Contributors

This list includes principal authors of the chapters presented in Parts 1 and 2 of this volume and members of the panels whose remarks appear in Part 3.

WILLIAM O.BAKER retired as chairman of the board of Bell Telephone Laboratories, Inc., in 1980. Dr. Baker received his Ph.D. degree in physical chemistry from Princeton University. He joined Bell Laboratories in 1939 and became head of polymer research and development in 1948. In 1955 he became vice-president of research and for the next 25 years had overall responsibility for research programs at Bell Laboratories. Dr. Baker’s extensive service in national science policymaking includes presidential appointments to the President’s Science Advisory Committee, the National Science Board, the Regents of the National Library of Medicine, and the President’s Intelligence Advisory Board. Dr. Baker is a member of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine.

ARDEN L.BEMENT, JR., is vice-president of technical resources at TRW Inc. Dr. Bement was deputy under secretary of defense for research and engineering from 1979 to 1981 and director of the Materials Science Office of the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency from 1976 to 1979. He was professor of nuclear materials at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology from 1970 to 1976 and was organizer and principal investigator of the MIT Fusion Technology Program. Dr. Bement is a member of the National Academy of Engineering and has published extensively in materials



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Advancing Materials Research Contributors This list includes principal authors of the chapters presented in Parts 1 and 2 of this volume and members of the panels whose remarks appear in Part 3. WILLIAM O.BAKER retired as chairman of the board of Bell Telephone Laboratories, Inc., in 1980. Dr. Baker received his Ph.D. degree in physical chemistry from Princeton University. He joined Bell Laboratories in 1939 and became head of polymer research and development in 1948. In 1955 he became vice-president of research and for the next 25 years had overall responsibility for research programs at Bell Laboratories. Dr. Baker’s extensive service in national science policymaking includes presidential appointments to the President’s Science Advisory Committee, the National Science Board, the Regents of the National Library of Medicine, and the President’s Intelligence Advisory Board. Dr. Baker is a member of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. ARDEN L.BEMENT, JR., is vice-president of technical resources at TRW Inc. Dr. Bement was deputy under secretary of defense for research and engineering from 1979 to 1981 and director of the Materials Science Office of the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency from 1976 to 1979. He was professor of nuclear materials at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology from 1970 to 1976 and was organizer and principal investigator of the MIT Fusion Technology Program. Dr. Bement is a member of the National Academy of Engineering and has published extensively in materials

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Advancing Materials Research science and solid-state physics. He received his Ph.D. in metallurgical engineering from the University of Michigan in 1963. MARTIN BLUME is deputy director at the Brookhaven National Laboratory and part-time professor of physics at the State University of New York at Stony Brook. Dr. Blume received his B.S. degree in physics from Princeton University and his M.S. and Ph.D. degrees in physics from Harvard University. He joined the Brookhaven National Laboratory in 1962. Dr. Blume’s research interests include theoretical solid-state physics, theory of magnetism, phase transitions, slow neutron scattering, and synchroton radiation. He is a member of the National Research Council Committee on Materials Science and Engineering, of which he is vice-chairman of the Panel on Research Resources in Materials Science and Engineering. WILLIAM F.BRINKMAN is vice-president of research, Organization 1000, at Sandia National Laboratories, where he directs research in solid-state physics, pulsed power, engineering, systems, materials science, and process science. Dr. Brinkman joined Bell Telephone Laboratories in 1966 and was director of the Physical Research Laboratory from 1981 to 1984, when he moved to Sandia National Laboratories. Dr. Brinkman has worked on theories of condensed matter and spin fluctuation in metals and other highly correlated Fermi liquids. He is a member of the National Academy of Sciences and has chaired the Solid State Sciences Committee and the Physics Survey Steering Committee of the National Research Council. Dr. Brinkman received his B.S. and Ph.D. degrees in physics from the University of Missouri. JOHN W.CAHN is Senior NBS Fellow in the Center for Materials Science of the National Bureau of Standards. He was professor of materials science at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology from 1964 to 1978 and a research associate in the General Electric Metallurgy and Ceramics Department Research Laboratory in Schenectady, New York, from 1954 to 1964. Dr. Cahn is a member of the National Academy of Sciences and is on the editorial boards of the NBS Journal of Research, the Journal of Statistical Physics, and Phase Transitions. Dr. Cahn holds a B.S. degree in chemistry from the University of Massachusetts and a Ph.D. degree in physical chemistry from the University of California, Berkeley. PRAVEEN CHAUDHARI is vice-president for science at the IBM Corporation’s Thomas J.Watson Research Center. Dr. Chaudhari received the bachelor of technology degree from the Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur, India, in 1961 and the Ph.D. degree in physical metallurgy from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in 1966. He was a member of the research staff at MIT from 1966 to 1980, before assuming his current position

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Advancing Materials Research in the IBM Corporation. Dr. Chaudhari’s research interests include amorphous solids, defects in crystalline solids, crystal plasticity, and electron localization. ALAN G.CHYNOWETH is vice-president of applied research at Bell Communications Research, Inc. He is responsible for research in the physical, mathematical, computer, information, and communications sciences and engineering related to new technology and service capabilities of telecommunications networks in the Bell Operating Companies. Dr. Chynoweth received the Ph.D. degree in physics in 1950 from the University of London, King’s College. He was on the staff of the National Research Council of Canada from 1950 to 1976 and was director of materials research from 1973 to 1976 when he joined the Bell Laboratories. He was survey director for the National Academy of Sciences Committee on the Survey of Materials Science and Engineering (COSMAT). ALBERT M.CLOGSTON became chairman of the Center for Materials Science at the Los Alamos National Laboratory in 1982 after retiring from the Bell Telephone Laboratories. Dr. Clogston joined the Bell Laboratories in 1946. His early research interests included the physics of electron tube devices, such as magnetrons and traveling wave tubes. His later work included research in solid-state physics, magnetism, and superconductivity. In 1965 he became director of the Physical Research Laboratory and in 1971 was named vice-president for research at Sandia Laboratories, a subsidiary of Western Electric. He returned to the Bell Laboratories in 1973. Dr. Clogston is a member of the National Academy of Sciences and currently serves on the governing board of the National Research Council. He received his B.S. and Ph.D. degrees in physics from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. MORRIS COHEN is Institute Professor Emeritus at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, where he has been on the faculty since 1937. His fields of interest are materials science and engineering, materials policy, physical metallurgy, phase transformations, and strengthening mechanisms. He is a member of the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering. He chaired the National Academy of Sciences Committee on the Survey of Materials Science and Engineering (COSMAT) and was awarded the National Medal of Science by President Carter. Dr. Cohen received the Ph.D. degree in metallurgy from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. FRANCIS J.DI SALVO, JR., is head of Solid State and Physics of Materials Research Department at AT&T Bell Laboratories. After receiving the Ph.D.

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Advancing Materials Research degree in applied physics from Stanford University in 1971, Dr. Di Salvo joined Bell Laboratories as a member of the technical staff. He became research head of the Chemical Physics Research Department in 1978 and head of the Solid State Chemistry Research Department in 1981. His primary research interests include electrical and magnetic properties, high-energy-density battery materials, materials synthesis, and physical and chemical properties of solid-state compounds. MILDRED S.DRESSELHAUS is one of 12 active Institute Professors at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Dr. Dresselhaus received her Ph.D. degree from the University of Chicago in 1958. She joined the staff of MIT Lincoln Laboratory in 1960 and was named to the Abby Rockefeller Mauzé Chair in the MIT Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science in 1967. Her recent research interests include modification of electronic materials and graphite fibers by intercalation and implantation. Dr. Dresselhaus is a member of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering and is a member of the board of directors of the American Association for the Advancement of Science. DEAN E.EASTMAN is director of development and product assurance for the IBM Corporation’s Systems Technology Division. Dr. Eastman joined the IBM Research Division as a research staff member in 1963. His research interests include condensed-matter physics and surface science. He has contributed to the development of new photoemission spectroscopy techniques and their application to study of the electronic structure of solids and surfaces. Dr. Eastman is a member of the National Academy of Sciences. He received B.S., M.S., and Ph.D. degrees in electrical engineering from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. C.PETER FLYNN is professor of physics and director of the Materials Research Laboratory at the University of Illinois. Dr. Flynn serves on the oversight committee for the National Science Foundation Division of Materials Research and has served on various National Research Council committees that deal with solid-state physics and materials science. Dr. Flynn is a fellow of the American Physical Society. He received a Ph.D. degree in physics from Leeds University in England. BERTRAND I.HALPERIN is professor of physics at Harvard University. Dr. Halperin received the Ph.D. degree in physics from the University of California, Berkeley, in 1965. Before coming to his current position in 1976, Dr. Halperin was for 10 years a member of the technical staff at Bell Laboratories. Dr. Halperin serves on numerous scientific committees and

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Advancing Materials Research panels. He is a member of the National Academy of Sciences and a Fellow of the American Physical Society. JULIUS J.HARWOOD is vice-president of Energy Conversion Devices, Inc., and president of its subsidiary, Ovonic Synthetic Materials Company. Mr. Harwood retired from a 23-year career with Ford Motor Company in 1983 as director of the Materials Sciences Laboratory. He had served as director of physical sciences, manager of research planning, and assistant director of materials sciences at Ford. He headed the Metallurgy Branch of the Office of Naval Research from 1946 to 1960, and during that period served on a special assignment to the Advanced Research Projects Agency to help establish the Interdisciplinary Materials Sciences University Laboratory Program. Mr. Harwood is a member of the National Academy of Engineering. He holds an M.S. degree in metallurgy from the University of Maryland. JOHN P.HIRTH is professor of materials science and metallurgical engineering at Ohio State University. Dr. Hirth received his Ph.D. in metallurgy in 1958 from the Carnegie Institute of Technology, where he served as an assistant professor from 1958 to 1961. He joined the faculty at Ohio State in 1961 as Mershon Associate Professor of Materials Science and Metallurgical Engineering. He was named to his present post in 1964. Dr. Hirth’s research and teaching interests include nucleation and growth processes, dislocation theory, and physical metallurgy, and he is the author or coauthor of two books and more than 200 articles in these fields. Dr. Hirth is a member of the National Academy of Engineering. JOHN D.HOFFMAN is director of the Michigan Molecular Institute. After receiving his Ph.D. degree in physical chemistry from Princeton University in 1949, Dr. Hoffman joined the General Electric Company, Schenectady, New York, as a research associate. In 1956 he moved to the National Bureau of Standards as chief of the Dielectrics Section. He was named chief of the Polymers Division in 1964, director of the Institute for Materials Research in 1968, and director of the National Measurement Laboratory in 1978. Dr. Hoffman is a member of the National Academy of Engineering. JOHN K.HULM is director of corporate research and R&D planning at the Westinghouse Research and Development Center in Pittsburgh. Dr. Hulm received his Ph.D. degree in physics from Cambridge University in 1949. He is also a graduate of the Advanced Management Program, Harvard Business School. Dr. Hulm was a research fellow and professor at the University of Chicago from 1949 until 1954 when he joined Westinghouse. There he has served as director of cryogenics, director of solid-state research, and

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Advancing Materials Research manager of the Chemistry Research Division. Dr. Hulm has published widely on superconductivity, ferroelectrics, magnetic materials, and semiconductors. HERBERT H.JOHNSON is professor of materials science and engineering at Cornell University. Dr. Johnson joined the Cornell faculty in 1960 and was director of the Materials Science Center from 1974 to 1984. His research interests include hydrogen in metals, phase stability, thermodynamics of solids, and corrosion. He has served on numerous industry and government advisory committees on materials science issues and consults extensively in the field. Dr. Johnson received his B.S. degree in physics and M.S. and Ph.D. degrees in physical metallurgy from the Case Institute of Technology. J.DAVID LITSTER is professor of physics at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and, since 1983, director of the Center for Materials Science and Engineering. Dr. Litster received his Ph.D. degree in physics in 1965 at MIT and joined the faculty in 1966. Prior to his current position, he was head of the Division of Condensed Matter, Atomic and Plasma Physics in the Department of Physics at MIT from 1979 to 1983. He is a Fellow of the American Physical Society and has worked as a consultant to various corporate, governmental, and academic organizations. WILLIAM D.NIX is professor of materials science at Stanford University. After receiving his Ph.D. degree in materials science from Stanford in 1963, Dr. Nix joined the faculty. He was director of the Center for Materials Research at Stanford from 1968 to 1970 and is currently associate chairman of the Department of Materials Science. Dr. Nix has conducted research on the mechanical properties of solids and is principally concerned with the relation between structure and the mechanical properties of metals and alloys at high temperatures. HAROLD W.PAXTON recently retired as vice-president for corporate research and technology assessment for the United States Steel Corporation to become United States Steel Professor of Metallurgy and Materials Policy at Carnegie Mellon University. Dr. Paxton received his Ph.D. degree from the University of Birmingham, England, in 1952. He joined the faculty of Carnegie Institute of Technology in 1953, and in 1966 became head of Carnegie Mellon’s Department of Metallurgy and Materials Science and director of the Metals Research Laboratory. Between 1971 and 1973 he served as the first director of the Division of Materials Research at the National Science Foundation. Dr. Paxton is a member of the National Academy of Engineering.

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Advancing Materials Research E.WARD PLUMMER is professor of physics at the University of Pennsylvania. Prior to his current position he was assistant section chief for surface physics at the National Bureau of Standards. Dr. Plummer’s research interests include field emission, angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy, and high-resolution inelastic electron scattering applied to surfaces. He is a member of the editorial board of Physical Review B and is a consulting editor of Chemical Physics. He received his Ph.D. degree in physics from Cornell University in 1968. CALVIN F.QUATE is professor of applied physics and electrical engineering at Stanford University and a senior research fellow at Xerox Palo Alto Research Center. Dr. Quate received his Ph.D. degree in physics from Stanford University in 1950. He was on the staff of Bell Telephone Laboratories from 1949 to 1958 and of Sandia Corporation from 1959 to 1961, when he joined the faculty of Stanford University. Dr. Quate is a member of the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering. His research interests include linear and nonlinear properties of acoustic waves in the microwave region, imaging, scanning electron microscopy, and new concepts for data storage. LYLE H.SCHWARTZ is director of the Institute for Materials Science and Engineering, National Bureau of Standards. The Institute carries out research on metals, ceramics, polymers, and composites leading to the development of new measurement techniques and standards. Dr. Schwartz was a member of the faculty of Northwestern University’s Materials Science and Engineering Department from 1964 to 1984 and director of the Materials Research Center from 1979 to 1984. Dr. Schwartz has published in physical and mechanical metallurgy, catalysis, x-ray and neutron diffraction, and Mössbauer spectroscopy. Dr. Schwartz received his Ph.D. in materials science in 1963 from Northwestern University. JOHN H.SINFELT is a senior scientific advisor in the Corporate Research Science Laboratories of Exxon Research and Engineering Company. Dr. Sinfelt joined the scientific staff of the Exxon Research and Engineering Company in 1954 and was named to his current position in 1979. His principal area of research is heterogeneous catalysis, including bimetallic cluster catalysis, and the application of catalysts in petroleum refining. Dr. Sinfelt received the National Medal of Science in 1979 for work that led to the development of new catalyst systems for the efficient production of low-lead gasoline. He is a member of the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering. Dr. Sinfelt received his Ph.D. degree in chemical engineering from the University of Illinois in 1954.

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Advancing Materials Research ROBERT L.SPROULL is president emeritus and professor of physics at the University of Rochester. Dr. Sproull received his Ph.D. degree in experimental physics from Cornell University in 1943. He joined the Cornell faculty in 1946 and was named director of the Materials Science Center in 1960. From 1963 to 1965 he directed the Advanced Research Projects Agency. Dr. Sproull moved to the University of Rochester in 1968 and served as president from 1970 to 1975. His research and teaching interests include thermionic electron emission, microwave radar, and experimental solid-state physics. ALBERT R.C.WESTWOOD is director of the Martin Marietta Laboratories. In 1956, after receiving the Ph.D. degree in physical metallurgy from the University of Birmingham, England, Dr. Westwood joined the research department of Imperial Chemical Industries, Metals Division, in Birmingham. He joined the scientific staff of the Research Institute for Advanced Studies, Martin Marietta Corporation, in 1958 and became associate director and head of the Materials Science Department in 1964. He was named to his current position in 1974. Dr. Westwood is a member of the National Academy of Engineering. GEORGE M.WHITESIDES is professor of chemistry at Harvard University. Prior to his current position he was Hudson and Dewey Professor at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. His research interests include reaction mechanisms, organometallic chemistry, applied biochemistry, surface chemistry catalysis, and materials science. He is a member of the National Academy of Sciences. Dr. Whitesides received his Ph.D. degree from the California Institute of Technology in 1964.