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176 THE DISPOSITION DILEMMA Department of Energy (DOE). 1993a. Radiation Protection of the Public and the Environment. DOE 5400.5. Office of Environment, Safety and Health. Washington, D.C.: DOE. DOE. 1993b. Earning Public Trust and Confidence: Requisites for Managing Radioactive Waste. Advisory Board Task Force on Radioactive Waste Management. Washington, D.C.: DOE. DOE. 1996. The 1996 Baseline Environmental Management Report. Volume 1. DOE/EM-0290. June. Washington, D.C.: DOE. DOE. 1999. Reuse of Concrete from Contaminated Structures, DOE/OR/22343-1. January. Wash- ington, D.C.: DOE. DOE. 2000. Audit Report: The Decontamination and Decommissioning Contract at the East Tennes- see Technology Park. DOE/IG-0481. Washington, D.C.: DOE. DOE. 2001. Notice of intent to prepare a programmatic environmental impact statement on the disposition of scrap metals and announcement of public scoping meetings. Federal Register 67:36562-36566, July 12. Elder, H.K. 1981. Technology, Safety and Costs of Decommissioning a Reference Uranium Hexafluoride Conversion Plant. NUREG/CR-1757, Pacific Northwest Laboratory for U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Envirocare. 2001. Envirocare of Utah, Inc., Waste Acceptance Guidelines, May 16, Revision 3. Clive, Utah: Envirocare. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). 1989. Environmental Standards for Management, Storage, and Land Disposal of Naturally Occurring and Accelerator-Produced Radioactive Waste. Draft Rule for 40 CFR. Part 764, never finalized. April 6. Washington, D.C.: EPA. EPA. 1996. Summary Report for the Workshop on Monte Carlo Analysis. Risk Assessment Forum. Washington, D.C.: EPA. EPA. 1997a. Technical Support Document: Evaluation of the Potential for Recycling of Scrap Met- als from Nuclear Facilities. TSD 97. Peer Review Draft, March 11. Office of Radiation and Indoor Air. Washington, D.C.: EPA. EPA. 1997b. Guidance: Establishment of Cleanup Levels for CERCLA Sites with Radioactive Con- tamination. OSWER No. 9200.4-18. Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response. Wash- ington, D.C.: EPA. EPA. 1997c. Radiation Protection Standards for Scrap Metal: Preliminary Cost-Benefit Analysis. Clean Materials Program, Report No. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. EPA. 1997d. Letter from Carol M. Browner, administrator, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, to the Honorable Shirley Jackson, chair, U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, February 7. EPA. 2000. Draft Public Involvement Policy. Federal Register 65: 82335-82345, December 28. EPA. 2001. Radiologically Contaminated Superfund National Priorities List Sites. Available at . Accessed March 1, 2002. EPA, USNRC, and DOE. 2000. Multi-agency Radiation Survey and Site Implementation Manual. NUREG-1557, Revision 1; EPA 402-R-97-016, Revision 1; DOE/EH-0624, Revision 1 (Au- gust). Washington, D.C.: EPA, USNRC, and DOE. European Commission (EC). 1998a. Communication from the Commission Concerning the Imple- mentation of Council Directive 96/29/Euratom Laying Down Basic Safety Standards for the Protection of the Health and Safety of Workers and the General Public Against the Dangers Arising from Ionising Radiation. Luxembourg: European Communities. EC. 1998b. Radiation Protection 89: Recommended radiological protection criteria for the recycling of metals from dismantling of nuclear installations. Recommendations of the group of experts set up under the terms of Article 31 of the Euratom Treaty. Luxembourg: European Communi- ties. EC. 2000. Definition of Clearance Levels for the Release of Radioactively Contaminated Buildings and Building Rubble. EC-RP-114. Luxembourg: European Communities.

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REFERENCES 177 EC. 2001. Radiation Protection 122: Practical use of the concepts of clearance and exemption. Part 1. Guidance on general clearance levels for practices. Luxembourg: European Communities. European Union (EU). 1992. Council Directive 92/3/Euratom on the Supervision and Control of Shipments of Radioactive Waste between Member States and into and out of the Community (OJ L 35, 12.2.92), February 12. Luxembourg: European Communities. KU. 1996. Council Directive 96/29/EURATOM (OJ L 159, 29.6.1996), May 13. Luxembourg: Euro- pean Communities. Flynn, J., W. Burns, C. Mertz, and P. Slovic. 1992. Trust as a Determinant of Opposition to a High- Level Radioactive Waste Repository: Analysis of a Structural Model. Risk Analysis 12:417- 430. Haimes, Y.Y. 1991. Total Risk Management. Risk Analysis 11: 169- 171. Inside NRC. 2001. DOE Ends Contract with SAIC for EIS on Releases of Solid Materials, July 30. New York: Platts. International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). 1988. Principles for the Exemption of Radiation Sources and Practices from Regulatory Control. Safety Series No. 89. Vienna: IAEA. IAEA. 1992. Application of Exemption Principles to the Recycle and Reuse of Materials from Nuclear Facilities. Safety Practice No. 111-P- 1.1. Vienna: International Atomic Energy Agency. IAEA. 1996. Clearance Levels for Radionuclides in Solid Materials: Applications of Exemption Principles. Interim Report. Vienna: International Atomic Energy Agency. International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). 1985. Statement from 1985 Paris Meet- ing of the ICRP. British Journal of Radiology (58) 910. ICRP. 1990. Recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection. Issue No. 60, Vol. 21/1-3. Oxford, England: Pergamon Press. Jefferson, T. 1820. Letter to William Charles Jarvis, September 28. Johnston, G. 1991. An Evaluation of Radiation and Dust Hazards at a Mineral Sand Processing Plant. Health Physics 60(6):781-787. Kasperson, R., O. Renn, P. Slovic, H. Brown, J. Emel, R. Bogel, T.J. Kasperson, and S. Patrick. 1988. The Social Amplification of Risk: A Conceptual Framework. Risk Analysis 8:177-187. Konzek, G., et al. 1995. Revised Analyses of Decommissioning for the Reference Pressurized Water Reactor Power Station, NUREG/CR-5884 (November). Washington, D.C.: U.S. Nuclear Regu- latory Commission. Lubenau., J. 1998. Radioactive Materials in Recycled Metals-An Update. Health Physics 74(3):293- 299. Mariotte, M. et al. 1995. Letter to Hon. Shirley Jackson, chair, U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commis- sion, September 25, 1995. Morgan, M., and M. Henrion. 1990. Uncertainty: A Guide to Dealing with Uncertainty in Quantita- tive Risk and Policy Analysis. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press. National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP). 1987a. Ionizing Radiation Exposure of the Population in the United States. Report No. 93. Bethesda, Md.: NCRP. NCRP. 1987b. Exposure of the Population in the United States and Canada from Natural Back- ground Radiation. Report No. 94. Bethesda, Md.: NCRP. NCRP. 1987c. Recommendations on Limits for Exposure to Ionizing Radiation. Report No. 91. Bethesda, Md.: NCRP. NCRP. 1987d. Radiation Exposure of the United States Population from Consumer Products and Miscellaneous Sources, Report No. 95. Bethesda, Md: NCRP. NCRP. 1989a. Exposure of the United States Population from Diagnostic Medical Radiation, Report No. 100, 1999. Bethesda, Md: NCRP. NCRP. 1989b. Radiation Protection for Medical and Allied Health Personnel, NCRP Report No. 105, 1989. Bethesda, Md: NCRP. NCRP. 1993. Limitation of Exposure to Ionizing Radiation. Report No. 116. Bethesda, Md.: NCRP.

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178 THE DISPOSITION DILEMMA NCRP. 1998. Operational Radiation Safety Program. Report No. 127. Bethesda, Md.: NCRP. National Research Council (NRC). 1989. Improving Risk Communication. Committee on Risk Per- ception and Communication. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. NRC. 1990. Health Effects of Exposure to Low Levels of Ionizing Radiation. BEIR V. Committee on the Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiation. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. NRC. 1994. Science and Judgement in Risk Assessment. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. NRC. 1995. Technical Basis for Yucca Mountain Standards. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. NRC. 1996. Affordable Cleanup? Opportunities for Cost Reduction in the Decontamination and Decommissioning of the Nation's Uranium Enrichment Facilities. Committee on Decontami- nation and Decommissioning of Uranium Enrichment Facilities, Board on Energy and Environ- mental Systems. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. NRC. 1999. Evaluation of Guidelines for Exposures to Technologically Enhanced Naturally Occur- ring Radioactive Materials. Committee on Evaluation of EPA Guidelines for Exposure to Natu- rally Occurring Radioactive Materials, Board on Radioactive Effects Research, Commission on Life Sciences, National Research Council. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. NRC. 2001. The Impact of Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management Policy on Biomedical Re- search in the United States. Washington, D.C. National Academy Press. Natural Resources Defense Council (NRDC). 1991. Letter of November 12, 1991, from D. Reicher and T. Cochran, NRDC, to U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission commissioner Rogers. Newberry, B. 2001. Letter to Barnwell Customers from Bill Newberry, manager, Radioactive Waste Disposal Program, State Budget and Control Board, South Carolina, August 1. Omenn, G. 1997. Framework for Environmental Health Risk Management. Commission on Risk Assessment and Risk Management. Final Report. Volume 1. Washington D.C.: U.S. Govern- ment Printing Office. Pescatore, C. 2001. Management of Slightly Contaminated Materials: Status and Issues. Paper pre- sented at VALDOR Conference, Stockholm, June. Pijawka, K., and A. Mushkatel. 1992. Public Opposition to the Siting of the High-level Nuclear Waste Repository: The Importance of Trust. Policy Studies Review 10(4): 180-194. Raynor, S., and R. Cantor. 1987. How Fair Is Safe Enough: The Cultural Approach to Societal Technological Choice. Risk Analysis 7:3-9. Sanford Cohen & Associates, Inc. (SCA). 2001. Inventory of Materials with Very Low Levels of Radioactivity Potentially Clearable from Various Facilities. May 30, 2001. Prepared for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission under contract NRC-04-01-049. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Seller, F., and J. Alvarez. 1996. On the Selection of Distributions for Stochastic Variables. Risk Analysis 16(1):5-18. Sheppard, S.C., and W.G. Evenden (1997). Variation in Transfer Factors for Stochastic Models: Soil-to-Plant Transfer. Health Physics 72(5):727-733. Shlyakhter, A. L., and Valverde A., Jr. 1995. Integrated Risk Analysis of Global Climate Change. Chemosphere 30(8): 1585-1618. Smith, R. et al. 1996. Revised Analyses of Decommissioning for the Reference Boiling Water Reac- tor Power Station, NUREG/CR-6174 (July). Washington, D.C.: U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Com- mission. Till, J. E., et al. 1995. The Utah Thyroid Cohort Study: Analysis of the Dosimetry Results. Health Physics 68(4):472-483. United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE). 2001. Report on the Fourth Meeting of the Team of Specialists on Radioactive Contaminated Metal Scrap. Geneva: United Nations. United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR). 1982. Ioniz- ing Radiation: Sources and Biological Effects. The 1982 Report to the General Assembly with Annexes. New York: United Nations.

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REFERENCES 179 UNSCEAR. 1988. Sources, Effects, and Risks of Ionizing Radiation. The 1988 Report to the General Assembly with Annexes. New York: United Nations. UNSCEAR. 2000. Sources and Effects of Ionizing Radiation. Report to the General Assembly, with scientific annexes. New York: United Nations. U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USAGE). 1998. United States Army Corps of Engineers. Radioac- tive Waste Disposal: Multiple Award Contracts for the Kansas City District, Request for Pro- posal. DACW41-99-0004, December. Kansas City, Kan.: USACE. U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC). 1980. Draft Environmental Statement Concerning Proposed Exemption from Licensing Requirements for Smelted Alloys Containing Residual Technetium-99 and Low-Enriched Uranium. NUREG-0518. October 1980. Washington, D.C.: USNRC. USNRC. 1981. Control of Radioactively Contaminated Material. IE Circular 81-07. Office of In- spection and Enforcement. May 14. Washington, D.C.: USNRC. USNRC. 1983. Guidelines for Decontamination of Facilities and Equipment Prior to Release for Unrestricted Use or Termination of Byproduct, Source or Special Nuclear Materials Licenses. Document FC 83-23. Washington, D.C.: USNRC. USNRC. 1985. Surveys of Wastes Before Disposal from Nuclear Reactor Facilities. Information Notice 85-92. Washington, D.C.: USNRC. USNRC. 1991a. Public Regional Meetings on Below Regulatory Concern Policy Statement August 28-September 27, 1990. SECY-91-087. April 1. Washington, D.C.: USNRC. USNRC. l991b. Evaluation of the Feasibility of Initiating a Consensus Process to Address Issues Related to the Below Regulatory Concern Policy. SECY-91-132. May 15, 1991. Washington, D.C.: USNRC. USNRC. l991c. Standards for Protection Against Radiation. Federal Register 56:23360-23474, May 21. USNRC. l991d. Memorandum dated June 28, 1991, from Samuel J. Chilk, secretary, USNRC, to James Taylor, executive director for operations, William Parler, general counsel, and Howard Denton, director of governmental and public affairs, USNRC. USNRC. 1992. Enhanced Participatory Rulemaking Process. SECY-92-045. February 7. Washing- ton, D.C.: USNRC. USNRC. 1994. Draft Proposed Rule on Decommissioning. SECY 94-150. May 31. Washington, D.C.: USNRC. USNRC. 1995. Probabilistic Accident Consequence Uncertainty Analysis: Dispersion and Deposi- tion Uncertainty Assessment. Washington, Brussels: U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission and Commission of European Communities. USNRC. 1997. Minimum Detectable Concentrations with Typical Radiation Survey Instruments for Various Contaminants and Field Conditions. Draft NUREG-1507. Washington, D.C.: USNRC. USNRC. 1998a. Regulatory Options for Setting Standards on Clearance of Materials and Equipment Having Residual Radioactivity. SECY-98-028, June 30. Washington, D.C.: USNRC. USNRC. 1998b. Radiological Assessments for Clearance of Equipment and Materials from Nuclear Facilities. Draft NUREG-1640. Washington, D.C.: USNRC. USNRC. 1999a. Release of Solid Materials at Licensed Facilities: Issues Paper, Scoping Process for Environmental Issues, and Notice of Public Meetings. Federal Register 64: 35090-35100, June 30. USNRC. l999b. Letter from the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to the Honorable John Dingell, Committee on Commerce, U.S. House of Representatives. December 20. USNRC. l999c. Rulemaking Process in Response to the Staff Requirements Memorandum for SECY 98-028, Regulatory Options for Setting Standards on Clearance of Materials and Equipment Having Residual Radioactivity, January 27. Washington, D.C.: USNRC. USNRC. 2000a. Control of Solid Materials: Results of Public Meetings, Status of Technical Analy- ses, and Recommendations for Proceeding. Policy Issue Information SECY-00-0070, March 23. Washington, D.C.: USNRC.

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180 THE DISPOSITION DILEMMA USNRC. 2000b. Report on Waste Burial Charges. NUREG-1307, Revision 9, September. Washing- ton, D.C.: USNRC. USNRC. 2000c. Meeting with Stakeholders on Efforts Regarding Release of Solid Material: Pro- ceedings. Transcript of May 9, meeting. USNRC. 2000d. Summary and Categorization of Public Comments on the Control of Solid Materi- als. NUREG/CR-6682. Report Prepared by ICE Consulting, Inc. September 2000. Washington, D.C.: USNRC. USNRC. 2001a. Partial Response to SRM COMEXM-00-0002, Expansion of NRC Statutory Au- thority over Medical Use of Naturally Occurring and Accelerator-Produced Radioactive Mate- rial (NARM). Policy Issue Information SECY-01-0057 (March 29). Washington, D.C.: U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. USNRC. 2001b. Letter from Ashok Thadani, director, Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research, U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, to Martin Offutt, program officer, National Research Coun- cil, written responses to the committee, April 16. Wolbarst, A.B., et al. 1999. Sites in the United States Contaminated with Radioactivity. Zuckerbrod, N. 2001. DOE Drops Nuclear Scrap Consultant (July 26). The Associated Press.