Van Cleve, K., F. S. Chapin III, C. T. Dyrness, and L. A. Viereck. 1991. Element cycling in taiga forests: state-factor control. BioScience 41:78–88.

Vannote, R. L., G. W. Minshall, K. W. Cummins, J. R. Sedell, and C. E. Cushing. 1980. The river continuum concept. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 37:130–137.

Vervier, P. 1990. Hydrochemical characterization of the water dynamics of a karst system. Journal of Hydrology 121:103–117.

Vervier, P., M. Dobson, and G. Pinay. 1993. Role of interaction zone between surface and ground waters in DOC transport and processing: considerations for river restoration. Freshwater Biology 29:275–284.

Vervier, P., J. Gibert, P. Marmonier, and M.-L. Dole-Olivier. 1992. A perspective on the permeability of the surface freshwater–groundwater ecotone. Journal of the North American Benthological Society 11:93–102.

Vogt, R. C. 1981. Natural history of amphibians and reptiles in Wisconsin. Milwaukee, WI: The Milwaukee Public Museum. 205 pp.

Voss, E. G. 1972. Michigan flora, Part I, gymnosperms and monocots. Cranbrook Institute of Science Bulletin 55 and University of Michigan Herbarium.

Voss, E. G. 1996. Michigan Flora, Part III, Dicots (Pyrolaceae-Compositae). Cranbrook Institute of Science Bulletin 61 and University of Michigan Herbarium.


Wake, D. B. 1991. Declining amphibian populations. Science 253.

Walker, L. R., J. C. Zasada, and F. S. Chapin, III. 1986. The role of life history processes in primary succession on an Alaskan floodplain. Ecology 67:1243–1253.

Wang, L., Lyons, J., Kanehl, P, Gatti, R. 1997. Influences of watershed land use on habitat quality and biotic integrity in Wisconsin streams. Fisheries 22:6–12.

Ward, J. R., K. Tockner, and F. Schiemer. 1999. Biodiversity of floodplain river ecosystems: ecotones and connectivity. Regulated Rivers: Research and Management 15:125–139.

Ward, J. V. 1998. A running water perspective of ecotones, boundaries and connectivity. Verh. Internat. Verein. Limnol. 26:1165–1168.

Ward, J. V., K. Tockner, P. J. Edwards, J. Kollmann, A. M. Gurnell, G. E. Petts, G. Bretschko, and B. Rossaro. 2000. Potential role of island dynamics in river ecosystems. Verh. Internat. Verein. Limnol. 27.

Ware, G. H., and W. T. Penfound. 1949. The vegetation of the lower levels of the floodplain of the south Canadian River in Central Oklahoma. Ecology 30:478–484.

Warren, P. L., and C. R. Schwalbe. 1985. Herpetofauna in riparian habitats along the Colorado River in Grand Canyon. Pp. 347–354 In: Riparian ecosystems and their management: reconciling conflicting uses. USDA Forest Service Gen. Tech. Bull. RM-120.

Wells, J. R., and P. W. Thompson. 1974. Vegetation and flora of Keweenaw County, Michigan. The Michigan Botanist 13:107–151.

Wesche, T. A., C. M. Goertler, and C. B. Frye. 1987. Contribution of riparian vegetation to trout cover in small streams. North American Journal of Fisheries Management 7:151–153.

Wetzel, R. G. 1999. Plants and water in and adjacent to lakes. In: Eco-hydrology: plants and water in terrestrial and aquatic environments. A. J. Baird and R. L. Wilby (eds.). London: Routledge.

Wetzel, R. G., and M. Søndergaard. 1998. Role of submersed macrophytes for the microbial community and dynamics of dissolved organic carbon in aquatic ecosystems. Pp. 133–148 In: Role of submersed macrophytes in structuring the biological community and biogeochemical dynamics in shallow lakes. Dordrecht, Netherlands: Kluwer Publishers.

Wetzel, R. G. 2001. Limnology: lake and river ecosystems. San Diego, CA: Academic Press.

Wharton, C. H., Kitchens, W. M., and Sipe, T. W. 1982. The ecology of bottomland hardwood swamps of the southeast: a community profile. FWS/OBS-81/37. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. 133 pp.

Whitmore, R. C. 1975. Habitat ordination of passerine birds of the Virgin River Valley, southwestern Utah. Wils. Bull. 87:65–74.



The National Academies | 500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement