References

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Acheson, J.M. 1988. Patterns of gear changes in the Maine fishing industry: Some implications for management. MAST/Maritime Anthropological Studies 1(1):49-65

Adams, C. 1996. An overview of the commercial and recreational fisheries industries within the Gulf of Mexico. The Southern Business and Economic Journal 11:246-260.

Aguirre International. 1996. An Appraisal of the Social and Cultural Aspects of the Multispecies Groundfish Fishery in New England and the Mid-Atlantic Regions. Report to NOAA for contract # 50-DGNF-5- 00008.

Allee, R.J., M. Dethier, D. Brown, L. Deegan, R.G. Ford, T.F. Hourigan, J. Maragos, C. Schoch, K. Sealey, R. Twilley, M.P. Weinstein, and M. Yoklavich. 2000. Marine and Estuarine Ecosystem and Habitat Classification. NOAA Technical Memorandum NMFS-F/SPO-43.

Alverson, D.L., P.T. Pruter, and L.L. Ronholt. 1964. A Study of Demersal Fishes and Fisheries of the Northeastern Pacific Ocean. Institute of Fisheries, University of British Columbia.

Auster, P.J. 1998. A conceptual model of the impacts of fishing gear on the integrity of fish habitats . Conservation Biology 12:1-6.

Auster, P.J. 2001. Defining thresholds for precautionary habitat management actions in a fisheries context. North American Journal of Fisheries Management 21:1-19.

Auster, P.J., R.J. Malatesta, and S.C. LaRosa. 1995. Patterns of microhabitat utilization by mobile megafauna on the southern New England (USA) continental shelf and slope. Marine Ecology Progress Series 127:77-85.

Auster, P.J., R.J. Malatesta, R.W. Langton, L. Watling, P.C. Valentine, C.L.S. Donaldson, E.W. Langton, A.N. Shepard, and I.G. Babb. 1996. The impacts of mobile fishing gear on the sea floor habitats in the Gulf of Maine (Northwest Atlantic): Implications for conservation of fish populations. Reviews in Fisheries Science 4:185-200.

Auster, P.J., C. Michalopoulos, P.C. Valentine, and R.J. Malatesta. 1998. Delineating and monitoring habitat management units in a temperate deep-water marine protected area. In Linking Protected Areas with Working Landscapes, Conserving Biodiversity, Munro, N.W. and J.H.M Willison (eds.). Science Management of Protected Areas Association, Wolfville, Nova Scotia.

Auster, P.J. and R.W. Langton. 1999. The effects of fishing on fish habitat. In Fish Habitat: Essential Fish Habitat and Rehabilitation, Benaka, L. (ed.). American Fisheries Society, Bethesda, MD.


Barnette, M.C. 1999. Gulf of Mexico Fishing Gear and Their Potential Impacts on Essential Fish Habitat. NOAA Technical Memorandum NMFS-SEFSC-432.

Barnette, M.C. 2001. A Review of Fishing Gear Utilized within the Southeast Region and Their Potential Impact on Essential Fish Habitat. NOAA Technical Memorandum NMFS-SEFCS-449.

Bergman, M.J.N. and J.W. van Santbrink. 2000. Mortality in megafaunal benthic populations caused by trawl fisheries on the Dutch continental shelf in the North Sea in 1994. ICES Journal of Marine Science 57(5):1321-1331.

Berkeley, S.A., D.W. Pybas, and W.L. Campos. 1985. Bait Shrimp Fishery of Biscayne Bay. Florida Sea Grant college Program Technical paper No. 40.

Bradstock, M. and D. Gordon. 1983. Coral-like bryozoan growths in Tasman Bay, and their protection to conserve commercial fish stocks. New Zealand Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research 17:159-163.

Brand, A.R. 2000. North Irish sea scallop fisheries: Effects of 60 years dredging on scallop populations and the environment. In Alaska Department of Fish and Game and University of Alaska Fairbanks: A Workshop Examining Potential Fishing Effects on Population Dynamics and Benthic Community Structure of Scallops with Emphasis on the Weathervane Scallop Patinopecten Caurinus in Alaskan Waters. Alaska Department of Fish and Game, Division of Commercial Fisheries, Special Publication 14, Juneau.

Breitburg, D.L. 1998. Scaling eutrophication effects between species and ecosystems: the importance of variation and similarity among species with similar functional roles. Australian Journal of Ecology 23:280-286.

Bridger, J.P. 1970. Some Effects of the Passage of a Trawl over the Seabed. Gear and Behavior Committee, International Council for the Exploration of the Sea.

Brylinski, M., J. Gibson, and D.C. Gordon, Jr. 1994. Impacts of flounder trawls on the intertidal habitat and community of the Minas Basin, Bay of Fundy. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Science 51:650-651.

Butman, B., P.C. Valentine, W.W. Danforth, L. Hayes, and L.A. Serrett. In press. Shaded Relief, Backscatter Intensity, and Sea Floor Topography of Massachusetts Bay and the Stellwagen Bank Region, Offshore of Boston, Massachusetts. U.S. Geological Survey Geologic Investigation Map I-2734.


Caddy, J.F. 1973. Underwater observations on tracks of dredges and trawls and some effects of dredging on a scallop ground. Journal of Fisheries Research Board of Canada 30:173-180.



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Effects of Trawling and Dredging on Seafloor Habitat References Acheson, J.M. 1975. The lobster fiefs: Economic and ecological effects of territoriality in the Maine lobster industry. Human Ecology 3(3):183-207. Acheson, J.M. 1988. Patterns of gear changes in the Maine fishing industry: Some implications for management. MAST/Maritime Anthropological Studies 1(1):49-65 Adams, C. 1996. An overview of the commercial and recreational fisheries industries within the Gulf of Mexico. The Southern Business and Economic Journal 11:246-260. Aguirre International. 1996. An Appraisal of the Social and Cultural Aspects of the Multispecies Groundfish Fishery in New England and the Mid-Atlantic Regions. Report to NOAA for contract # 50-DGNF-5- 00008. Allee, R.J., M. Dethier, D. Brown, L. Deegan, R.G. Ford, T.F. Hourigan, J. Maragos, C. Schoch, K. Sealey, R. Twilley, M.P. Weinstein, and M. Yoklavich. 2000. Marine and Estuarine Ecosystem and Habitat Classification. NOAA Technical Memorandum NMFS-F/SPO-43. Alverson, D.L., P.T. Pruter, and L.L. Ronholt. 1964. A Study of Demersal Fishes and Fisheries of the Northeastern Pacific Ocean. Institute of Fisheries, University of British Columbia. Auster, P.J. 1998. A conceptual model of the impacts of fishing gear on the integrity of fish habitats . Conservation Biology 12:1-6. Auster, P.J. 2001. Defining thresholds for precautionary habitat management actions in a fisheries context. North American Journal of Fisheries Management 21:1-19. Auster, P.J., R.J. Malatesta, and S.C. LaRosa. 1995. Patterns of microhabitat utilization by mobile megafauna on the southern New England (USA) continental shelf and slope. Marine Ecology Progress Series 127:77-85. Auster, P.J., R.J. Malatesta, R.W. Langton, L. Watling, P.C. Valentine, C.L.S. Donaldson, E.W. Langton, A.N. Shepard, and I.G. Babb. 1996. The impacts of mobile fishing gear on the sea floor habitats in the Gulf of Maine (Northwest Atlantic): Implications for conservation of fish populations. Reviews in Fisheries Science 4:185-200. Auster, P.J., C. Michalopoulos, P.C. Valentine, and R.J. Malatesta. 1998. Delineating and monitoring habitat management units in a temperate deep-water marine protected area. In Linking Protected Areas with Working Landscapes, Conserving Biodiversity, Munro, N.W. and J.H.M Willison (eds.). Science Management of Protected Areas Association, Wolfville, Nova Scotia. Auster, P.J. and R.W. Langton. 1999. The effects of fishing on fish habitat. In Fish Habitat: Essential Fish Habitat and Rehabilitation, Benaka, L. (ed.). American Fisheries Society, Bethesda, MD. Barnette, M.C. 1999. Gulf of Mexico Fishing Gear and Their Potential Impacts on Essential Fish Habitat. NOAA Technical Memorandum NMFS-SEFSC-432. Barnette, M.C. 2001. A Review of Fishing Gear Utilized within the Southeast Region and Their Potential Impact on Essential Fish Habitat. NOAA Technical Memorandum NMFS-SEFCS-449. Bergman, M.J.N. and J.W. van Santbrink. 2000. Mortality in megafaunal benthic populations caused by trawl fisheries on the Dutch continental shelf in the North Sea in 1994. ICES Journal of Marine Science 57(5):1321-1331. Berkeley, S.A., D.W. Pybas, and W.L. Campos. 1985. Bait Shrimp Fishery of Biscayne Bay. Florida Sea Grant college Program Technical paper No. 40. Bradstock, M. and D. Gordon. 1983. Coral-like bryozoan growths in Tasman Bay, and their protection to conserve commercial fish stocks. New Zealand Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research 17:159-163. Brand, A.R. 2000. North Irish sea scallop fisheries: Effects of 60 years dredging on scallop populations and the environment. In Alaska Department of Fish and Game and University of Alaska Fairbanks: A Workshop Examining Potential Fishing Effects on Population Dynamics and Benthic Community Structure of Scallops with Emphasis on the Weathervane Scallop Patinopecten Caurinus in Alaskan Waters. Alaska Department of Fish and Game, Division of Commercial Fisheries, Special Publication 14, Juneau. Breitburg, D.L. 1998. Scaling eutrophication effects between species and ecosystems: the importance of variation and similarity among species with similar functional roles. Australian Journal of Ecology 23:280-286. Bridger, J.P. 1970. Some Effects of the Passage of a Trawl over the Seabed. Gear and Behavior Committee, International Council for the Exploration of the Sea. Brylinski, M., J. Gibson, and D.C. Gordon, Jr. 1994. Impacts of flounder trawls on the intertidal habitat and community of the Minas Basin, Bay of Fundy. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Science 51:650-651. Butman, B., P.C. Valentine, W.W. Danforth, L. Hayes, and L.A. Serrett. In press. Shaded Relief, Backscatter Intensity, and Sea Floor Topography of Massachusetts Bay and the Stellwagen Bank Region, Offshore of Boston, Massachusetts. U.S. Geological Survey Geologic Investigation Map I-2734. Caddy, J.F. 1973. Underwater observations on tracks of dredges and trawls and some effects of dredging on a scallop ground. Journal of Fisheries Research Board of Canada 30:173-180.

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