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The Drama of the Commons ABOUT THE CONTRIBUTORS ARUN AGRAWAL is an associate professor of political science at Yale University. His research focuses on questions related to development, environmental conservation, indigenous knowledge, and the politics of decentralization. He is the author of Greener Pastures: Politics, Markets, and Community among a Migrant Pastoral People (1999, Oxford University Press) and the co-editor of Agrarian Environments: Resources, Representations and Rule in India (forthcoming, Duke University Press [with K. Sivaramakrishnan]) and Communities and the Environment. His published papers have appeared in journals such as Comparative Political Studies, Development and Change, Journal of Asian Studies, Journal of Theoretical Politics, Politics and Society, and World Development. He received a bachelor’s degree in history from Delhi University, India, and a Ph.D. in political science from Duke University, Durham, North Carolina. PRANAB BARDHAN is a professor of economics at the University of California, Berkeley, and the chief editor of the Journal of Development Economics. He has done both theoretical and field research in the areas of agrarian institutions, political economy, and international trade. His recent publications include Development Microeconomics (with C. Udry, Oxford University Press, 1999) and “Social Justice in a Global Economy” (The International Labor Organization’s Nobel Peace Prize Lectures, given at Capetown, South Africa; ILO, Geneva, 2000). He is currently working on a book, Scarcity, Conflicts and Cooperation: Essays in Institutional and Political Economy of Development, to be published by MIT Press. He received a bachelor’s degree from Presidency College, Calcutta, India, and a Ph.D. from Cambridge University, Cambridge, England.
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The Drama of the Commons FIKRET BERKES is a professor of natural resources at the University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Canada, and a founding member and past president of the International Association for the Study of Common Property. With an academic background in both environmental and social sciences, Berkes’ long-term research program has been the investigation of interrelations between societies and their resources. His main area of expertise is common property resources and community-based resource management. His publications include three recent books, Managing Small-Scale Fisheries (with F. Mahon, R. McConney, P. Pollnac, and R. Pomeroy, International Development Research Centre, Ottawa, 2001), Sacred Ecology (Taylor and Francis, 1999), and Linking Social and Ecological Systems (with C. Folke, Cambridge University Press, 1998). ROB BOYD is a professor of anthropology who has taught at Duke and Emory Universities and has been at UCLA since 1986. He received a bachelor’s degree in physics from the University of California, San Diego and a Ph.D. in ecology from the University of California, Davis. His research focuses on population models of culture as summarized in his book, co-authored with P.J. Richerson, Culture and the Evolutionary Process. He has also co-authored an introductory textbook in biological anthropology, How Humans Evolved, with his wife, Joan Silk. He and Joan have two children and live in Los Angeles. His hobbies are rock climbing and jogging. JEFF DAYTON-JOHNSON is an assistant professor of economics and international development studies at Dalhousie University, Halifax, Canada. He specializes in the microeconomic analysis of economic development. His research has focused on cooperation in the use of local natural resource systems, the economic consequences of social cohesion, the efficient allocation of foreign aid, and the economics of culture. He is the author of Social Cohesion & Economic Prosperity (Lorimer, Toronto, 2001). He holds a B.A. (honors) in Latin American studies and a Ph.D. in economics from the University of California, Berkeley. THOMAS DIETZ is College of Arts and Sciences Distinguished Professor and professor of environmental science and policy and sociology at George Mason University. He holds a bachelor of general studies from Kent State University and a Ph.D. in ecology from the University of California, Davis. He is a Fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, a Danforth Fellow, and a past president of the Society for Human Ecology, and he has received the Distinguished Contribution Award from the Section on Environment, Technology and Society of the American Sociological Association. His research interests are in human ecology and cultural evolution. He has a longstanding program of scholarship on the relationship between science and democracy in environmental policy. Recent publications include Environmentally Significant Consumption: Research
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The Drama of the Commons Directions (National Academy Press, 1997), New Tools for Environmental Policy: Education, Information and Voluntary Measures (National Academy Press, forthcoming), and Human Dimensions of Global Environmental Change (MIT Press, forthcoming). NIVES DOLŠAK is a postdoctoral research associate at the Workshop in Political Theory and Policy Analysis, Indiana University, Bloomington. Her research examines institutional challenges in governing common-pool resources at multiple levels of aggregation. Her Ph.D. dissertation focused on designing markets for common-pool resources, including global carbon dioxide emission and sequestration markets. Her published work includes an analysis of domestic sources of international cooperation in curbing global climate change. She is currently co-editing a book, The Commons in the New Millennium: Challenges and Adaptation, with E. Ostrom. She holds a B.A. in economics from the University of Ljubljana, Slovenia, and a joint Ph.D. from the School of Public and Environmental Affairs and the Department of Political Science, Indiana University, Bloomington. ARMIN FALK is an assistant professor at the University of Zürich and CESifo research fellow and research affiliate in the Labour Economics Programme of the Centre for Economic Policy Research in London, U.K. He teaches classes in organizational theory, microeconomics, and game theory. His research addresses labor economics, behavioral economics, and experimental economics. His recent work studies the determinants of informal sanctions and the theoretical modeling of reciprocity. Another line of research concerns contractual incompleteness and the nature of market interactions. Falk is also interested in economic policy and issues of policy evaluation. He received his Ph.D. in economics from the University of Zürich in 1998. ERNST FEHR is a professor in labor economics and social policy and director of the Institute for Empirical Research in Economics at the University of Zürich. He also directs the Ludwig Boltzmann Institute for the Analysis of Economic Growth in Vienna. He has published many articles in journals, including American Economic Review, Econometrica, Journal of Political Economy, and Quarterly Journal of Economics. He is on the editorial board of Quarterly Journal of Economics, European Economic Review, Experimental Economics, and Journal of Socio-Economics. In 1999 he won the Gossen Prize of the German Economic Association and in 2000 the Hicks-Tinbergen Medal of the European Economic Association. His research focuses on the interplay among social preferences, social norms, and strategic interactions and on the psychology and economics of incentives. Fehr graduated from the University of Vienna in 1980, where he earned his doctorate in 1986.
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The Drama of the Commons URS FISCHBACHER has a position at the Institute for Empirical Research in Economics at the University of Zürich. His main interests are social preferences and the economics of social interactions. He has published experimental studies that investigate the structure of fair behavior and works on game theoretical models of reciprocity (A Theory of Reciprocity, with A. Falk). He received his Ph.D. in mathematics from the University of Zürich. SHIRLI KOPELMAN is a doctoral candidate in the Department of Management and Organizations at Kellogg Graduate School of Management, Northwestern University. Her research focuses on the influence of culture and social motives in conflict resolution, business negotiations, and social dilemmas. She is also interested in the influence of emotion on decision making. She recently contributed a chapter on emotion in negotiation to the Blackwell Handbook in Social Psychology: Group Processes (M.A. Hogg and R.S. Tindale, eds., Blackwell Publishers, Malden, MA, 2000) and an article on cross-cultural negotiations to Negotiations Journal. Her dissertation research focuses on cross-cultural resource dilemmas. She received her B.A. in psychology from The Hebrew University of Jerusalem and her M.S. in organizational behavior from Northwestern University. BONNIE J. MCCAY is a professor of anthropology and ecology at Rutgers State University, New Brunswick, New Jersey, where she has taught since 1974. She has conducted field research in Newfoundland, Puerto Rico, and New Jersey. Among her books are The Question of the Commons (University of Arizona Press, 1987), Community, State, and Market on the North Atlantic Rim (University of Toronto Press, 1998), and Oyster Wars and the Public Trust (University of Arizona, 1998). She received a B.A. from Portland State University and a Ph.D. from Columbia University. DAVID M. MESSICK is the Morris and Alice Kaplan Professor of Ethics and Decision in Management at the Kellogg Graduate School of Management of Northwestern University. He is also the director of the Ford Motor Company Center for Global Citizenship within the Kellogg School. A social psychologist by education (B.A., University of Delaware; M.A. and Ph.D., University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill), his research focuses on decision making in social contexts with an emphasis on the ethical aspects of decision making and information processing. He has published widely on topics ranging from social influence and self-serving biases to leadership and decision framing. ELINOR OSTROM is the Arthur F. Bentley Professor of Political Science and co-director of the Workshop in Political Theory and Policy Analysis and of the Center for the Study of Institutions, Population and Environmental Change at Indiana University, where she has taught since 1965. Among her publications are
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The Drama of the Commons Governing the Commons (Cambridge University Press, 1990), Rules, Games, and Common-Pool Resources (with R. Gardner and J. Walker, University of Michigan Press, 1994), and Institutions, Ecosystems, and Sustainability (with R. Costanza, B.S. Low, and J. Wilson, Lewis Publishers, 2001). She has conducted field work in Nepal, Nigeria, Uganda, Bolivia, and the United States. She received the Frank E. Seidman Distinguished Award in Political Economy in 1997 and the Johan Skytte Prize in Political Science in 1999, and was elected to membership in the National Academy of Sciences in 2001. She received her B.A., M.A., and Ph.D. from the University of California, Los Angeles. BRIAN PACIOTTI is a graduate student in the Ecology Graduate Group at the University of California, Davis. He is conducting thesis work on cultural differences in justice systems and criminal behavior. His work in Africa is aimed at understanding how an indigenous policing system in Tanzania functions and his work in the United States is aimed at understanding regional differences in homicide rates. He received his B.S. from Colorado State University. PETER J. RICHERSON is a professor of human ecology in the Department of Environmental Science and Policy and Graduate Group in Ecology at the University of California, Davis. His main work, mainly in collaboration with Robert Boyd, is in the theoretical analysis of cultural evolution. Their book, Culture and the Evolutionary Process (Chicago, 1985), is their single largest contribution to the field. It received the Staley Prize of the School of American Research in 1989. References to their recent papers and book chapters can be found on their departmental Web pages. Richerson received his B.S. and Ph.D. from the University of California, Davis. CAROL M. ROSE is the Gordon Bradford Tweedy Professor of Law and Organization at Yale University. She has also taught at several other universities, including Harvard, Stanford, Berkeley, Northwestern, and University of Chicago. Professor Rose’s research focuses on history and theory of property, and on the relationships between property and environmental law. Her writings include two books, Property and Persuasion (1994, Westview Press) and Perspectives on Property Law (1995, with R.C. Ellickson and B.A. Ackerman, Aspen Law and Business), as well as numerous articles on traditional and modern property regimes, environmental and natural resource law, environmental ethics, and expropriation. She has degrees from Antioch College (B.A., philosophy), University of Chicago (M.A., political science; J.D., law), and Cornell University (Ph.D., history). She is on the Board of Editors of the Foundation Press and is a member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. PAUL C. STERN is study director of two National Research Council committees: the Committee on the Human Dimensions of Global Change and the Com-
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The Drama of the Commons mittee to Review the Scientific Evidence on the Polygraph. His research interests include the determinants of environmentally significant behavior, particularly at the individual level, and participatory processes for informing environmental decision making. His recent books include Environmental Problems and Human Behavior (with G.T. Gardner, Allyn and Bacon, 1996), Understanding Risk: Informing Decisions in a Democratic Society (edited with H.V. Fineberg, National Academy Press, 1996), and International Conflict Resolution after the Cold War (edited with D. Druckman, National Academy Press, 2000). Stern received his B.A. from Amherst College and his M.A. and Ph.D. from Clark University. SUSAN C. STONICH is a professor of anthropology and environmental studies and a member of the faculty of the Interdepartmental Graduate Program in Marine Science at the University of California, Santa Barbara, who also serves as Chair of the Environmental Studies Program. She received a B.S. in mathematics from Marquette University and a M.A. and Ph.D. in anthropology from the University of Kentucky. Her research has focused on the human and environmental consequences of economic development. Her earlier work examined the effects of agricultural development in highland areas of Latin America; her recent research has expanded to emphasize the impact of aquaculture and tourism development in coastal zones of Latin America and Asia. Her work now centers on the use of information and communications technologies in facilitating and hindering participatory development and environmental governance. TOM TIETENBERG is the Mitchell Family Professor of Economics and director of the Environmental Studies Program at Colby College in Waterville, Maine. He is the author or editor of 11 books and more than 100 articles and essays on environmental and natural resource economics. Elected president of the Association of Environmental and Natural Resource Economists for 1987-88, he was the principal investigator for a United Nations study to facilitate the implementation of Article 17 of the Kyoto Protocol, an article that uses economic incentives to control climate change, Greenhouse Gas Trading: Defining The Principles, Modalities, Rules and Guidelines for Verification, Reporting & Accountability (Geneva: Switzerland, United Nations Conference on Trade and Development, 1998). He received a bachelor’s degree in international affairs from the U.S. Air Force Academy and a Ph.D. in economics from the University of Wisconsin. ELKE U. WEBER is a professor of management and psychology and co-director of the Center for the Decision Sciences at Columbia University. After receiving her Ph.D. in behavior and decision analysis from Harvard University in 1984, she taught in both the United States (University of Chicago, University of Illinois, Ohio State University) and Europe (Koblenz Graduate School of Corporate Management), and spent a year at the Center for Advanced Studies in the Behavioral Sciences at Stanford. She is an expert on behavioral models of judgment and
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The Drama of the Commons decision making under risk and uncertainty. Recently she has been investigating psychologically appropriate ways to measure and model individual and cultural differences in risk taking, specifically in risky financial situations and environmental decision making and policy. Weber is president of the Society for Mathematical Psychology and past president of the Society for Judgment and Decision Making. J. MARK WEBER is a doctoral student in Management and Organizations at the Kellogg Graduate School of Management, Northwestern University. His research interests include social dilemmas, trust, negotiations, the role of values in decision making, and social and organizational identity. His professional experiences include senior managerial and leadership roles in local government, the financial services industry, and not-for-profit organizations. He holds a B.A. in psychology from the University of Waterloo, an M.A. in social psychology from McGill University, and an M.B.A. from Wilfrid Laurier University. JAMES A. WILSON is a professor of marine sciences and resource economics at the University of Maine. His research is directed toward an understanding of social and biological interactions, especially in commercial fisheries. He has worked in the Maine lobster fishery for more than 25 years, has chaired the Scientific and Statistical Committee of the New England Fisheries Council, and is vice president of the Maine Fishermen’s Forum. Wilson received a B.A. in English from Lake Forest College and a Ph.D. in economics from the University of Wisconsin. ORAN R. YOUNG is a professor of environmental studies and director of both the Institute of Arctic Studies and the Institute on International Environmental Governance at Dartmouth College. He is also Professor II of political science at the University of Tromsø in Norway. He chairs the Scientific Steering Committee of the international project on the Institutional Dimensions of Global Environmental Change and is chairman of the Board of Governors of the University of the Arctic. Among his many books are Governance in World Affairs (1999), Creating Regimes: Arctic Accords and International Governance (1998), International Governance: Protecting the Environment in a Stateless Society (1994), and International Cooperation: Building Regimes for Natural Resources and the Environment (1989).
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