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OCR for page 131
Immunization Safety Review: Multiple Immunizations and Immune Dysfunction Appendix B Committee Conclusions and Recommendations from Previous Reports MEASLES-MUMPS-RUBELLA VACCINE AND AUTISM Conclusions The committee concludes that the evidence favors rejection of a causal relationship at the population level between measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine and autistic spectrum disorders (ASD). However, this conclusion does not exclude the possibility that MMR vaccine could contribute to ASD in a small number of children. The committee concludes that further research on the possible occurrence of ASD in a small number of children subsequent to MMR vaccination is warranted, and it has identified targeted research opportunities that could lead to firmer understanding of the relationship. Recommendations Public Health Response The committee recommends that the relationship between the MMR vaccine and autistic spectrum disorders receive continued attention.
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Immunization Safety Review: Multiple Immunizations and Immune Dysfunction Policy Review The committee does not recommend a policy review at this time of the licensure of MMR vaccine or of the current schedule and recommendations for administration of MMR vaccine. Research Regarding MMR and ASD The committee recommends the use of accepted and consistent case definitions and assessment protocols for ASD in order to enhance the precision and comparability of results from surveillance, epidemiological, and biologic investigations. The committee recommends the exploration of whether exposure to MMR vaccine is a risk factor for autistic spectrum disorder in a small number of children. The committee recommends the development of targeted investigations of whether or not measles vaccine-strain virus is present in the intestines of some children with ASD. The committee encourages all who submit reports to VAERS of any diagnosis of ASD thought to be related to MMR vaccine to provide as much detail and as much documentation as possible. The committee recommends studying the possible effects of different MMR immunization exposures. The committee recommends conducting further clinical and epidemiological studies of sufficient rigor to identify risk factors and biological markers of ASD in order to better understand genetic or environmental causes. Communications The committee recommends that government agencies and professional organizations, CDC and the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in particular, review some of the most prominent forms of communication regarding the hypothesized relationship between MMR vaccine and ASD, including information they provide via the Internet and the ease with which Internet information can be accessed.
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Immunization Safety Review: Multiple Immunizations and Immune Dysfunction THIMEROSAL-CONTAINING VACCINES AND NEURODEVELOPMENTAL DISORDERS Conclusions The committee concludes that although the hypothesis that exposure to thimerosal-containing vaccines could be associated with neurodevelopmental disorders is not established and rests on indirect and incomplete information, primarily from analogies with methylmercury and levels of maximum mercury exposure from vaccines given in children, the hypothesis is biologically plausible. The committee also concludes that the evidence is inadequate to accept or reject a causal relationship between thimerosal exposures from childhood vaccines and the neurodevelopmental disorders of autism, ADHD, and speech or language delay. Public Health Response Recommendations Policy Review and Analysis The committee recommends the use of the thimerosal-free DTaP, Hib, and hepatitis B vaccines in the United States, despite the fact that there might be remaining supplies of thimerosal-containing vaccine available. The committee recommends that full consideration be given by appropriate professional societies and government agencies to removing thimerosal from vaccines administered to infants, children, or pregnant women in the United States. The committee recommends that appropriate professional societies and government agencies review their policies about the non-vaccine biological and pharmaceutical products that contain thimerosal and are used by infants, children, and pregnant women in the United States. The committee recommends that policy analyses be conducted that will inform these discussions in the future. The committee recommends a review and assessment of how public health policy decisions are made under uncertainty. The committee recommends a review of the strategies used to communicate rapid changes in vaccine policy, and it recommends research on how to improve those strategies. Public Health and Biomedical Research The committee recommends a diverse public health and biomedical research portfolio.
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Immunization Safety Review: Multiple Immunizations and Immune Dysfunction Epidemiological Research The committee recommends case-control studies examining the potential link between neurodevelopmental disorders and thimerosal-containing vaccines. The committee recommends further analysis of neurodevelopmental disorders in cohorts of children who did not receive thimerosal-containing doses as part of a clinical trial of DTaP vaccine. The committee recommends conducting epidemiological studies that compare the incidence and prevalence of neurodevelopmental disorders before and after the removal of thimerosal from vaccines. The committee recommends an increased effort to identify the primary sources and levels of prenatal and postnatal background exposure to thimerosal (e.g., Rho (D) Immune Globulin) and other forms of mercury (e.g., maternal consumption of fish) in infants, children, and pregnant women. Clinical Research The committee recommends research on how children, including those diagnosed with neurodevelopmental disorders, metabolize and excrete metals— particularly mercury. The committee recommends continued research on theoretical modeling of ethylmercury exposures, including the incremental burden of thimerosal with background mercury exposure from other sources. The committee recommends careful, rigorous, and scientific investigations of chelation when used in children with neurodevelopmental disorders, especially autism. Basic Science Research The committee recommends research to identify a safe, effective, and inexpensive alternative to thimerosal for countries that decide they need to switch from using thimerosal as a preservative. The committee recommends research in appropriate animal models on the neurodevelopmental effects of ethylmercury.
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