tion, especially through public opinion, social pressure, or moral or ethical considerations; severe disapproval [of something].”

Moratorium: “A suspension of activity; a temporary ban on the use or production of something.”


In developing its responses to those questions, the panel (see Appendix A) gathered and studied a large bibliography of scientific, veterinary, and medical literature (see Appendix B) and held 12 weekly conference calls for discussion. The panel also held a workshop on August 7, 2001, to hear testimony from and question some of the world’s foremost experts in embryology, animal cloning, assisted reproductive technologies, and associated public-policy issues (see Appendix C for the workshop agenda). Scientists who are now conducting research concerned with stem cells and those who plan to undertake reproductive cloning to create children also participated in the workshop. A transcript and sound files of the presentations at the meeting are available at the panel’s Web site (www.nationalacademies.org/humancloning).


Chapter 2 provides a basic introduction to cloning and its relation to stem cell research. Chapter 3 is an overview of the state of the science of animal cloning and a summary of its possible application to humans. Chapter 4 reviews the panel’s understanding of relevant assisted reproductive technologies. Chapter 5 describes the plans of those who wish to clone humans and provides the current policy and regulatory context. Chapter 6 contains the panel’s findings and recommendations.


1. WILMUT I, SCHNIEKE AE, MCWHIR J, KIND AJ, CAMPBELL KH. Viable offspring derived from fetal and adult mammalian cells. Nature 1997 Feb 27, 385(6619): 810-3.

2. NATIONAL BIOETHICS ADVISORY COMMISSION. Cloning Human Beings, Volume I: Report and Recommendations of the National Bioethics Advisory Commission. Rockville, MD. 1997 Jun. Online at: http://bioethics.gov/pubs/cloning1/cloning.pdf.

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