, DC) and is a biochemist whose wide-ranging research on RNA and DNA has greatly advanced scientific understanding of viral and human genes. Dr. Singer received her bachelor’s degree from Swarth-
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Scientific and Medical of Aspects: Human Reproductive Cloning more College (1952) and her PhD from Yale University (1957). She worked at the National Institutes of Health as a research biochemist in the National Institute of Arthritis and Metabolic Diseases until 1975, studying the synthesis and structure of RNA. In 1975, she moved to the National Cancer Institute. She received the Distinguished Presidential Rank Award, the highest honor given to a civil servant, and the National Medal of Science in 1991. Dr. Singer is also director of Perlegen Sciences, Inc. (a biotechnology startup) and is on the Board of Directors at Johnson & Johnson. Chair, Board on Life Sciences Corey Goodman, PhD, is President and CEO of Renovis, Inc., a neuroscience biotechnology company. He is also Professor of Neurobiology in the Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, and the Wills Neuroscience Institute, at the University of California, Berkeley. He served formerly as Howard Hughes Medical Institute Investigator, and co-founder and Director of the Wills Neuroscience Institute. His expertise is in developmental neurobiology for which he is recognized for his use of genetic analysis to elucidate the molecular mechanisms that control the wiring of the brain. Dr. Goodman was elected a member of the National Academy of Sciences in 1995, and in January of 2001 he became chair of the Board on Life Sciences of the National Research Council. His many honors include the Alan T. Waterman Award in 1983, the Gairdner Award in 1997, and the March-of-Dimes Prize in Developmental Biology in 2001. He also serves as president of the McKnight Endowment Fund for neuroscience. He is cofounder of two biotechnology companies—Exelixis and Renovis. He received his BS in biology from Stanford University and his PhD in developmental neurobiology from the University of California, Berkeley. PROFESSIONAL STAFF Deborah D. Stine (Study Director) is associate director of the Committee on Science, Engineering, and Public Policy (COSEPUP) and director of the Office of Special Projects. She has worked on various projects in the National Academies since 1989. She received a National Research Council group award for her first study for COSEPUP, on policy implications of greenhouse warming, and a Commission on Life Sciences staff citation for her work in risk assessment and management. Other studies have addressed international benchmarking of US research fields, graduate and postdoctoral education, responsible conduct of research, careers in science and engineering, and many environmental topics. She holds a bachelor’s degree in mechanical and environmental engineering from the Uni-
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Scientific and Medical of Aspects: Human Reproductive Cloning versity of California, Irvine; a master’s degree in business administration; and a PhD in public administration, specializing in policy analysis, from the American University. Before coming to the National Academies, she was a mathematician for the US Air Force, an air-pollution engineer for the state of Texas, and an air-issues manager for the Chemical Manufacturers Association. Robert Cook-Deegan is a senior program officer for the National Cancer Policy Board of the Institute of Medicine (IOM) and the Division on Earth and Life Studies and for IOM’s Health Sciences Policy Board. He is also a Robert Wood Johnson Health Policy Investigator at the Kennedy Institute of Ethics, Georgetown University, where he is writing a primer on how national policy decisions are made about health research, and a seminar leader for the Stanford-in-Washington program, for which he recently directed a world survey of genomics research. William Wells is a consultant science writer for the project. He received a BS from the University of Adelaide, Australia, in 1989, and a PhD for work on cell-cycle checkpoints from the University of California, San Francisco in 1995. He then worked at Current Biology Ltd. in San Francisco as an in-house editor for Chemistry & Biology. When the journal moved to London a year later, he began 5 years of full-time freelancing. He is now the news editor for the Journal of Cell Biology in New York. Susan Chandra Daniels is a science-research consultant for the project. She received a bachelor’s degree in biology and French from Wheaton College (IL) in 1993 and a PhD in molecular and cell biology from Brandeis University in 2000. She has done research on fertilization and early embryogenesis in the sea urchin and reprogramming of somatic cell nuclei in the frog Xenopus laevis. Her PhD thesis research focused on the molecular genetics of the sensory nervous system of a soil nematode. In 2001, she served as a Christine Mirzayan Science Policy Intern at the National Academy of Sciences, where she worked with the Board on Life Sciences on several projects related to agricultural biotechnology policy. Frances E. Sharples has served as the director of the Board on Life Sciences since October 2000. Immediately before that, she was a senior policy analyst for the Environment Division of the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy (OSTP) for 4 years. Dr. Sharples went to OSTP from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, where she served in various positions in the Environmental Sciences Division between 1978 and 1996, most recently as a Research and Development Section head. Dr. Sharples received her BA in biology from Barnard College and her MA
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Scientific and Medical of Aspects: Human Reproductive Cloning and PhD in zoology from the University of California, Davis. She served as an American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) Environmental Science and Engineering Fellow at the Environmental Protection Agency during the summer of 1981 and as an AAAS Congressional Science and Engineering Fellow in the office of Senator Albert Gore in 1984-1985. She was a member of the National Institutes of Health’s Recombinant DNA Advisory Committee in the middle 1980s and was elected a Fellow of AAAS in 1992. Richard E. Bissell is executive director of the Policy and Global Affairs Division of the National Research Council and director of the Committee on Science, Engineering, and Public Policy. He took up his positions in 1998, having served as coordinator of the Interim Secretariat of the World Commission on Dams (1997-1998) and as a member and chairman of the Inspection Panel at the World Bank (1994-1997). He worked closely with the National Academy of Sciences during his tenure in senior positions at the US Agency for International Development (1986-1993) as head of the Bureau of Science and Technology and head of the Bureau of Program and Policy Coordination. He has published widely in political economy, and he taught at Georgetown University and the University of Pennsylvania. He received his BA from Stanford University (1968) and his MA and PhD from Tufts University (in 1970 and 1973).
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