AAAAI (American Academy of Allergy, Asthma, and Immunology). 2000. The Allergy Report. Milwaukee, WI: AAAAI.
Aaby P, Shaheen SO, Heyes CB, Goudiaby A, Hall AJ, Shiell AW, Jensen H, Marchant A. 2000. Early BCG vaccination and reduction in atopy in Guinea-Bissau. Clin Exp Allergy. 30:644– 650.
Aaltonen J, Bjorses P. 1999. Cloning of the APECED gene provides new insight into human autoimmunity. Ann Med. 31:111–116.
Abiru N, Eisenbarth GS. 2000. Multiple genes/multiple autoantigens role in type 1 diabetes. Clin Rev Allergy Immunol. 18:27–40.
Adkins B. 2000. Development of neonatal Th1/Th2 function. Int Rev Immunol. 19:157–171.
Afari EA, Kamiya Y, Nkrumah FK, Dunyo SK, Akpedonu P, Kamiya H, Fukai F. 1996. Randomized controlled trial of acellular diphtheria, pertussis, and tetanus vaccines in southern Ghana. Ann Trop Paediatr. 16:39–48.
Akira S, Takeda K, Kaisho T. 2001. Toll-like receptors: Critical proteins linking innate and acquired immunity. Nat Immunol. 2:675–680.
Albert LJ, Inman RD. 1999. Molecular mimicry and autoimmunity. N Engl J Med. 341:2068–2074.
Alm JS, Lilja G, Pershagen G, Scheynius A. 1997. Early BCG vaccination and development of atopy. Lancet. 350:400–403.
Anderson HR, Poloniecki JD, Strachan DP, Beasley R, Bjorksten B, Asher MI. 2001. Immunization and symptoms of atopic disease in children: Results from the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood. Am J Public Health. 91:1126–1129.
Anderson P, Johnston RB Jr, Smith DH. 1972. Human serum activities against Hemophilus influenzae, type b. J Clin Invest 51(l):31–38.
Annunziato D, Kaplan MH, Hall WW, Ichinose H, Lin JH, Balsam D, Paladino VS. 1982. Atypical measles syndrome: Pathologic and serologic findings. Pediatrics. 70:203–209.
Arstila TP, Casrouge A, Baron V, Even J, Kanellopoulos J, Kourilsky P. 1999. A direct estimate of the human alphabeta T cell receptor diversity. Science. 286:958.
Arvin AM, Maldonado Y, Gans H. 2001. Immunization with live attenuated vaccines in infancy. Third International Pediatric Infectious Disease Conference: Monterey, CA.
Asher MI, Weiland SK. 1998. The International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC). ISAAC Steeriing Committee. Clin Exp Allergy. 28 Suppl 5:52–66; discussion 90–91.
Atkinson MA, Eisenbarth GS. 2001. Type 1 diabetes: New perspectives on disease pathogenesis and treatment. Lancet. 358:221–229.
Ausiello CM, Urbani F, la Sala A, Lande R, Cassone A. 1997. Vaccine- and antigen-dependent type 1 and type 2 cytokine induction after primary vaccination of infants with whole-cell or acellular pertussis vaccines. Infect Immun. 65:2168–2174.
Avendano A, Ferreccio C, Lagos R, Horwitz I, Cayazzo M,Fritzell B, Meschievitz C, Levine M. 1993. Haemophilus influenzae type b polysaccharide-tetanus protein conjugate vaccine does not depress serologic responses to diphtheria, tetanus, or pertussis antigens when coadministered in the same syringe with diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis vaccine at two, four, and six months of age. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 12:638–643.
Bach JF. 2001. Protective role of infections and vaccinations on autoimmune diseases. J Autoimmun. 16:347–353.
Bach JF, Chatenoud L. 2001. Tolerance to islet autoantigens in type 1 diabetes. Annu Rev Immunol. 19:131–161.
Ball LK. 2001. Risk Assessment of Thimerosal in Childhood Vaccines. Presentation to Immunization Safety Review Committee. Cambridge, Massachusetts.
Below are the first 10 and last 10 pages of uncorrected machine-read text (when available) of this chapter, followed by the top 30 algorithmically extracted key phrases from the chapter as a whole.
Intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text on the opening pages of each chapter. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.
Do not use for reproduction, copying, pasting, or reading; exclusively for search engines.
OCR for page 115
Immunization Safety Review: Multiple Immunizations and Immune Dysfunction REFERENCES AAAAI (American Academy of Allergy, Asthma, and Immunology). 2000. The Allergy Report. Milwaukee, WI: AAAAI. Aaby P, Shaheen SO, Heyes CB, Goudiaby A, Hall AJ, Shiell AW, Jensen H, Marchant A. 2000. Early BCG vaccination and reduction in atopy in Guinea-Bissau. Clin Exp Allergy. 30:644– 650. Aaltonen J, Bjorses P. 1999. Cloning of the APECED gene provides new insight into human autoimmunity. Ann Med. 31:111–116. Abiru N, Eisenbarth GS. 2000. Multiple genes/multiple autoantigens role in type 1 diabetes. Clin Rev Allergy Immunol. 18:27–40. Adkins B. 2000. Development of neonatal Th1/Th2 function. Int Rev Immunol. 19:157–171. Afari EA, Kamiya Y, Nkrumah FK, Dunyo SK, Akpedonu P, Kamiya H, Fukai F. 1996. Randomized controlled trial of acellular diphtheria, pertussis, and tetanus vaccines in southern Ghana. Ann Trop Paediatr. 16:39–48. Akira S, Takeda K, Kaisho T. 2001. Toll-like receptors: Critical proteins linking innate and acquired immunity. Nat Immunol. 2:675–680. Albert LJ, Inman RD. 1999. Molecular mimicry and autoimmunity. N Engl J Med. 341:2068–2074. Alm JS, Lilja G, Pershagen G, Scheynius A. 1997. Early BCG vaccination and development of atopy. Lancet. 350:400–403. Anderson HR, Poloniecki JD, Strachan DP, Beasley R, Bjorksten B, Asher MI. 2001. Immunization and symptoms of atopic disease in children: Results from the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood. Am J Public Health. 91:1126–1129. Anderson P, Johnston RB Jr, Smith DH. 1972. Human serum activities against Hemophilus influenzae, type b. J Clin Invest 51(l):31–38. Annunziato D, Kaplan MH, Hall WW, Ichinose H, Lin JH, Balsam D, Paladino VS. 1982. Atypical measles syndrome: Pathologic and serologic findings. Pediatrics. 70:203–209. Arstila TP, Casrouge A, Baron V, Even J, Kanellopoulos J, Kourilsky P. 1999. A direct estimate of the human alphabeta T cell receptor diversity. Science. 286:958. Arvin AM, Maldonado Y, Gans H. 2001. Immunization with live attenuated vaccines in infancy. Third International Pediatric Infectious Disease Conference: Monterey, CA. Asher MI, Weiland SK. 1998. The International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC). ISAAC Steeriing Committee. Clin Exp Allergy. 28 Suppl 5:52–66; discussion 90–91. Atkinson MA, Eisenbarth GS. 2001. Type 1 diabetes: New perspectives on disease pathogenesis and treatment. Lancet. 358:221–229. Ausiello CM, Urbani F, la Sala A, Lande R, Cassone A. 1997. Vaccine- and antigen-dependent type 1 and type 2 cytokine induction after primary vaccination of infants with whole-cell or acellular pertussis vaccines. Infect Immun. 65:2168–2174. Avendano A, Ferreccio C, Lagos R, Horwitz I, Cayazzo M,Fritzell B, Meschievitz C, Levine M. 1993. Haemophilus influenzae type b polysaccharide-tetanus protein conjugate vaccine does not depress serologic responses to diphtheria, tetanus, or pertussis antigens when coadministered in the same syringe with diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis vaccine at two, four, and six months of age. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 12:638–643. Bach JF. 2001. Protective role of infections and vaccinations on autoimmune diseases. J Autoimmun. 16:347–353. Bach JF, Chatenoud L. 2001. Tolerance to islet autoantigens in type 1 diabetes. Annu Rev Immunol. 19:131–161. Ball LK. 2001. Risk Assessment of Thimerosal in Childhood Vaccines. Presentation to Immunization Safety Review Committee. Cambridge, Massachusetts.
OCR for page 115
Immunization Safety Review: Multiple Immunizations and Immune Dysfunction Ball TM, Castro-Rodriguez JA, Griffith KA, Holberg CJ, Martinez FD, Wright AL. 2000. Siblings, day-care attendance, and the risk of asthma and wheezing during childhood. N Engl J Med. 343:538–543. Barnes KC. 2000. Atopy and asthma genes—where do we stand? Allergy. 55:803–817. Barrios C, Brawand P, Berney M, Brandt C, Lambert PH, Siegrist CA. 1996. Neonatal and early life immune responses to various forms of vaccine antigens qualitatively differ from adult responses: Predominance of a Th2-biased pattern which persists after adult boosting. Eur J Immunol 26:1489–1496. Ben-Nun A, Mendel I, Kerlero de Rosbo N. 1997. Immunomodulation of murine experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis by pertussis toxin: The protective activity, but not the disease-enhancing activity, can be attributed to the nontoxic B-oligomer. Proc Assoc Am Physicians. 109:120–125. Ben-Nun A, Yossefi S, Lehmann D. 1993. Protection against autoimmune disease by bacterial agents. II. PPD and pertussis toxin as proteins active in protecting mice against experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. Eur J Immunol. 23:689–696. Bennett CL, Christie J, Ramsdell F, Brunkow ME, Ferguson PJ, Whitesell L, Kelly TE, Saulsbury FT, Chance PF, Ochs HD. 2001. The immune dysregulation, polyendocrinopathy, enteropathy, X-linked syndrome (IPEX) is caused by mutations of FOXP3. Nat Genet. 27:20–21. Benoist C, Mathis D. 2001. Autoimmunity provoked by infection: How good is the case for T cell epitope mimicry? Nat Immunol. 2:797–801. Black SB, Cherry JD, Shinefield HR, Fireman B, Christenson P, Lampert D. 1991. Apparent decreased risk of invasive bacterial disease after heterologous childhood immunization. Am J Dis Child. 145:746–749. Blackwelder WC. 1995. Similarity/equivalence trials for combination vaccines. Ann NY Acad Sci 754:321–328. Blankenhorn EP, Butterfield RJ, Rigby R, Cort L, Giambrone D, McDermott P, McEntee K, Solowski N, Meeker ND, Zachary JF, Doerge RW, Teuscher C. 2000. Genetic analysis of the influence of pertussis toxin on experimental allergic encephalomyelitis susceptibility: An environmental agent can override genetic checkpoints. J Immunol. 164:3420–3425. Blom L, Nystrom L, Dahlquist G. 1991. The Swedish childhood diabetes study. Vaccinations and infections as risk determinants for diabetes in childhood. Diabetologia. 34:176–181. Brodsky AL. 1972. Atypical measles. Severe illness in recipients of killed measles virus vaccine upon exposure to natural infection. JAMA. 222:1415–1416. Bryan SA, O’Connor BJ, Matti S, Leckie MJ, Kanabar V, Khan J, Warrington SJ, Renzetti L, Rames A, Bock JA, Boyce MJ, Hansel TT, Holgate ST, Barnes PJ. 2000. Effects of recombinant human interleukin-12 on eosinophils, airway hyper-responsiveness, and the late asthmatic response. Lancet. 356:2149–2153. Burstein JL, Fleisher GR. 1994. Does recent vaccination increase the risk of occult bacteremia? Pediatr Emerg Care. 10:138–140. Busse WW, Lemanske RF Jr. 2001. Asthma. N Engl J Med. 344(5):350–362. CDC (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention). 1999a. Thimerosal in vaccines: A joint statement of the American Academy of Pediatrics and the Public Health Service. Morb Mortal Wkly Rep(MMWR) 48(26):563–565. CDC. 1999b. Withdrawal of rotavirus vaccine recommendation. MMWR. 48(43):1007. CDC. 1999c. Prevention of Hepatitis A Through Active or Passive Immunization: Recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP). MMWR 48(RR-12);1– 37. CDC. 2000a. Respiratory Syncytial Virus Activity—United States, 1999–2000 Season. MMWR. 49:1091–1093. CDC. 2000b. Preventing Pneumococcal Disease Among Infants and Young Children.
OCR for page 115
Immunization Safety Review: Multiple Immunizations and Immune Dysfunction CDC. 2001a. New asthma estimates: Tracking prevalence, health care, and mortality. Available on the web at: http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/products/pubs/pubd/hestats/asthma/asthma.htm CDC. 2001b. Self-reported asthma prevalence among adults—United States, 2000. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 50(32):682–686. CDC. 2001c. Vaccinia (Smallpox) Vaccine: Recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP). MMWR 50(RR-10):1–25. CDC. 200 1d. Prevention and Control of Influenza: Recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP). MMWR 2001; 50(RR-4);1–4. Chan CC, Mochizuki M. 1999. Sympathetic ophthalmia: An autoimmune ocular inflammatory disease. Springer Semin Immunopathol. 21:125–134. Chazono M, Hirota T, Yoshida I, Konobe T, Takaku K, Fukai K. 1991. Safety followup in a cohort of Biken acellular DPT vaccine recipients in Japan. Dev Biol Stand. 73:323–327. Chen HD, Fraire AE, Joris I, Brehm MA, Welsh RM, Selin LK. 2001. Memory CD8+ T cells in heterologous antiviral immunity and immunopathology in the lung. Nat Immunol. 2:1067–1076. Chen RT, Pless R, Destefano F. 2001. Epidemiology of autoimmune reactions induced by vaccination. J Autoimmun. 16:309–318. Cherry JD. 1998. Measles Virus. Feigin RD, Cherry JD, eds. Textbook of Pediatric Infectious Diseases. 4 ed. Philadelphia: WB Saunders. Classen DC, Classen JB. 1997. The timing of pediatric immunization and the risk of insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Infectious Diseases in Clinical Practice 6(7):449–454. Classen JB. 1996. Childhood immunization and diabetes mellitus. N Z Med J. 109:195. Classen JB, Classen DC. 1996. Vaccines modulate IDDM. Diabetologia. 199639:500–502. Classen JB, Classen DC. 1999. Immunization in the first month of life may explain decline in incidence of IDDM in The Netherlands. Autoimmunity. 31:43–45. Communicable Disease Report. 2001. MMR vaccination coverage in the United Kingdom. Communicable Disease Report CDR Weekly. 11(4). Constantinescu CS, Wysocka M, Milliard B, Ventura ES, Lavi E, Trinchieri G, Rostami A. 1998. Antibodies against IL-12 prevent superantigen-induced and spontaneous relapses of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. J Immunol. 161:5097–5104. Cunningham MW. 2000. Pathogenesis of group A streptococcal infections. Clin Microbiol Rev. 13:470–511. Dagan R, Eskola J, Leclerc C, Leroy O. 1998. Reduced response to multiple vaccines sharing common protein epitopes that are administered simultaneously to infants. Infect Immun 66(5):2093–2098. Dahlquist G, Gothefors L. 1995. The cumulative incidence of childhood diabetes mellitus in Sweden unaffected by BCG-vaccination. Diabetologia. 38:873–874. Daniel T, Bates JH, Downes K. 1994. History of Tuberculosis. Bloom BR, ed. Tuberculosis: Pathogenesis, Protection, and Control.Washington, DC: ASM Press. Pp. 13–24. Davidson A, Diamond B. 2001. Autoimmune diseases. N Engl J Med. 345:340–350. Davidson M, Letson GW, Ward JI, Ball A, Bulkow L, Christenson P, Cherry JD. 1991. DTP immunization and susceptibility to infectious diseases. Is there a relationship? Am J Dis Child. 145:750–754. Delespesse G, Yang LP, Ohshima Y, Demeure C, Shu U, Byun DG, Sarfati M. 1998. Maturation of human neonatal CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes into Th1/Th2 effectors. Vaccine. 16:1415– 1419. DeStefano F, Mullooly JP, Okoro CA, Chen RT, Marcy SM, Ward JI, Vadheim CM, Black SB, Shinefield HR, Davis RL, Bohlke K. 2001. Childhood vaccinations, vaccination timing, and risk of type 1 diabetes mellitus . Pediatrics. 108:E112. Dorman JS, McCarthy BJ, O’Leary LA, Koehler AN. 1995. Risk Factors for Insulin-Dependent Diabetes. National Diabetes Data Group. Diabetes in America. 2nd ed. Bethesda MD: National
OCR for page 115
Immunization Safety Review: Multiple Immunizations and Immune Dysfunction Institutes of Health, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases. Pp. 165–177. Droste JH, Wieringa MH, Weyler JJ, Nelen VJ, Vermeire PA, Van Bever HP. 2000. Does the use of antibiotics in early childhood increase the risk of asthma and allergic disease? Clin Exp Allergy. 30:1547–1553. Enestrom S, Hultman P. 1995. Does amalgam affect the immune system? A controversial issue. Int Arch Allergy Immunol. 106(3):180–203. English B, Schroeder Jr HW, Wilson CB. 2001. Immaturity of the fetal and neonatal immune system. Rich RR, Fleisher TA, Shearer WT, Kotzin BL, Schroeder Jr. HW, eds. Clinical Immunology: Principles and Practice. 2nd ed. London: Mosby. Pp. 40.1–40.10. Erb KJ, Holloway JW, Sobeck A, Moll H, Le Gros G. 1998. Infection of mice with Mycobacterium bovis-Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) suppresses allergen-induced airway eosinophilia. J Exp Med. 187:561–569. Ermann J, Fathman CG. 2001. Autoimmune diseases: Genes, bugs, and failed regulation. Nat Immunol.2:759–761. EURODIAB. 2000. Variation and trends in incidence of childhood diabetes in Europe. EURODIAB ACE Study Group. Lancet. 355:873–876. Evans G. 1999. Vaccine injury compensation programs worldwide. Vaccine. 17(Suppl 3):S25–35. Farooqi IS, Hopkin JM. 1998. Early childhood infection and atopic disorder. Thorax. 53:927–932. Feudtner C, Marcuse EK. 2001. Ethics and immunization policy: Promoting dialogue to sustain consensus. Pediatrics 107(5):1158–1164. Fisher BL on behalf of National Vaccine Information Center. 2001a. Comments made at January 11, 2001 Meeting. Institute of Medicine. Washington, DC. Fisher BL on behalf of National Vaccine Information Center. 2001b. Letter to Kathleen Stratton. November 5, 2001. Fulginiti VA, Helfer RE. 1980. Atypical measles in adolescent siblings 16 years after killed measles virus vaccine. JAMA. 244:804–806. Gans H, Yasukawa L, Rinki M, DeHovitz R, Forghani B, Beeler J, Audet S, Maldonado Y, Arvin AM. 2001. Immune responses to measles and mumps vaccination of infants at 6, 9, and 12 months. J Infect Dis 184(7):817–26. Gellin BG, Maibach EW, Marcuse EK. 2000. Do parents understand immunizations? A national telephone survey. Pediatrics 106(5):1097–1102. Gerstein HC. 1994. Cow’s milk exposure and type 1 diabetes mellitus. A critical overview of the clinical literature. Diabetes Care. 17:13–19. Gomez KA, Coutelier JP, Retegui LA. 1997. Changes in the specificity of antibodies in mice infected with lactate dehydrogenase-elevating virus. Scand J Immunol. 46:168–174. Goverman J, Brabb T, Paez A, Harrington C, von Dassow P. 1997. Initiation and regulation of CNS autoimmunity. Crit Rev Immunol. 17:469–480. Grant EN, Wagner R, Weiss KB. 1999. Observations on emerging patterns of asthma in our society. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 104:S1–9. Graves PM, Barriga KJ, Norris JM, Hoffman MR, Yu L, Eisenbarth GS, Rewers M. 1999. Lack of association between early childhood immunizations and beta-cell autoimmunity. Diabetes Care. 22:1694–1697 as cited by Atkinson MA, Eisenbarth GS. 2001. Type 1 diabetes: New perspectives on disease pathogenesis and treatment. Lancet. 358:221–229. Gray BM, Converse GM 3rd, Huhta N, Johnston RB Jr, Pichichero ME, Schiffman G, Dillon HC Jr. 1981. Epidemiologic studies of Streptococcus pneumoniae in infants: Antibody response to nasopharyngeal carriage of types 3, 19, and 23. J Infect Dis. 144(4):312–318. Griem P, Gleichmann E. 1995. Metal ion induced autoimmunity. Curr Opin Immunol. 7:831–838. Griffin MR, Taylor JA, Daugherty JR, Ray WA. 1992. No increased risk for invasive bacterial infection found following diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis immunization. Pediatrics. 89:640–642.
OCR for page 115
Immunization Safety Review: Multiple Immunizations and Immune Dysfunction Gruber C, Kulig M, Bergmann R, Guggenmoos-Holzmann I, Wahn U. 2001a. Delayed hypersensitivity to tuberculin, total immunoglobulin E, specific sensitization, and atopic manifestation in longitudinally followed early Bacille Calmette-Guerin-vaccinated and nonvaccinated children. Pediatrics. 107:E36. Gruber C, Lau S, Dannemann A, Sommerfeld C, Wahn U, Aalberse RC. 2001b. Down-regulation of IgE and IgG4 antibodies to tetanus toxoid and diphtheria toxoid by covaccination with cellular Bordetella pertussis vaccine. J Immunol. 167:2411–2417. Gustafsson L, Hallander HO, Olin P, Reizenstein E, Storsaeter J. 1996. A controlled trial of a two-component acellular, a five-component acellular, and a whole-cell pertussis vaccine. N Engl J Med. 334:349–355. Halsey NA. 2001. Safety of combination vaccines: Perception versus reality. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 20:S40–4. Hansen G, Berry G, DeKruyff RH, Umetsu DT. 1999. Allergen-specific Th1 cells fail to counterbalance Th2 cell-induced airway hyperreactivity but cause severe airway inflammation. J Clin Invest. 103:175–183. Harris MI. 1995. Summary. National Diabetes Data Group. Diabetes in America, 2nd edition. Publication no. 95–1468. Bethesda MD: National Institutes of Health. Hassan J, Reen DJ. 2000. T-cell function in the human newborn. Immunol Today. 21:107–108. Heijbel H, Chen RT, Dahlquist G. 1997. Cumulative incidence of childhood-onset IDDM is unaffected by pertussis immunization. Diabetes Care. 20:173–175. Hempel K, Freitag A, Freitag B, Endres B, Mai B, Liebaldt G. 1985. Unresponsiveness to experimental allergic encephalomyelitis in Lewis rats pretreated with complete Freund’s adjuvant. Int Arch Allergy Appl Immunol. 76:193–199. Herz U, Gerhold K, Gruber C, Braun A, Wahn U, Renz H, Paul K. 1998. BCG infection suppresses allergic sensitization and development of increased airway reactivity in an animal model. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 102:867–874. Hill AB. 1965. The environment and disease: Association or causation? Proc R Soc Med. 58:295– 300. Hiltunen M, Lonnrot M, Hyoty H. 1999. Immunization and type 1 diabetes mellitus: Is there a link? Drug Saf. 20:207–212. Hultman P, Nielsen JB. 2001. The effect of dose, gender, and non-H-2 genes in murine mercury-induced autoimmunity. J Autoimmun. 17:27–37. Hummel M, Fuchtenbusch M, Schenker M, Ziegler AG. 2000. No major association of breast-feeding, vaccinations, and childhood viral diseases with early islet autoimmunity in the German BABYDIAB Study. Diabetes Care. 23:969–974. Hurwitz EL, Morgenstern H. 2000. Effects of diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis or tetanus vaccination on allergies and allergy-related respiratory symptoms among children and adolescents in the United States. J Manipulative Physiol Ther. 23:81–90. Hyoty H, Hiltunen M, Reunanen A, Leinikki P, Vesikari T, Lounamaa R, Tuomilehto J, Akerblom HK. 1993. Decline of mumps antibodies in type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetic children and a plateau in the rising incidence of type 1 diabetes after introduction of the mumps-measles-rubella vaccine in Finland. Childhood Diabetes in Finland Study Group. Diabetologia. 36:1303–1308. Illi S, von Mutius E, Lau S, Bergmann R, Niggemann B, Sommerfeld C, Wahn U. 2001. Early childhood infectious diseases and the development of asthma up to school age: A birth cohort study. BMJ. 322:390–395. Insel RA. 1995. Potential alterations in immunogenicity by combining or simultaneously administering vaccine components. Ann NY Acad Sci 754(3):35–47. IOM (Institute of Medicine). 1985. New Vaccine Development: Establishing Priorities. Diseases of Importance in the United States, Volume I. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.
OCR for page 115
Immunization Safety Review: Multiple Immunizations and Immune Dysfunction IOM. 1991. Adverse Events Following Pertussis and Rubella Vaccines. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. IOM. 1994. Adverse Events Associated with Childhood Vaccines: Evidence Bearing on Causality. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. IOM. 2000. Clearing the Air. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. IOM. 2001a. Immunization Safety Review: Measles-Mumps-Rubella Vaccine and Autism. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. IOM. 2001b. Immunization Safety Review: Thimerosal-Containing Vaccines and Neurodevelopmental Disorders. Washington DC: National Academy Press. Jackson CE, Puck JM. 1999. Autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome, a disorder of apoptosis. Curr Opin Pediatr. 11:521–527. Jacobson DL, Gange SJ, Rose NR, Graham NM. 1997. Epidemiology and estimated population burden of selected autoimmune diseases in the United States. Clin Immunol Immunopathol. 84:223–243. Javitt JC, Chiang Y. 1995. Economic Impact of Diabetes. National Diabetes Data Group. Diabetes in America . 2nd ed. Bethesda, MD: National Institutes of Health. Pp. 601–611. Jee Y, Matsumoto Y. 2001. Two-step activation of T cells, clonal expansion and subsequent Th1 cytokine production is essential for the development of clinical autoimmune encephalomyelitis. Eur J Immunol. 31:1800–1812. Johnson RT. 1987. The pathogenesis of acute viral encephalitis and postinfectious encephalomyelitis. J Infect Dis. 155(3):359–364. Karvonen M, Cepaitis Z, Tuomilehto J. 1999a. Association between type 1 diabetes and Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccination: Birth cohort study. BMJ. 318:1169–1172. Karvonen M, Pitkaniemi J, Tuomilehto J. 1999b. The onset age of type 1 diabetes in Finnish children has become younger. The Finnish Childhood Diabetes Registry Group. Diabetes Care. 22:1066–1070. Karvonen M, Viik-Kajander M, Moltchanova E, Libman I, LaPorte R, Tuomilehto J. 2000. Incidence of childhood type 1 diabetes worldwide. Diabetes Mondiale (DiaMond) Project Group. Diabetes Care. 23:1516–1526. Kay AB. 2001. Allergy and allergic diseases. First of two parts. N Engl J Med. 344:30–37. Kedl RM, Rees WA, Hildeman DA, Schaefer B, Mitchell T, Kappler J, Marrack P. 2000. T cells compete for access to antigen-bearing antigen-presenting cells. J Exp Med 192(8):1105–1113. Kemp T, Pearce N, Fitzharris P, Crane J, Fergusson D, St George I, Wickens K, Beasley R. 1997. Is infant immunization a risk factor for childhood asthma or allergy? Epidemiology. 8:678–680. Knip M. 1997. Disease-associated autoimmunity and prevention of insulin-dependent diabetes mellitas. Ann Med. 29:447–51. Kollman T. 2001. T Cell Immunity in Infants and Immune System Overload Hypothesis. Presentation to Immunization Safety Review Committee: Seattle, WA. Krause PJ, Cherry JD, Naiditch MJ, Deseda-Tous J, Walbergh EJ. 1978. Revaccination of previous recipients of killed measles vaccine: Clinical and immunologic studies. J Pediatr. 93:565–571. Kristensen I, Aaby P, Jensen H. 2000. Routine vaccinations and child survival: Followup study in Guinea- Bissau, West Africa. BMJ. 321:1435–1438. LaPorte RE, Matsushima M, Chang Y. 1995. Prevalence and Incidence of Insulin-Dependent Diabetes. National Diabetes Data Group, 2nd ed. Bethesda MD: National Institutes of Health, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases. Pp. 37–46. Lau S, Illi S, Sommerfeld C, Niggemann B, Bergmann R, von Mutius E, Wahn U. 2000. Early exposure to house dust mite and cat allergens and development of childhood asthma: A cohort study. Multicentre Allergy Study Group. Lancet. 356:1392–1397. Leslie D, Lipsky P, Notkins AL. 2001. Autoantibodies as predictors of disease. J Clin Invest. 108(10):1417–1422.
OCR for page 115
Immunization Safety Review: Multiple Immunizations and Immune Dysfunction Letterio JJ, Roberts AB. 1998. Regulation of immune responses by TGF-beta. Annu Rev Immunol. 16:137–161. Lewis DB, Wilson CB. 2001. Developmental Immunology and Role of Host Defenses in Fetal and Neonatal Susceptibility to Infection. Remington JS, Klein JO. Infectious Diseases of the Fetus and Newborn. 5th ed. Philadelphia: WB Saunders. Pp. 25–138. Libman I, Songer T, LaPorte R. 1993. How many people in the U.S. have IDDM? Diabetes Care. 16:841–842. Liebert UG. 1997. Measles virus infections of the central nervous system. Intervirology 40(2– 3):176–184. Litonjua AA, Carey VJ, Burge HA, Weiss ST, Gold DR. 2001. Exposure to cockroach allergen in the home is associated with incident doctor-diagnosed asthma and recurrent wheezing. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 107:41–47. Malone DC, Lawson KA, Smith DH. 2000. Asthma: An analysis of high-cost patients. Pharm Pract Manag Q. 20(1):12–20. Maloy KJ, Powrie F. 2001. Regulatory T cells in the control of immune pathology. Nat Immunol. 2:816–822. Mannino DM, Homa DM, Pertowski CA, Ashizawa A, Nixon LL, Johnson CA, Ball LB, Jack E, Kang DS. 1998. Surveillance for asthma—United States, 1960–1995. Mor Mortal Wkly Rep CDC Surveill Summ. 47:1–27. Marchant A, Goetghebuer T, Ota MO, Wolfe I, Ceesay SJ, De Groote D, Corrah T, Bennett S, Wheeler J, Huygen K, Aaby P, McAdam KP, Newport MJ. 1999. Newborns develop a Th1-type immune response to Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guerin vaccination. J Immunol. 163:2249–2255. Marcuse E. 2001. Immunization Hesitancy. Immunization Safety Review Committee: Seattle, WA. Mark A, Bjorksten B, Granstrom M. 1995. Immunoglobulin E responses to diphtheria and tetanus toxoids after booster with aluminium-adsorbed and fluid DT vaccines. Vaccine. 13:669–673. Marolleau JP, Ternaux B, Dal Cortivo L, Brossard Y, Gluckman E, Benbunan M. 1998. T cell repertoire of human umbilical cord blood. Bone Marrow Transplantation. 22:Supple1:S39–40. Marrack P, Kappler J, Kotzin BL. 2001. Autoimmune disease: Why and where it occurs. Nat Med. 7:899–905. Martin R, Sturzebecher CS, McFarland HF. 2001. Immunotherapy of multiple sclerosis: Where are we? Where should we go? Nat Immunol. 2:785–788. McCarthy N, Giesecke J. 2001. Incidence of Guillain-Barré syndrome following infection with Campylobacter jejuni. Am J Epidemiol. 153(6):610–614. McPhillips H, Marcuse EK. 2001. Vaccine safety. Curr Probl Pediatr. 31(4):91–121. Medzhitov R, Janeway C Jr. 2000. Innate immunity. N Engl J Med. 343(5):338–344. Melton LJ 3rd, Palumbo PJ, Chu CP. 1983. Incidence of diabetes mellitus by clinical type. Diabetes Care. 6:75–86. Menser MA, Forrest JM, Bransby RD. 1978. Rubella infection and diabetes mellitus. Lancet. 1:57– 60. Moore KW, de Waal Malefyt R, Coffman RL, O’Garra A. 2001. Interleukin-10 and the interleukin-10 receptor. Annu Rev Immunol. 19:683–765. Mostarica-Stojkovic M, Vukmanovic S, Petrovic M, Ramic Z, Lukic ML. 1988. Dissection of adjuvant and suppressive effects of mycobacteria in experimental allergic encephalomyelitis production. Int Arch Allergy Appl Immunol. 85:82–86. Nafstad P, Magnus P, Jaakkola JJ. 2000. Early respiratory infections and childhood asthma. Pediatrics. 106:E38. Nagler-Anderson C. 2001. Man the barriers! Strategic defences in the intestinal mucosa. Nature Reviews Immunology. 1:59–67. Neutra MR, Mantis NJ, Kraehenbuhl JP. 2001. Collaboration of epithelial cells with organized mucosal lymphoid tissues. Nat Immunol. 2:1004–1009.
OCR for page 115
Immunization Safety Review: Multiple Immunizations and Immune Dysfunction NIH (National Institutes of Health). Diabetes Statistics in the United States. 1999. NIH Publication No. 99–3892. Available on the web at: http://www.niddk.nih.gov/health/diabetes/pubs/dmstats/dmstats.htm Nilsson L, Gruber C, Granstrom M, Bjorksten B, Kjellman NI. 1998. Pertussis IgE and atopic disease. Allergy. 53:1195–1201. Norris JM, Beaty B, Klingensmith G, Yu Liping, Hoffman M, Chase HP, Erlich HA, Hamman RF, Eisenbarth GS, Rewers M. 1996. Lack of association between early exposure to cow’s milk protein and beta-cell autoimmunity. Diabetes Autoimmunity Study in the Young (DAISY). JAMA. 276:609–614. Noseworthy JH, Lucchinetti C, Rodriguez M, Weinshenker BG. 2000. Multiple sclerosis. N Engl J Med. 343:938–952. Notkins AL, Lernmark A. 2001. Autoimmune type 1 diabetes: resolved and unresolved issues. J Clin Invest. 108(9):1247–1252. Odelram H, Granstrom M, Hedenskog S, Duchen K, Bjorksten B. 1994. Immunoglobulin E and G responses to pertussis toxin after booster immunization in relation to atopy, local reactions, and aluminium content of the vaccines. Pediatr Allergy Immunol. 5:118–123. Odent MR, Culpin EE, Kimmel T. 1994. Pertussis vaccination and asthma: Is there a link? JAMA. 212:592–593. Offit PA, Quarles J, Gerber MA, Hackett CJ, Marcuse EK, Kollman TR, Gellin BG, Landry S. 2002. Addressing parents’ concerns: Do multiple vaccines overwhelm or weaken the infant’s immune system? Pediatrics. 109:124–129. Olin P, Rasmussen F, Gustafsson L, Hallander HO, Heijbel H. 1997. Randomized controlled trial of two-component, three-component, and five- component acellular pertussis vaccines compared with whole-cell pertussis vaccine. Ad Hoc Group for the Study of Pertussis Vaccines. Lancet. 350:1569–1577. Onkamo P, Vaananen S, Karvonen M, Tuomilehto J. 1999. Worldwide increase in incidence of Type I diabetes—the analysis of the data on published incidence trends. Diabetologia. 42:1395– 1403. Openshaw PJ, Hewitt C. 2000. Protective and harmful effects of viral infections in childhood on wheezing disorders and asthma. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 162:S40–43, as cited by Kay AB. Allergy and allergic diseases. First of two parts. N Engl J Med. 2001;344:30–37. Ota MO, Vekemans J, Schlegel-Haueter SE, Fielding K, Sanneh M, Kidd M, Newport MJ, Aaby P, Whittle H, Lambert PH, McAdam KP, Siegrist CA, Marchant A. 2002. Influence of Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guerin on antibody and cytokine responses to human neonatal vaccination. J Immunol 168(2):919–925. Otto S, Manner B, Kadow I, Beck JF, Wiersbitzky SK, Bruns R. 2000. General nonspecific morbidity is reduced after vaccination within the third month of life—the Greifswald study. J Infect. 41:172–175. Ou D, Jonsen LA, Metzger DL, Tingle AJ. 1999. CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell clones from congenital rubella syndrome patients with IDDM recognize overlapping GAD65 protein epitopes. Implications for HLA class I and II allelic linkage to disease susceptibility. Hum Immunol. 60:652– 664. Panoutsakopoulou V, Sanchirico ME,Huster KM,Jansson M, Granucci F, Shim DJ, Wucherpfennig KW, Cantor H. 2001. Analysis of the relationship between viral infection and autoimmune disease. Immunity. 15:137–147. Parent ME, Siemiatycki J, Menzies R, Fritschi L, Colle E. 1997. Bacille Calmette-Guerin vaccination and incidence of IDDM in Montreal, Canada. Diabetes Care. 20:767–772. Parham P. 2000. Overreactions of the immune system. Parham P. The Immune System. First ed. New York: Garland Publishing. Pp. 269–297.
OCR for page 115
Immunization Safety Review: Multiple Immunizations and Immune Dysfunction Peat JK, Tovey E, Mellis CM, Leeder SR, Woolcock AJ. 1993. Importance of house dust mite and Alternaria allergens in childhood asthma: An epidemiological study in two climatic regions of Australia. Clin Exp Allergy. 23:812–820. Perlmutter SJ, Garvey MA, Castellanos X, Mittleman BB, Giedd J, Rapoport JL, Swedo SE. 1998. A case of pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcal infections. Am J Psychiatry. 155:1592–1598. Pershagen G. 2000. Can immunization affect the development of allergy? Pediatr Allergy Immunol. 11 Suppl 13:26–28. Plotkin SA, Orenstein WA. 1999. Vaccines, Third Edition. New York: WB Saunders. Podar T, Solntsev A, Karvonen M, Padaiga Z, Brigis G, Urbonaite B, Viik-Kajander M, Reunanen A, Tuomilehto J. 2001. Increasing incidence of childhood-onset type 1 diabetes in three Baltic countries and Finland 1983–1998. Diabetologia. 44 Suppl 3:B17–20. Polack FP, Auwaerter PG, Lee SH, Nousari HC, Valsamakis A, Leiferman KM, Diwan A, Adams RJ, Griffin DE. 1999. Production of atypical measles in rhesus macaques: Evidence for disease mediated by immune complex formation and eosinophils in the presence of fusion-inhibiting antibody. Nat Med. 5(6):629–34. Pollard KM, Hultman P. 1997. Effects of mercury on the immune system. Met Ions Biol Syst 34:421–440. Pollard KM, Pearson DL, Bluthner M, Tan EM. 2000. Proteolytic cleavage of a self-antigen following xenobiotic-induced cell death produces a fragment with novel immunogenic properties. J Immunol. 165:2263–2270. Prescott SL, Macaubas C, Holt BJ, Smallacombe TB, Loh R, Sly PD, Holt PG. 1998. Transplacental priming of the human immune system to environmental allergens: Universal skewing of initial T cell responses toward the Th2 cytokine profile. J Immunol. 160:4730–4737. Redd SC , Markowitz LE , Katz SL. 1999. Chapter 12: Measles Vaccine. Plotkin SA, Orenstein WA, Editors. Vaccines. Third ed. Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders Co. Regner M, Lambert PH. 2001. Autoimmunity through infection or immunization? Nat Immunol. 2:185–188. Riordan FA, Sills JA, Thomson AP, Hart CA. 1995. Bacterial meningitis after MMR immunization. Postgrad Med J. 71:745–746. Robles DT, Eisenbarth GS. 2001. Type 1a diabetes induced by infection and immunization. J Autoimmun. 16:355–362. Roncarolo MG, Levings MK. 2000. The role of different subsets of T regulatory cells in controlling autoimmunity. Curr Opin Immunol. 12:676–683. Rook G. 2001. Hygiene Hypothesis. Immunization Safety Review Committee Meeting: Seattle, WA. Rook GA. 2000. Clean living increases more than just atopic disease. Immunol Today. 21:249–250. Rook GA, Stanford JL. 1998. Give us this day our daily germs. Immunol Today. 19:113–116. Rook GA, Ristori G, Salvetti M, Giovannoni G, Thompson EJ, Stanford JL. 2000. Bacterial vaccines for the treatment of multiple sclerosis and other autoimmune disorders. Immunol Today. 21:503–508. Rose NR. 2001. Infection, mimics, and autoimmune disease. J Clin Invest. 107:943–944. Rowe J, Macaubas C, Monger T, Holt BJ, Harvey J, Poolman JT, Loh R, Sly PD, Holt PG. 2001. Heterogeneity in diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis vaccine specific cellular immunity during infancy: Relationship to variations in the kinetics of postnatal maturation of systemic Th1 function. J Infect Dis. 184:80–88. Rubinstein P, Walker ME, Fedun B, Witt ME, Cooper LZ, Ginsberg-Fellner F. 1982. The HLA system in congenital rubella patients with and without diabetes. Diabetes. 31:1088–1091. Ruuskanen O, Salmi TT, Stenvik M, Lapinleimu K. 1980. Inactivated poliovaccine: Adverse reactions and antibody responses. Acta Paediatr Scand. 69:397–401.
OCR for page 115
Immunization Safety Review: Multiple Immunizations and Immune Dysfunction Ryan M, Murphy G, Gothefors L, Nilsson L, Storsaeter J, Mills KH. 1997a. Bordetella pertussis respiratory infection in children is associated with preferential activation of type 1 T helper cells. J Infect Dis. 175:1246–1250. Ryan M, Murphy G, Ryan E, Nilsson L, Shackley F, Gothefors L, Oymar K, Miller E, Storsaeter J, Mills KH. 1997b. Bordetella pertussis-specific Th1/Th2 cells generated following respiratory infection or immunization with an acellular vaccine: Comparison of the T cell cytokine profiles in infants and mice. Dev Biol Stand. 89:297–305. Ryan M, Murphy G, Ryan E, Nilsson L, Shackley F, Gothefors L, Oymar K, Miller E, Storsaeter J, Mills KH. 1998. Distinct T-cell subtypes induced with whole cell and acellular pertussis vaccines in children. Immunology. 93:1–10. Samet JM. 1987. Epidemiologic approaches for the identification of asthma. Chest. 91(6 Suppl):74S–78S. Segal BM, Klinman DM, Shevach EM. 1997. Microbial products induce autoimmune disease by an IL-12-dependent pathway. J Immunol. 158:5087–5090. Selin LK, Lin MY, Kraemer KA, Pardoll DM, Schneck JP, Varga SM, Santolucito PA, Pinto AK, Welsh RM. 1998. Protective heterologous antiviral immunity and enhanced immunopathogenesis mediated by memory T cell populations. J Exp Med 188(9):1705–1715. Selin LK, Lin MY, Kraemer KA, Pardoll DM, Schneck JP, Varga SM, Santolucito PA, Pinto AK, Welsh RM. 1999. Attrition of T cell memory: Selective loss of LCMV epitope-specific memory CD8 T cells following infections with heterologous viruses. Immunity. 11(6):733–742. Sell SH et al. 1973. Natural infections with Hemophilus influenzae II. Studies of serum antibody activity. Sell SH, Karzon DT, eds. In Hemophilus Influenzae. Nashville, TN: Vanderbilt University Press. Shevach EM. 2000. Regulatory T cells in autoimmmunity. Annu Rev Immunol. 18:423–449. Shinefield HR, Black S, Ray P, Chang I, Lewis N, Fireman B, Hackell J, Paradiso PR, Siber G, Kohberger R, Madore DV, Malinowski FJ, Kimura A, Le C, Landaw I, Aguilar J, Hansen J. 1999. Safety and immunogenicity of heptavalent pneumococcal CRM197 conjugate vaccine in infants and toddlers. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 18:757–763. Shirakawa T, Enomoto T, Shimazu S, Hopkin JM. 1997. The inverse association between tuberculin responses and atopic disorder. Science. 275:77–79. Siegrist CA. 2001. Neonatal and early life vaccinology. Vaccine. 19:3331–3346. Simondon F, Yam A, Gagnepain JY, Wassilak S, Danve B, Cadoz M. 1996. Comparative safety and immunogenicity of an acellular versus whole-cell pertussis component of diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis vaccines in Senegalese infants. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 15:927–932. Singh B. 2000. Stimulation of the developing immune system can prevent autoimmunity. J Autoimmun. 14:15–22. Steinman L. 2001. Multiple sclerosis: A two-stage disease. Nat Immunol. 2:762–764. Strachan DP. 2000. Family size, infection and atopy: The first decade of the “hygiene hypothesis.” Thorax. 55 Suppl 1:S2–10. Stuve O, Zamvil SS. 1999. Pathogenesis, diagnosis, and treatment of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis. Curr Opin Neurol. 12:395–401. Toelle BG, Peat JK, van den Berg RH, Dermand J, Woolcock AJ. 1997. Comparison of three definitions of asthma: A longitudinal perspective. J Asthma. 34(2):161–167. Ulanova M, Tarkowski A, Hahn-Zoric M, Hanson LA. 2001. The common vaccine adjuvant aluminum hydroxide up-regulates accessory properties of human monocytes via an interleukin-4-dependent mechanism. Infect Immun. 69:1151–1159. U.S. Preventive Sevices Task Force. 1996. Guide to Clinical Preventive Services. 2nd ed. Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins. van den Biggelaar AH, van Ree R, Rodrigues LC, Lell B, Deelder AM, Kremsner PG, Yazdanbakhsh M. 2000. Decreased atopy in children infected with Schistosoma haematobium: A role for parasite-induced interleukin-10. Lancet. 356:1723–1727.
OCR for page 115
Immunization Safety Review: Multiple Immunizations and Immune Dysfunction Vekemans J, Amedei A, Ota MO, D’Elios MM, Goetghebuer T, Ismaili J, Newport MJ, Del Prete G, Goldman M, McAdam KP, Marchant A. 2001. Neonatal bacillus Calmette-Guerin vaccination induces adult-like IFN-gamma production by CD4+ T lymphocytes. Eur J Immunol. 31:1531– 1535. Vella AT, McCormack JE, Linsley PS, Kappler JW, Marrack P. 1995. Lipopolysaccharide interferes with the induction of peripheral T cell death. Immunity. 2:261–270. Vella AT, Mitchell T, Groth B, Linsley PS, Green JM, Thompson CB, Kappler JW, Marrack P. 1997. CD28 engagement and proinflammatory cytokines contribute to T cell expansion and long-term survival in vivo. J Immunol. 158:4714–4720. Wakeland EK, Liu K, Graham RR, Behrens TW. 2001. Delineating the genetic basis of systemic lupus erythematosus. Immunity. 15:397–408. Wang CC, Nolan TJ, Schad GA, Abraham D. 2001. Infection of mice with the helminth Strongyloides stercoralis suppresses pulmonary allergic responses to ovalbumin. Clin Exp Allergy. 31:495–503. Wanstrat A, Wakeland E. 2001. The genetics of complex autoimmune diseases: Non-MHC susceptibility genes. Nat Immunol. 2(9):802–809. Weed DL, Hursting SD. 1998. Biologic plausibility in causal inference: Current method and practice. Am J Epidemiol. 147:415–425. Weiss KB, Sullivan SD. 2001. The health economics of asthma and rhinitis. I. Assessing the economic impact. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 107:3–8. Wickens K, Crane J, Kemp T, Lewis S, D’Souza W, Sawyer G, Stone L, Tohill S, Kennedy J, Slater T, Rains N, Pearce N. 2001. A case-control study of risk factors for asthma in New Zealand children. Aust N Z J Public Health. 25:44–49. Wildin RS, Ramsdell F, Peake J, Faravelli F, Casanova JL, Buist N, Levy-Lahad E, Mazzella M, Goulet O, Perroni L, Bricarelli FD, Byrne G, McEuen M, Proll S, Appleby M, Brunkow ME. 2001. X-linked neonatal diabetes mellitus, enteropathy, and endocrinopathy syndrome is the human equivalent of mouse scurvy. Nat Genet. 27:18–20. Wills-Karp M, Santeliz J, Karp CL. 2001. The germless theory of allergic disease: Revisiting the hygiene hypothesis. Nature Reviews Immunology. 1:69–75. Wilson CB, Marcuse EK. 2001. Vaccine safety-vaccine benefits: Science and the public’s perception. Nature Reviews Immunology 1:160–165. Wucherpfennig KW. 2001. Mechanisms for the induction of autoimmunity by infectious agents. J Clin Invest. 108:1097–1104. Wucherpfennig KW, Eisenbarth GS. 2001. Type 1 diabetes. Nat Immunol. 2:767–768. Zamvil SS, Steinman L. 1990. The T lymphocyte in experimental allergic encephalomyelitis. Annu Rev Immunol. 8:579–621. Zhang X, Izikson L, Liu L, Weiner HL. 2001. Activation of CD25(+) CD4(+) regulatory T cells by oral antigen administration. J Immunol. 167:4245–4253. Zhao ZS, Granucci F, Yeh L, Schaffer PA, Cantor H. 1998. Molecular mimicry by herpes simplex virus-type 1: Autoimmune disease after viral infection. Science. 279:1344–1347. Zinkernagel RM. 2001. Maternal antibodies, childhood infections, and autoimmune diseases. N Engl J Med. 345:1331–1335.
OCR for page 115
Immunization Safety Review: Multiple Immunizations and Immune Dysfunction This page in the original is blank.