Significant findings

Campbell 1996

Nuclei from cell lines from embryonic discs are able to support development to term.

Robl 1987

Cleavage stage embryonic nuclei are unable to direct embryonic or term development when transferred to enucleated zygotes.

Prather 1987

Term development from transcriptionally active donor embryonic nuclei.

Bondioli 1990

Nuclei from morula stage embryos can direct midgestation development.

Chesne 1993

Nuclei from morula stage embryos can direct development to term.

Collas 1994

Direct injection of inner cell mass nuclei into Mll cytoplasts can direct development to term.

Keefer 1994

Totipotency of inner cell mass nuclei confirmed.

Sims 1984

Nuclei from inner cell mass cultured for up to 28 days are able to direct development to term.

Zakhartchenko 1999

Fetal germ cells can direct development to term.

Stice 1988

First production of genetically verified nuclear transfer rabbits from embryonic donor nuclei.

Prather 1989

High rates of development from transcriptionally active embryonic nuclei.

Collas 1990; Callas 1991

Normal embryonic development from inner cell mass donor nuclei.

Prather 1989

Cleavage stage embryonic nuclei can direct term development in pigs.

Yong 1998

Serial nuclear transfer of transcriptionally nuclei results in high rates of development.

Meng 1997

Embryonic nuclei can support term development in the monkey.

gKono T et al. Development of enucleated mouse oocytes reconstituted with embryonic nuclei. J. Reprod. Fertil. 1991; 93:165-72.

SOURCE: Lewis, IM, MJ Munsie, AJ French, R Daniels and AO Trounson, 2001. The Cloning Cycle: From Amphibia to Mammals and Back. Reproductive Medicine Reviews 9:1 pp. 3-33.

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