a change in institutional perspectives, and most likely a change in laws. Like recovery of the natural system, it will take time for education and outreach programs to generate broad-based public and political support. Thus, while initiating efforts to restore riparian areas is an urgent need, patience and persistence in meeting long-term restoration goals are required.

Although many riparian areas can be restored and managed to provide many of their natural functions, they are not immune to the effects of poor management in adjacent uplands. Because the subject of this report is riparian areas, it might seem that restoration activities need only focus on those areas. Indeed, in many situations this is all that may be needed to achieve certain restoration goals. However, where upslope management practices significantly alter the magnitude and timing of overland flow, the production of sediment, and the quality of water arriving at a downslope riparian area, then simply focusing on the riparian system may be inadequate for achieving restoration goals. In such situations, upslope practices that are contributing to riparian degradation must be addressed in order for long-term success to be achieved. Restoration of riparian areas should be approached with full recognition of the larger physical structure of which it is a part; that is, riparian area management must be a component of good watershed management.


Acharya, G. 2000. Approaches to valuing the hidden hydrological services of wetland ecosystems. Ecological Economics 35:63–74.

Adams, P. W. 1983. Soil compaction on woodland properties. Oregon State University Extension Circular 1109. Corvallis, OR: Oregon State University. 5 pp.

Adamus, P. R. 1983. A method for wetland functional assessment, volume II. FHWA Assessment Method. Rep No. FHWA-IP-82-24. Washington DC: Federal Highway Administration, U.S. Department of Transportation. 134 pp.

Adler, R. W. 1995. Addressing barriers to watershed protection. Environmental Law 25(4):973–1106.

Ainslie, W. B., R. D. Smith, B. A. Pruitt, T. H. Roberts, E. J. Sparks, L. West, G. L. Godshalk, and M. V. Miller. 2000. A regional guidebook for assessing the functions of low gradient, riverine wetlands in Western Kentucky. Technical Report Number WRP-DE-17. Vicksburg, MS: U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Waterways Experiment Station.

Anderson, S. 1993 (updated 1994). Threats to amphibians: grazing and wildlife: a selected literature review. Internet source: http://ice.ucdavis.edu/Toads/grzaway.html

Andreas, B. K., and Lichvar. 1995. A floristic assessment system for northern Ohio. Wetlands Research Program Technical Report WRP-DE-8. Vicksburg, MS: U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Waterways Experiment Station.

Andrews, E. D. 1986. Downstream effects of Flaming Gorge Reservoir on the Green River, Colorado and Utah. Geological Society of America Bulletin 97:1012–1023.

Aronson J., and E. LeFloc’h. 1996. Vital landscape attributes: missing tools for restoration ecology. Restoration Ecology 4:377–387.

Arora, K., S. K. Mickelson, J. L. Baker, D. P. Tierney and C. J. Peters. 1996. Herbicide retention by vegetative buffer strips from runoff under natural rainfall. Trans. ASAE 39:2155–2162.

The National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine
500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001

Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement