sents an excellent alternative to mass vaccination—which is likely to kill hundreds of people and seriously damage many more. We also need additional research to determine how many Americans who were vaccinated years ago have persistent immunity. This would help further refine the risk/benefit analysis and the needs for vaccine.

In summary, I have emphasized the critical role of a credible medical/public health expert spokesperson, knowledgeable about the current events, who speaks for the Department of Health and Human Services and stands side by side with the secretary in his or her communications. If a similarly qualified spokesperson on bioterrorism is to be designated in the Office of Homeland Security, the credible medical/public health expert spokesperson(s) must carefully coordinate their statements so that they are accurate, authoritative, and understandable, and consistent. Much more serious attention should be paid to the role of well-organized, well-presented, and technologically sophisticated websites for providing information to the public, health professionals, the media, and others. Such sites should be developed and be on alert (and when needed be well advertised) for each of the areas relevant to a potential terrorist attack.

Thank you Mr. Chairman, for this opportunity and I would be happy to answer any questions.


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