IOM. 2001a. Immunization Safety Review: Measles-Mumps-Rubella Vaccine and Autism. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.

IOM. 2001b. Immunization Safety Review: Thimerosal-Containing Vaccines and Neurodevelopmental Disorders. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.

Jacobson DL, Gange SJ, Rose NR, Graham NM. Epidemiology and estimated population burden of selected autoimmune diseases in the United States. Clin Immunol Immunopathol 1997; 84:223–243.


Karvonen M, Cepaitis Z, Tuomilehto J. Association between type 1 diabetes and Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccination: Birth cohort study. BMJ. 1999; 318:1169–1172.

Karvonen M, Viik-Kajander M, Moltchanova E, Libman I, LaPorte R, Tuomilehto J. Incidence of childhood type 1 diabetes worldwide. Diabetes Mondiale (DiaMond) Project Group. Diabetes Care. 2000; 23:1516–1526.

Kemp T, Pearce N, Fitzharris P, Crane J, Fergusson D, St. George I, Wickens K, Beasley R. Is infant immunization a risk factor for childhood asthma or allergy? Epidemiology. 1997; 8:678–680.

Kollman T. T Cell Immunity in Infants and Immune System Overload Hypothesis. Presentation to Immunization Safety Review Committee: Seattle, WA. 2001.

Kristensen I, Aaby P, Jensen H. Routine vaccinations and child survival: Followup study in Guinea-Bissau, West Africa. BMJ. 2000; 321:1435–1438.


Leslie D, Lipsky P, Notkins AL. 2001. Autoantibodies as predictors of disease. J Clin Invest 108(10):1417–1422.


Mannino DM, Homa DM, Pertowski CA, Ashizawa A, Nixon LL, Johnson CA, Ball LB, Jack E, Kang DS. Surveillance for asthma—United States, 1960–1995. Mor Mortal Wkly Rep CDC Surveill Summ. 1998; 47:1–27.

Marrack P, Kappler J, Kotzin BL. Autoimmune disease: why and where it occurs. Nat Med. 2001; 7:899–905.

McPhillips H, Marcuse EK. 2001. Vaccine safety. Curr Probl Pediatr 31(4):91–121. Nilsson L, Kjellman NI, Bjorksten B. A randomized controlled trial of the effect of pertussis vaccines on atopic disease. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 1998; 152:734–738.


Notkins AL, Lernmark A. 2001. Autoimmune type 1 diabetes: Resolved and unresolved issues. J Clin Invest 108(9):1247–1252.


Offit PA, Quarles J, Gerber MA, Hackett CJ, Marcuse EK, Kollman TR, Gellin BG, Landry, S. Addressing parents’ concerns: Do multiple vaccines overwhelm or weaken the infant’s immune system? Pediatrics. 2002; 109:124–129.

Otto S, Manner B, Kadow I, Beck JF, Wiersbitzky SK, Bruns R. General nonspecific morbidity is reduced after vaccination within the third month of life—the Greifswald study. J Infect. 2000; 41:172–175.


Parham P. 2000. Overreactions of the immune system. Parham P. The Immune System. First ed. New York: Garland Publishing. Pp. 269–297.


Rook G. Hygiene Hypothesis. Immunization Safety Review Committee Meeting: Seattle, WA. 2001.

Rook GA. Clean living increases more than just atopic disease. Immunol Today. 2000; 21:249–250.


Strachan DP. Family size, infection and atopy: The first decade of the “hygiene hypothesis.” Thorax. 2000; 55 Suppl 1:S2–10.


Wickens K, Crane J, Kemp T, Lewis S, D’Souza W, Sawyer G, Stone L, Tohill S, Kennedy J, Slater T, Rains N, Pearce N. A case-control study of risk factors for asthma in New Zealand children. Aust N Z J Pub Health. 2001; 25:44–49.

Wills-Karp M, Santeliz J, Karp CL. The germless theory of allergic disease: Revisiting the hygiene hypothesis. Nature Rev Immunol. 2001; 1:69–75.



The National Academies | 500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement