Cover Image

PAPERBACK
$169.50



View/Hide Left Panel
Click for next page ( 660


The National Academies | 500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement



Below are the first 10 and last 10 pages of uncorrected machine-read text (when available) of this chapter, followed by the top 30 algorithmically extracted key phrases from the chapter as a whole.
Intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text on the opening pages of each chapter. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

Do not use for reproduction, copying, pasting, or reading; exclusively for search engines.

OCR for page 659
Index A Acetaldehyde adduct formation, 591, 597 animal studies, 584, 588 atmospheric concentrations, 144, 580-581 atmospheric lifetime, 107 carcinogenicity, 584, 588 in exhaust, concentrations, 581 formation, 120, 121 health effects, 583 indoor concentrations, 150 photolysis rate, 107 rate constant for gas-phase chemical removal reactions, 106 respiratory tract disposition, 585 seasonal patterns, 145 sources, 580 Acetic acid, atmospheric reactions, 121 Acetone atmospheric lifetime, 107, 119 dosimetry modeling, 376 photolysis rate, 107, 119 pulmonary absorption of, 358-359 rate constant for gas-phase chemical removal reactions, 106 Acetyl radicals, atmospheric formation, 120 Acetylene atmospheric lifetime, 107 pulmonary gas uptake measurements with, 358 rate constant for gas-phase chemical removal reactions, 106 Acid deposition aerosol role in, 125 atmospheric processes leading to, 109, 110, 125 emission control program for, 80-81, 192 hydrogen peroxide role in, 103 source-receptor relationships, 91 vehicular emission contribution to, 80, 102 Acrolein adduct formation, 592, 597 atmospheric chemical reactions, 120 atmospheric concentration, 580 atmospheric lifetime, 107 carcinogenicity, 584-585, 590 conditioned responses to exposure to, 644 diesel-engine exhaust levels, 581 health effects, 302, 582-584 inflammatory response to, 583-584 irritant effects, 584-585 metabolism of, 590 neurotoxicity, 634, 645 rate constant for gas-phase chemical removal reactions, 106 sources, 580-581 Acylperoxy radicals, atmospheric reactions, 119 Aerosols atmospheric deposition, 176-177 carbonaceous component, 180, 189 coagulation, 20, 179 concentration trends, 142-143 constituents, 139-143, 153, 179-180, 189 definition, 251 diurnal behavior, 142 dynamics, 179-181 emissions inventory, 180-181 formation, 20, 169, 179-181, 185 growth, 179, 181 heterogeneous reactions with gases, 181 by g ro s co pi c , 25 2 , 280 indoor constituents and concentrations, 150, 151 metal component, 141-142 modeling, 165, 169, 176, 179-181, 185, 192 monodisperse, 252, 254, 257 nitrite component, 142, 180 polydisperse, 252, 254, 257, 261, 270 size distribution, 179-180, 251-252 sources, 20, 142, 188-189 sulfate component, 142, 180 tracer studies, 255 659

OCR for page 659
660 Index Air pollution, atmospheric abatement and control expenditures in U.S., 162 alerts, 4 components, 100-101 concentrations, 134-146; see also Concentra- tions of pollutants, atmospheric disasters, 4, 177 exposure to, see Exposure to pollutants sources, 40, 147-148 in urban areas, 93, 100 Air pollution, indoor concentrations, 146-151; see also Concentra- tions of pollutants, indoor constituents, 194 in motor vehicles, 149 nitrous acid formation, 105, 111 relationship to outdoor pollution, 19, 193-195 Air quality control program planning, 173, 178, 181, 184, 187-189, 191, 195-196, 232 standards, see National Ambient Air Qual- ity Standards Air quality models/modeling aerosol dynamics in, 169, 179-181, 196 analytical/deterministic, 163, 165, 169-173, 174, 195 applications of, 165, 173-174, 181, 184, 187-192, 194-196 approaches for different processes, 174-181, 194 box, 164, 172, 173 Caltech Airshed Model, 183, 185-186 carbon bond mechanisms in, 177, 178 categories of, 163-164, 167-174 chemical mass balance, 168-169, 188-189, 194-195 chemical mechanisms in, 177-179, 185-186 conservation-of-mass principles in, 170, 172, 185, 189 data requirements for evaluating, 182-184 decay factor in, 169, 172, 184 deposition parameters, 171, 175-177, 185 development, 162-165, 181, 191-192 dispersion, 188 Empirical Kinetic Modeling Approach, 185 empirical/statistical, 163, 165, 167-169, 174 Environmental Lagrangian Simulation of Transport and Atmospheric Reactions, 183, 185, 190 Eulerian, 164, 172, 173, 185 evaluation of, 181-187 factor analysis, 169, 188 fog chemistry, 177 Gaussian plume, 82, 83-87, 90, 164, 171-172, 182, 184-185, 189 gradient diffusion hypothesis in, 174 grid, 172-175, 182, 184, 185, 193 historical perspective, 165 hybrid analytical and receptor, 168, 169 indoor/outdoor pollutant relationships, 193-195 inputs, 163-164, 172, 182-183, 185, 186, 195 K-theory in, 170, 174-175 Lagrangian, 164, 170-173, 185 large-scale processes, 165, 192-193 limitations, 168, 186, 188, 193, 194 Livermore Regional Air Quality model, 183, 185, 186 lumped mechanisms in, 177, 178, 186 marked-particle, 164, 170 measurements of pollutants compared to, 182, 193-196 meteorological parameters in, 172, 183 microscopic, 168, 169 mixing processes in, 170-171, 175, 193 multiple source treatment in, 172, 184 multivariate, 168, 169, 195 needs, 165, 166 nonreactive pollutants, 167, 186, 187, 189, 194-196 output, 163-164 ozone-precursor relationship, 165 particle-in-cell, 170, 185, 189 performance measures, 182-183 photochemical airshed, 111, 152, 164, 165, 167, 173, 184, 185, 190-193 point-source emissions in, 193 population exposure calculations from, 187 reactive pollutants in, 167, 172-173, 186, 189, 194 receptor, 164, 165, 167-169, 188-189, 194-195 removal processes, 175-177 rollback, 164, 165, 167-168 SAI Urban Airshed Model, 183, 185-187, 190, 193 sensitivity/uncertainty analyses, 184-187 small-scale processes, 86, 174-175, 193-195 source apportionment in, 163, 168, 169, 174-175, 178, 181, 184, 189-192, 194-195, 230 source fingerprint, 168, 169, 194 source/receptor, 168, 188-189, 194, 195

OCR for page 659
Index 661 of street canyons, 174-175, 193 surrogate mechanisms in, 177-178 temporal and spatial resolution, 171, 173- 174 testing approaches, 182 tracer technique, 168-169 trajectory, 88, 91, 170-173, 185, 190-191 transport of pollutants, 78, 80, 82-91, 163-164, 170-172, 174-175, 185-186, 189, 191, 194 turbulent transport and diffusion, 174-175 uncertainties in, 182, 184, 186 unregulated pollutants in, 166 urban air basins, 174, 193 urban intersection concentrations, 86 validation, 182 wind treatment in, 80, 82, 84, 86, 88, 170- 171, 184 Airways airflow patterns, 248-249, 474-475 cellular structure, 371-372, 442-443 C-fibers, 470, 471, 476, 477 chemical reactions in, 333-334 clearance rates for particles, 283 conducting, see Tracheobronchial tree defense mechanisms, 264-266, 275-276, 278-279, 281, 443, 502-503, 507-508, 511-513 diffusion barriers, 336-337, 339 models of, 244, 261, 327-329, 342-344, 346-352, 358, 369, 376, 380 multicomponent diffusion effects, 333 particle deposition patterns in, 260 pathologic conditions, see Asthma; Asth- matics; Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; Emphysema; Pulmonary fibrosis; Small airways disease reactivity, 324, 374, 375, 377, 418, 467-470, 472, 478-483 respiratory zone, see Pulmonary region upper, see Upper respiratory tract see also Respiratory tract Alcohols aliphatic, 121 atmospheric chemical reactions, 121, 146 atmospheric concentrations, 146, 150, 580- 582 cocarcinogenic effects, 588-589 indoor concentrations, 150 performance impairment by, 646 physiological reactivity, 594 sources, 58, 146, 150, 581-582 see also Butanol; Ethanol; Methanol Aldehydes adduct formation, 591-593 aliphatic, 118-119 aromatic, 118-119, 122 atmospheric chemical reactions, 103-104, 115, 117, 118-119, 120, 122 atmospheric concentrations, 144-145, 153, 582 carcinogenicity, 584-586, 588-589 effects on cultured cells, 586-587 in exhaust, concentrations, 581 formation, 117, 121, 122, 144, 580 free-radical formation, 593-594, 597 health effects, 144, 582-584 indoor concentrations, 150 metabolism, 591-594 photolysis of, 103-104, 118-119 sources, 144, 150 cz,,B unsaturated, 120, 586, 591-592, 596 see also Acetaldehyde; Formaldehyde Alkanes, atmospheric chemistry, 114-116, 178 Alkenes, atmospheric concentrations and reactivity, 116-118, 137 Alkoxy radical reactions, atmospheric, 114 115 Alkyl nitrates, atmospheric reactions, 115, 126 Alkyl peroxy radical formation, 178 Alkyl radicals, formation, 178 Alveolar macrophages in asthmatics, 273 carcinogenic role, 524 cell culture studies, 278, 279, 422-424, 426, 487 characteristics, 264-265 defense role, 442, 443, 502, 512, 524 dissolution of metal particles by, 278 as dosimeters, 487 fibroblast interaction, 417, 419, 421-423, 426 impairment of, 278, 279, 312-313, 315, 502 mediators, 33, 266, 417, 419, 421-423, 444, 512 metabolism of particle-associated carcino gens, 300, 305, 311-312 morphometric analyses of, 423 oxidant gas effects on, 273, 423, 507-508, 513 particle clearance by, 264-266, 271, 273, 275-276, 278, 281, 283, 300, 303 response to diesel-engine exhaust exposure, 312-313, 454-455 response to fibrotic insult, 417, 419-424, 452

OCR for page 659
662 Index Alveoli cellular structure, 245, 443; see also Alveolar m a cro p hag es characteristics, 244, 328-329 species differences in, 246, 253 see also Pulmonary region Amines aliphatic, 112 aromatic, 307 indoor concentrations, 150 metabolism of, 307 reactions in chemical removal processes, 112-113 sympathomimetic, 636 Aminoanthracene, 303 4-Aminobiphenyl, biological marker of expo- sure to, 225 Aminopyrene, metabolism of, 307-308 Ammonia analytical methods for characterizing, 63 atmospheric lifetime, 107 neurobehavioral effects, 642 pulmonary reactivity, 374 rate constants for gas-phase chemical re- moval reactions, 106 sources, 166 Ammonium nitrate aerosol concentrations, modeling, 186 Analytical methodologies/techniques for atmospheric reactions, 125 for exhaust, 63, 189 for exposure assessment, 211-218 for measurement of pollutants, 63-64, 69, 125 see also Air quality models/modeling Anatomic models airway geometry, 244, 261, 350 Bohr airway, 342-344, 358 of laboratory animals, 378-379 lower airways, 349-352 respiratory zone, 329 structural, 244, 353 tracheobronchial tree, 244, 327-328, 349, 353 upper airway, 346-349 use in dosimetry modeling, 368-369, 376-378 of vascular structure, 337 Weibel model A, 244, 327-329, 336, 346, 349-350, 369, 376, 380 Animal studies/models of aldehyde exposure, 583-585 of asthma, 482, 485-487 of atherosclerosis, 609-615, 617-619 bioassays, 531-533, 546, 570-572 of carbon monoxide effects, 618-619 of carcinogenicity, 520-522, 525, 527, 531 539, 540-544, 558-560, 570-572, 584 chronic studies, 273, 276-277, 282, 429-430, 432, 453-454 collagen cross-linking, 426 of diesel-engine exhaust, 275-277, 454-455, 540-546 of DNA adduct formation from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, 569-570 dose-to-target measurements in, 22 of emphysema, 273, 444-445, 448-449, 454-455 extrapolation to humans, 25, 32, 253, 254, 260, 262, 283, 324, 352, 363, 368, 535-539, 547, 585 of gas adsorption dynamics, 354-358 irritant gas inhalation, 273 lung injury response, 417, 420-421, 425-427 mathematical model validation with, 354-358 metal emissions exposure, 278-280 of methanol exposure, 587 of neurotoxicity, 634, 636 of nitrogen dioxide-induced disease, 449-454, 506-507, 513 of nitro-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, 562-563 of ozone exposure, 351-352, 356, 418, 427-433, 474, 506, 513 of particle clearance from respiratory tract, 273, 279-282, 302-303 particle deposition analysis, 254-259, 261, 262 of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, 558-562 of pulmonary fibrosis, 426-429 range in species responses, 427 of respiratory clearance mechanisms during disease states, 273 of respiratory infections, 506-508, 510 risk assessment, 534-535 scaling procedures for, 23, 248, 262 of small airways disease, 449 strain differences, 527, 535, 538, 541, 561 sulfur dioxide exposure, 357 sulfuric acid effects on respiratory tract clearance, 281-282 Animals, laboratory airflow patterns in airways of, 249

OCR for page 659
Index 663 anatomical measurements related to breath ing in, 325 anatomical models, 378 birds, 427, 612-613, 617-620 bronchial tree models, 244 cats, 454 dogs, 242-244, 255-258, 262, 281, 325, 356-357, 428, 449-450, 453-454, 470-471, 475, 476, 478-479, 484, 486, 614 donkeys, 282 guinea pigs, 241-242, 244, 255-258, 262, 276, 281-282, 352, 421, 427, 431, 471, 478-479, 482-484, 583 hamsters, 241-244, 255-258, 262, 273, 277, 421-423, 431, 451, 454-455, 507-508, 521, 527, 540-543, 558-560, 562-563, 569-571, 584, 588 horses, 449-451 mice, 242, 256-257, 262, 276-277, 282, 325, 420, 421, 427, 430-431, 448, 451, 506-507, 521, 525, 527, 532, 535, 537, 540-544, 558-561, 570, 584, 590 molecular diffusion coefficients in tissues of, 373 ozone dose distributions in, 352 pigs, 612, 614 primates (nonhuman), 241-242, 325, 351, 422, 426-429, 433, 451, 474, 482, 506, 508, 587, 589, 609-611, 613, 615, 617, 619, 634, 647 rabbits, 241-244, 262, 278-279, 282, 325, 352, 357, 427, 450-451, 486, 508, 559, 612, 614, 619 rats, 241-244, 255-259, 262, 273, 276-278, 282, 302, 310, 313, 325, 378-379, Atherosclerosis 417-418, 420-421, 423, 425, 427-433, 450-452, 454, 521, 527, 532, 540-543, 559-562, 567, 583, 588-589 respiratory tract structural differences, 241-245, 248, 249, 255, 258, 281, 324-325, 369, 447 scaling procedures for, 23, 248, 262 sedation of, 25, 479 sheep, 277, 282, 471, 480, 484, 486 see also Species differences Anthanthrene, 559-560, 571 Anthracene, 106, 107, 124, 559 Asbestos, 224, 305, 422, 524 Asthma animal models, 485-487 automotive emissions and, 466-491, 583 cell culture studies, 487 . . chemical mediators, 477-478 clinical spectrum, 467-468 controlled exposure studies of, 470-473 definition, 466 demography, 466-467 extrinsic and intrinsic, 467-469, 473 formaldehyde induction of, 583 human studies, 471-472, 485 nitrogen dioxide aggravation of, 472 nons pacific bronchial hyperreactivity with, 466-470, 478-479, 483 ozone aggravation of, 471-472, 478-485 pathogenesis, 33, 468-470 pathophysiology, 473-481 prevalence, 466-467 progression to chronic destructive pulmo- nary disease, 403 reactions to allergens, 469 risk correlates, 399, 467, 503 specific airways reactivity, 479-480 Asthmatics , . airflow resistance in, 474-475 airway size assessment in, 474 bronchoconstriction in, 395, 466, 470-472, 474-477 epidemiological studies of, 395, 396-399, 403, 405-407, 473 epithelial permeability of, 481-485 ion transport in, 484 macrophage function in, 273 mucociliary clearance in, 273, 484-485 mucous production and secretion in, 476, 483-484 sensitivity to pollutant gases, 326, 466, 471-473 age and, 609-610 animal studies/models for, 609-615, 617-619 carbon monoxide and, 606, 612-613, 617-619 carcinogenic effects on plaques, 619-620 cigarette smoking and, 606, 612-617 clonal character of plaques, 619-620 dietary cholesterol, 610-611 epidemiologic studies, 610-612; 616-618 gender and, 610 genetic susceptibility, 610-611 macrophage role in, 607-609 mesenchymal susceptibility to, 611 monoclonal theory of, 607-608 natural history, 606 pathogenesis, 606-609

OCR for page 659
664 plaque complications, 609 plasma lipoproteins, 613, 616-617 platelets and platelet function, 616 psychosocial influences, 611-612, 620 risk factors, 609-612 smooth muscle cell proliferation in, 607-609, 619-620 Atkinson, Roger, 99-132 Atmospheric transport and dispersion of pol lutants accretion of particles, 101 aerosols, 179 aqueous-phase reactions, 102-103, 109, 111, 113-114, 125, 126 from area sources, 81 chemical removal processes, 78, 102-105, 109-126; see also Photolysis Cross Appalachian Tracer Experiment, 91 definition of, 78-82 diurnal variation in, 104-105, 110-113, 118-119, 124, 126, 176 dry deposition, 78, 81, 90, 92, 93, 101-102, 108-110, 170-171, 175-177 eddy diffusivity component, 79, 83-84, 170, 171-172 elevation of source and, 82 gaseous, 82-84 Gaussian line-source models, 82, 83-87, 90, 164, 171-172 hydrodynamic models, 80, 88-91 from line sources, 79, 81-84 meteorological parameters, 78-81, 86, 90-91, 93, 102 mixing factors in, 81, 83, 89, 91, 93, 170-171, 175 modeling, 23, 78, 80, 82-87, 90, 93, 170; see also Air quality models/modeling monitoring networks, 90 near-field, 79, 81-88 numerical simulations, 83 open-highway, 82-85 in parking structures, 85-88, 93 particles, 85, 101, 125, 126; see also Particu late emissions/pollutants physical removal processes, 78, 81, 90, 92, 93, 101-102, 108-110, 126, 170-171, 175-177 plume rise, 84, 85, 164, 166, 171-172 from point sources, 81 rainout, 102 regional scale, 79, 80-81, 89-93, 100, 185 resistance factors, 101, 176 Index scales of motion in, 78, 81-82 simulation modeling of, 78, 80, 82-86, 93 in street canyons, 85-88, 93, 138, 174-175 theories of, 82-92 tracer gas studies, 82, 84, 85, 87, 88, 91, 93 trajectory analysis, 88, 91, 170-173 turbulence components, 78-79, 82-86, 91, 93, 166, 170, 171, 174-175 urban-scale, 81, 88-89, 93 vehicle wake contribution, 79-80, 82-85, 87, 93 wet deposition, 102, 108-110, 123, 177; see also Acid deposition wind flow components and measurements, 80, 82, 84, 86, 88-93, 171, 175 wind tunnel experiments, 84, 87, 163 see also Concentrations of pollutants Automobiles/light-duty vehicles durability testing, 46 emission control approaches, 40-41, 46- 49 emission standards, 44-45 engine characteristics, 50-52 evaporative emissions, 55-56 fuel economy standards, 46 measurement of emissions from, 61-64 methanol-fueled, 57-58 pollutant emission rates, 44, 65 tampering with emission control devices in, 50-52 vehicle weight, 43 see also Vehicles; Vehicles, heavy-duty Automotive emissions acid deposition from, 81-82 ambient levels, 580-582 asthma and, 465-491 as atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease risk factors, 606-622 atmospheric lifetimes, 105-109 atmospheric transformations of, 20, 100-128 atmospheric transport and dispersion of pollutants associated with, 78-94, 166 biological disposition of, 239-287, 300- 317 carcinogenesis mechanisms relevant to as- sessment of, 520-530 chemical and physical properties, 20-22 contribution to pollution loading, 19-20, 93, 100 driving cycle and, 43

OCR for page 659
Index 665 lung disease relationship to, 449-454 Benzene mixing process, 81, 89 models, 52-54 monocyclic aromatic compounds, 122-123; see also Amines; Cresols; Hydrocarbon emissions; Phenols neurobehavioral effects, 632-653 nitrites, 113 organic peroxides, 114; see also Hydrogen peroxide oxides of carbon, see Carbon monoxide oxides of nitrogen, see Nitrogen oxides oxyacids, 113 oxygen-containing organics, 118-123; see also Alcohols; Aldehydes; Carbonyls; Carboxylic acids; Esters; Ethers; Ketones passenger car, 41, 43 photolysis of, 103, 109 rate constants for gas-phase reactions of, 105-106 reaction with stationary-source pollutants, 166 reduced nitrogen compounds, 112-113; see also Amines; Ammonia; Hydrogen cya nide; Nitriles reduced sulfur compounds, 113-114 respiratory infections, 500-515 respiratory tract disposition of, 275-281 sources, 43, 82, 166 standards, compared to, 41 sulfur oxides; see Sulfur oxides synergistic interactions, 100, 102 tampering with emission control devices and, 52 test procedures, 42, 43, 45-46 transport and dispersion of, see Atmospheric transport and dispersion of pollutants trends, 41, 43 whole, see Complex mixtures see also Alkanes; Alkenes; Emission control systems/technology; Emission standards B Bates, Richard R., 17-36 Behavior coronary-prone, 611-612 see also Neurobehavioral effects Benzaldehyde, 64, 106, 107, 119, 581 Benz~ajanthracene, 108, 124, 558-559, 566 atmospheric chemical reactions, 123 atmospheric concentration by regime, 137 atmospheric lifetime, 107 emission trends, 56 formation, 122 methyl-substituted, 123 mutagenic activity from, 225 rate constant for gas-phase chemical removal reactions, 106 Benzocarbazole, 305 Benzofluoranthenes, 558-559, 566, 568, 570-572 Benzofluorenes, 559 Benzoperylenes, 145, 305, 559, 562, 571 Benzotciphenanthrene, 566 Benzo~aipyrene animal bioassays, 559 atherosclerotic lesions from, 613, 620 biological marker of exposure to, 225 carcinogenicity, 305, 530, 558-562, 570 cellular uptake from hydrophobic donors, 614 cocarcinogens, 565, 588 DNA adduct formation, 310, 564, 565-566, 568 dose/response relationships, 560-561, 568 emission levels, 66 measurement of, 61-63 metabolic activation of, 307-311, 315, 530, 564-566 modifiers of carcinogenesis, 571 mutagenic activity, 540, 541 pulmonary clearance, 302-305, 310, 564 source contributions, 301-302 urban concentrations, 145 Benzo~e~pyrene, 313, 560, 562, 565 Biacetyl, atmospheric formation, 123 Bond, James A., 299-322 Bresnitz, Eddy A., 389-413 Bromberg, Philip A., 465-498 Bromine, 167, 169 Bronchiectasis, 273, 468, 502 Bronchiolitis, 466 Bronchitis, chronic, 258, 273, 393, 403, 405-407, 446, 468, 509 Buses, see Vehicles, heavy-duty Butadiyne, 106, 107 Butane, 54-55, 68, 106, 107 Butanol, 150, 581 2-Butanone, 106, 107, 120 1-Butene, atmospheric, 106, 107 tra,Zs-2-Butene, atmospheric, 106, 107, 118

OCR for page 659
666 Index C Cadmium, 273, 278-280 Calcium sulfate, 108 California diurnal patterns in pollutant concentrations, 104, 140 emission standards, 40, 42-46, 48-49, 53 Pasadena aerosol constituents, 140 see also Los Angeles Cancer background level, 527 incidence, 300, 528, 531 see also Carcinogens/carcinogenesis Carbon dioxide concentration trends, 151-154 global effect of, 135, 151-152 indoor concentrations, 147, 154 standards, 147 Carbon, elemental atmospheric concentrations, 139, 154 indoor concentrations, 151 measurement, 183 sources, 139, 151 in urban aerosols, 139, 154 see also Soot Carbon monoxide air/fuel ratios and, 40 animal models, 618-619 atherosclerosis, effects on, 606, 612-613, 617-619 atmospheric chemical reactions, 118, 152 atmospheric concentrations, 80, 135-136. 152-155, 167, 580 atmospheric lifetime, 114 biological tests for exposure to, 225 chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, ef- fect on, 345 correlation of outdoor measurements with individual exposure, 219-220 cumulative mileage correlated with, 52 determinants of concentrations, 165 emissions compared to standards, 41, 43 epidemiologic studies, 617-618 exposure estimation, 220-221, 229 global significance, 152 hemoglobin affinity, 306, 324, 342, 343, 358 indoor concentrations, 147, 154-155, 216 meteorological effects on concentrations of, 80 from misfueling, 50, 51 modeling, 170, 185, 189, 342 National Ambient Air Quality Standard, 135, 221, 500 neurobehavioral effects, 641, 644-646 personal monitoring of exposure to, 212-213, 219-221 pulmonary transport and uptake, 339-340, 342-345, 355, 358-359 rates by model years, 44-45, 65 reduction of, 4, 40 solubility, 343 sources, 19-20, 100, 135, 147, 152, 166, 167, 220-221, 223-224, 580 standards, 42, 44-47, 135, 221 surface resistance, 176 tampering with control devices and, 52 transfer coefficient in conducting airways, 338-340 in urban areas, 154-155, 175 vehicle contribution, 19-20 in vehicles, 154 Carbon, organic emission trends, 138, 140 temporal patterns, 140-141 urban aerosol concentrations, 139-141, 154 volatile compounds, 138 Carbonyls, 120-121 Carboxylic acids, atmospheric reactions, 121 Carcinogens/carcinogenesis aldehydes, 584-586 animal models of, 520-522, 525, 527, 531-539, 540-544, 558-560, 570-572 atypical, 524-525, 546 cell culture studies, 521, 526-527, 533-534, 540-541, 564 development processes, 33, 526-528, 546 diesel-engine exhaust, 305, 539-546 dinitrates, 166 DNA damage by, 520, 522-524, 534, 546 DNA replication and repair as mechanisms of, 520, 522, 528, 532, 546, 564 dose/response relationship, 520, 537-539, 560-561, 584-585, 595-596 enhancers, 33, 520, 525-527, 541, 546, 561-562, 571 epidemiologic evaluation, 529-531, 539, 543-544 etiologic agents, 305, 522, 523 evidence of, 532-533, 547, 556, 559 genetic effects of, 522-524 human exposure, detection of, 225, 569, 588; see also DNA adducts; Dosimeters indirect, 302, 306-307 inhalation studies, 300, 570-571, 584-585

OCR for page 659
Index 667 inhibitors, 561-562, 565, 571, 587 mechanisms relevant to assessment of ve hicular emissions, 520-530, 571-572 metabolic activation of, 33, 306-312, 520, 525, 530, 547, 563-568 metals, 525 of mixtures, 545-546 modifiers of, 302, 306-307, 525-527, 561-562, 571-572 nitroarenes, 166 nitro-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, 166, 181, 562-563, 570-572 nitrosamines, 530 nitroxyperoxyalkyl nitrates, 166 organ culture studies, 520-521 particle-associated, 306-308 plaque formation, role of, 619-620 plasma lipoproteins as carriers of, 613 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, 300, 556-562, 570-572 promoters, 33, 520, 525-526, 533, 537, 542, 546, 547, 558 proto-oncogenes, 523 proximate, 564 risk assessment, 529-530, 534-539 short-term tests, 533-534 susceptibility to, 33, 520, 521, 527-530, 535 toxicity and, 525, 526, 531-533, 541, 546 ultimate, 564, 566-567 xenotransplant studies, 521 Catalysts/catalytic converters dual, 47 for methanol-fueled vehicles, 58 oxidation, 40, 41, 47-48, 49, 57 oxygen sensors in, 47-48 for spark-ignition gasoline engines, 47-48 tampering with, 41, 43, 50-53 three-way, 47, 51, 56, 57, 69 trap oxidizer, 49 Catechols carcinogenicity, 561-562, 565, 595 health effects, 587-588 physiological reactivity, 594-595 Cell culture studies of acrolein toxicity, 590 of aldehydes, 586-587 applications, 25-26 of asthma, 487, 488 of benzotaipyrene metabolism, 310, 565 of carcinogenesis, 310, 521, 526-527, 533-534, 540-541, 564 of collagen synthesis, 424, 426 extrapolation between inhalation studies and, 587 mutagen activation in smooth muscle cells, 620 of oxidant exposure, 420, 487, 507 of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, 613-614 of pulmonary disease pathogenesis, 457 of toxicology mechanisms, 596 Chromium, disposition of inhaled particles, 278, 280 Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease bronchial hyperreactivity and, 403 carbon monoxide uptake in presence of, 345 epidemiological study, 394, 404-405 ozone effect on, 471 particle clearance, effect on, 273 particle deposition in populations with, 267 pathogenesis, 474 respiratory infection and, 503 reversibility, 468 risk factors for, 395, 403 tests for, 402, 403 Chrysene carcinogenicity, 558-560, 566 urban concentrations, 145 Cigarette smoke/smoking airway permeability effects of, 482-483 aldehydes in, 586 atherosclerosis and, 606, 612-617 bronchial hyperreactivity from, 483 carcinogenicity, 543, 544, 556-557, 561, 588 chronic bronchitis and, 468 components comparable to vehicular emis sion components, 301, 586 emphysema and, 443, 444-445, 448, 468, 594 genotoxicity, 544 irritant effects of, 476, 483 mucociliary system, effects on, 273 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon constitu ents, 557 respiratory tract particle deposition from, 258 scaling to automotive emissions, 443, 542, 544 small airways disease and, 446, 449 tests of mutagenic activity of, 540 Clarkson, Thomas B., 605-629 Clean Air Act Amendments of 1970 and 1977, 3, 5, 42, 46, 432

OCR for page 659
668 Index Clinical studies, see Human subject studies (ex- perimental) rat . ocarclnogens action of, 525-526 alcohols, 588-589 with benzolalpyrene, 565, 571, 588 in complex mixtures, 541, 546 in diesel-engine exhaust, 541 free radicals, 595 phenols, 588-589 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, 561-562. 571 Collagen/elastin cross-linking, 426 in emphysema, production and destruction, 23, 426-427, 445, 448-449 in pulmonary fibrosis, production and de- struction, 23, 417, 424-425, 429, 433 subtypes, 443 synthesis in cell cultures, 424, 426 Complex mixtures animal studies of, 541-543, 639-642 behavioral effects, 639-642 carcinogenicity of, 538, 539-546, 638 diesel-engine exhaust, 539-546 epidemiological studies, 543 evaluating, 638-649 eye irritation from, 638-639 multidisciplinary studies, 453 mutagenic activity of, 540-541 neurobehavioral effects, 639-642 photochemical by-products, 638-644 risk assessment for, 543-546 solvent syndrome from, 646-647 tests of activity of, 540-541 Concentrations of pollutants, atmospheric from continuous line source, 82 definition, 208 determinants, 22, 78, 79-80, 92-93, 134, 137, 139, 163-165 finite-difference model for calculating, 84 gaseous species, 153-155 meteorological determinants of, 22, 78, 79-80, 139 mixing height and, 89 models of, 84, 86; see also Air quality mod- els/modeling monitoring, 134, 139 from moving vehicles, 92 overprediction of, 82, 84 in parking structures, 78, 81 particle constituents, 139-143, 300 particulate species, 153-155 personal exposure correlated with, 219 223 photochemical products, 143-146 after precipitation, 102 prediction, see Air quality models/modeling respirable particles, 214-216, 220 spatial patterns, 134-139 in street canyons, 78, 80, 81 temporal change expressed mathematically, 78-79 temporal patterns, 134-142, 145 trace constituents, 134-147, 153-154 in traffic queues, 78, 81 trends, 153 unregulated emittants, 143-146 in urban areas, 79-80, 136, 153-155 see also Atmospheric transport and disper sion of pollutants; and specific gases Concentrations of pollutants, indoor determinants, 148 gaseous species, 153-155 major emittants and products, 149-151 monitoring, 149 in motor vehicles, 149, 153 -155, 216 particulate species, 153-155 principal trace gases, 147-149, 153-154 respirable particles, 214, 216 Coronary heart disease, pathogenesis, 609 Coronene, 559 Coumarin, urban concentrations, 146 Cresols, 581 Crigee biradicals, 113, 118, 375 Cross Appalachian Tracer Experiment, 91 Crotonaldehyde adduct formation, 592 atmospheric chemical reactions, 120 atmospheric lifetime, 107 from diesel-engine exhaust, 581 health effects, 583 rate constant for gas-phase chemical removal reactions, 106 Cyanogen, 63 Cyclohexene, 118 Cyclopentatcdipyrene, 558-559, 566, 571 Cystic fibrosis, 273, 502, 509 D Dahl, Alan R., 299-322 Decane, 562 Deposition, atmospheric aerosol, 176

OCR for page 659
Index 669 dry processes, 22, 78, 81, 90, 92, 93, 101-102, 108-110, 170-171, 175-177 modeling, 171, 175-177, 185 velocities, 101, 108, 125 wet processes, 102, 108-110, 123, 177 see also Acid deposition; and specific com- pounds Deposition, respiratory tract age-related factors in, 259 airflow patterns relevant to, 248-249, 257 anatomical determinants, 252-253, 255 breathing mode and, 253, 255-256, 258, 261 by Brownian diffusion, 250-251, 253, 260, 262 in cigarette smokers, 258 determinants, 251-253, 258-259 disease states and, 258-259, 267-268 by electrostatic precipitation, 250, 251 experimental assessment of, 254-258, 283 gender differences in, 259 hygroscopicity and, 255, 261 by impaction, 250, 253, 255, 257-261, 443 by interception, 250, 251 localized patterns of, 259-260 mathematical modeling, 260-262, 275 measurement of, 253-258 mechanisms, 230-251, 302 particle characteristics affecting, 250-252, 256, 443 probability, 252 radioactive tracer studies, 253, 255, 258, 267-269, 281 by sedimentation, 250-251, 253, 262, 443 species variation in, 255, 283 Dibenzanthracene, 305, 547, 566 Dibenzoic,gicarbazole, 303 Dibenzopyrenes, 566 1,2-Dibromoethane, 106, 107, 116 c~-Dicarbonyls, atmospheric formation, 120-121, 123 1,2-Dichloroethane, 106, 107, 116 Dichlorostilbene, 562 Diesel engines control technology, 46-47, 48-50, 69 emission standards, 46, 59 in-use characteristics, 52-53 passenger cars, 48-49, 52 trucks, 52-53, 56 Diesel-engine exhaust carcinogenicity of, 305, 539-546, 562 cardiovascular disease and, 618 constituents, 122, 541, 562, 581 disposition of inhaled particles, 275-276, 283-284, 302 epidemiological studies, 547 mutagenicity, 540-541, 547, 562 noncarcinogenic effects, 275-276, 312-315, 454-455, 542-543 odor, 58, 69 particle-associated organic compounds, 301, 541 pollutant emissions in, 57, 59, 63, 65-68, 301 quantitative assessment of cancer risk of, 543-547 short-term tests of, 540-541 see also Complex mixtures Diesel fuel additives, 49, 61, 62, 648 alkane component, 115-116 alkene component, 116 hydrocarbon constituents, 122 properties, trends in, 59 usage trends, 56, 57 Diethyl ether, atmospheric reactions, 121 Dihaloethanes, 116 Dimethylamino radical, 112 Dimethylbenz~ajanthracene, 311-312, 561, 572, 620 Dimethyl ether, 106, 107, 121 2-Dimethylnaphthalene, 106, 107 Dimethylphenanthrenes, 558 Dinitrates, 117 Dinitrogen pentoxide, atmospheric deposition, 110, 111 formation of, 104, 110, 179 lifetime, 107 nitro-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon for- mation from, 109, 124 photolysis, 124 Dinitropyrenes, 562, 563, 568, 571-572 Dioxane, 146, 151 Dispersion of pollutants, see Atmospheric transport and dispersion of pollutants DNA carcinogen damage to, 520, 522-524, 534, 540, 546, 593 formaldehyde damage to, 374, 586 repair mechanisms, 520-522, 528, 529, 532, 534, 546, 564, 586 role in initiation of carcinogenicity, 520, 522, 528, 532, 564, 572 tests to detect damage, 534, 539-541, 591, 592 see also Genotoxicity; Mutagens

OCR for page 659
682 Index hydroxyl radical formation, role in, 103 indoor concentrations, 148, 154, 155 meteorological effects on, 80 mixing ratios, 103 monitoring and quantification methods, 428 mucosal damage from, 506 mucous layer penetration, 324, 335-336, 350-352, 357, 377, 380 mucous production and secretion, 483-484 National Ambient Air Quality Standard, 134, 500 neurobehavioral effects, 639-644 nitrogen oxide relationship to, 81, 110, 144, 165, 166, 177-179, 189-190 nonspecific bronchial hyperreactivity from exposure to, 478-479 oxidative properties, see Free radicals, mechanisms of toxicity photolysis of, 103, 124-125 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon reaction with, 124-125 pulmonary function, effects on, 273, 393, 416, 470, 471-472, 476-477, 486 pulmonary response to, 416-430, 466, 470-471, 476-477, 482-483, 487, 507-508, 510 pulmonary tissue damage from, 370, 473, 506 pulmonary uptake of, 339, 342, 350-351, 354-357, 376, 470 rate constants for automotive emission re action with, 106, 375 reduction strategies, 191 respiratory infection and, 506, 509, 510 respiratory tract reactivity, 324, 374, 375, 377, 418, 479-482 risk assessment, 431-433 rural concentrations, 80 smog chemistry, role in, 144, 177 sources of exposure, 148, 224, 466 standard, 134, 144 synergy in respiratory tract, 430-431, 433, 452, 471, 472, 480 transfer coefficient in conducting airways, 338-340 urban concentrations, 80, 81, 93, 155 p Particle size atmospheric lifetime as a function of, 108-109 chemical composition differences by, 143, 150, 179 diameter, definitions of, 250, 251-252 distributions, 60, 179 dry deposition velocities by, 101, 108, 176 hygroscopicity and, 252, 255 macrophage viability and, 278-279 respiratory clearance rates and, 270, 271, 276 respiratory tract deposition and, 250, 256-257 washout ratios by, 108 Particles, inhaled atmospheric concentrations, 143, 155 bioavailability of associated organic com pounds, 304-306 carcinogenesis of, 69, 305-312 characteristics, 251-252, 304 definition, 143 deposition, 250-263, 283, 315 disposition of, 239-287, 300-317 dosimetry, 253 fate of associated organic compounds, 300-301, 302-304 immune system response to, 312-315 measurement of deposition, 253-258 metabolism of, 22, 300, 306-312, 315 respiratory tract clearance, 22, 264-273, 275-276, 278-281, 283, 300, 302, 304, 315, 564 retention in respiratory tract, 263-274, 283, 315 significance, 300-301 solubility of adsorbed compound, 283, 300, 306 translocation mechanisms, 312-313 Particulate emissions / pollutants adsorption/desorption processes, 101-102, 124-125 alkanes, 115 analysis of, 67, 125 artifacts of sampling, 62, 125 atmospheric lifetimes, 108-109, 125 characteristics, 301-302 chemical loss processes, 109 concentrations, 139-143, 154-155 control technology, 48-50, 60-61 deposition processes, 101, 108, 113, 125, 176, 230-262 diesel, 48-50, 52, 60, 63, 65-68, 275- 276 elemental carbon, 139, 154, 167 inspirable fraction, 255

OCR for page 659
Index 683 measurement, 142-143 metal-associated, 141-142, 154, 155, 167 from methanol-fueled vehicles, 58 modeling of, 170, 185 mutagenic activity, 67, 69, 302 nitrate, 142, 154, 155 nitroarenes in, 68 nitro-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon components, 124, 154 nitropyrenes in, 67-68 nonpolar fractions, 66 organic carbon, 139-140, 154 personal monitoring of exposure to, 212-213 physical removal processes, 101-102, 108-109 polar fraction, 66-67 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in, 66-68, 124-125, 154 reactive atmospheric species associated with, 105 respirable, see Respirable particles solubility of adsorbed compound, 69, 283, 300 source contributions, 88, 100, 151, 166, 168, 188, 224, 300-302 standards, 44-45, 46, 48, 50, 53, 69, 181, 500 sulfate, 154, 155 sulfuric acid, 113 total suspended, 20, 140, 142-143, 153-155. 169, 500; see also Aerosols transport and dispersion, 85, 101-102, 108 washout ratios, 108 see also Particles, inhaled Pennington, James E., 499-518 Pentane, 68 Peroxyacetyl nitrate atmospheric lifetime, 119 formation, 119, 120, 146, 166, 167, 185 health effects, 119, 146 interference with measurement devices, 186 neurobehavioral effects, 640 prediction of concentrations, 187 urban concentrations, 146, 150, 154 Peroxybenzoyl nitrate, 119, 122 Peroxypropionyl nitrate, 119 Perylene, 559 Phagocytes, see Alveolar macrophages; Poly- morphonuclear leukocytes Phenanthrene atmospheric lifetime, 107 carcinogenicity, 559-560 concentrations, 145 exhaust, concentration in, 581 rate constant for gas-phase chemical removal reactions, 106 vapor pressure, 124 washout ratio, 108 Phenanthridone, 303 Phenols analytical methods for characterizing, 63 atmospheric chemical reactions, 123 atmospheric concentrations, 582 atmospheric lifetime, 107 biochemical reactions, 594-595 formation, 119, 122-123 health effects, 587-588, 595 inhibition of carcinogenesis, 562 nitro-, 119, 122 procarcinogenic effects, 588-589 rate constant for gas-phase chemical removal reactions, 106 structure, 580 wet deposition of, 102, 108, 123 Photochemistry, see Photolysis Photolysis of acetaldehyde, 107 of acetone, 107, 119 of aldehydes, 103, 118-119, 145 of alkyl nitrates, 126 of automotive emissions, 103 of dinitrogen pentoxide, 124 of formaldehyde, 107 of hydrogen peroxide, 107 of ketones, 119 of methylnitrite, 107, 113 of nitrate radicals, 104, 110 of nitric acid, 124, 126 of nitrogen dioxide, 107, 110, 124, 126 of nitrosamines, 112 of nitrous acid, 103, 105, 107, 111 of ozone, 103, 124 of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, 109, 124-125 rates of automotive emissions, 107 of c2,,l3 unsaturated carbonyls, 120 Phthlates, 102 Physical modeling anatomical, 368-369 applications, 26 of atmospheric chemistry, 163 biases in, 228-230 environmental chamber studies, 124, 163, 185

OCR for page 659
684 of exposure, 226-230 of indoor air quality, 228 limitations of, 229, 354 mathematical form, 228, 229 National Exposure Model, 228, 229 of pulmonary gas transport, 353-354, 362 of respiratory tract, 352-354, 368-369 Simulation of Human Air Pollution Expo- sure, 228, 229-230 Simulation System, 228, 229-230 stepwise, 228 stochastic component, 228-230 tracer gas studies, 82, 84, 85, 87 tracheobronchial network, 353 validation of mathematical modeling by, 352-354 wind tunnel experiments, 84, 87, 163 Phytotoxicity, 119 Pneumoconiosis, 259 Pollutants atmospheric residence times, 81, 90 biological responses to, 23-24 concentration, see Concentrations of pollu- tants mobile sources, 166; see also Automotive . . emissions pathways to toxicity, 19, 21 primary, 80, 81, 167, 173 reactive, 167 secondary, 80, 81, 167, 173, 189, 193; see also Ozone source/receptor relationships, 163 stationary sources, see Stationary sources of pollutants temporal and spatial patterns, 134-139 transport and dispersion of, see Atmospheric transport and dispersion of pollutants see also specific pollutants Pollutants, criteria/regulated data adequacy, 153 exhaust emission rates, 64, 65 need to control, 6 see also specific pollutants Pollutants, unregulated atmospheric concentrations, 143-147 data adequacy, 19, 156 in exhaust, measurement of, 61-64 in exhaust, presence, 64-68 modeling, 26, 166 need to control, 6 see also specific pollutants Polychlorinated biphenyls, 102, 108, 213 Index Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons acid anhydrides, 66 adsorbed-phase reactions, 124-125 animal bioassay studies, 570-571 atherogenesis, effects on, 613 atmospheric chemical reactions, 124-125 atmospheric concentrations, 145, 154 atmospheric lifetime, 109, 124 carboxaldehydes, 66 carcinogenicity, 300, 556-562, 569, 571 572 cocarcinogenicity, 561-562 derivatives in diesel-engine exhaust particu lates, 65-68 DNA adduct formation, 568, 569 dosimetry, 568-570 hydroxy-, 67 indoor concentrations, 151, 154 inhibitors, 562 formation, 145, 151 ketones, 66 metabolism of, 307-312, 315, 561, 563 569 monitoring, 146 mutagenic potential, 21, 302, 540-541, 566 nitro-, see Nitro-polycyclic aromatic hydro carbons occupational exposures, 557 personal monitoring of exposure to, 213 photolysis, 109, 124-125 quinones, 67, 595, 596 pulmonary clearance, 563-564 respiratory tract disposition, 302-305, 310, 563-564 sources, 124, 145, 302, 556-557 structure/activity relationships, 558, 571 tumorigenicity in laboratory animals, 558-561 vapor pressures, 124, 145, 151 see also Benzotaipyrene; and other specific compounds Polycyclic organic matter, 145 Polymorphonuclear leukocytes asbestos effect on recruitment of, 421, 422 in asthmatics, recruitment of, 469, 473, 474, 477, 481 bacterial defense, importance in, 502 chemoattractants for, 421-422, 424-425, 444, 512 in cigarette smokers, 444, 446 diesel-engine exhaust, response to, 312-313 in emphysema, role of, 419, 452 in free-radical generation, role of, 419-420

OCR for page 659
Index 685 as lung damage indicators, 429 macrophage recruitment of, 421-422, 512 nitrogen dioxide exposure, response to, 452 nonspecific bronchial hyperreactivity and, 478-479 ozone exposure, response to, 419-420, 473, 478-479, 481 source, 442 see also Inflammation/inflammatory response Populations, see Sensitive populations Procarcinogens activities of, 526-527 animal experiments, 525, 527, 533, 561 chemical metabolism of, 306-307 classes of, 307 definition, 558 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons as, 557, 588 Propane, 68, 106, 107 Propanol, 581 Propene, 106, 107, 117 Propyne, 106, 107 Proteinase/antiproteinase, 444, 448, 452, 453, 593 Pulmonary fibrosis alveolar macrophages, 419, 421-424 animals models of, 426-428, 433 biological markers of, 428-429 chronic experiments, 416 collagen production, 417, 424-427, 429, 433 description of, 425-427 development rate, 426 edema, 417-418, 428, 433 epidemiological studies, 416-417 epithelial cell proliferation, 419, 420-421 fibroblasts, 424-425 inflammatory cell response, 23, 414-420, 433 ravage analysis, 23, 428-429 morphology studies, 428, 429-430 ozone relationship to, 416-436 progression of injury after cessation of expo- sure, 430 risk assessment, 431-432 susceptible populations, 432-433 synergistic interactions in, 430-431, 433 testing for, 416 Pulmonary function tests, 25, 248, 343-345, 358-359, 394, 402-403, 416, 446, 450-451, 453, 454, 474 Pulmonary region absorption efficiency for metal particles in, 277 absorption of gases, 329-331, 339, 341-345, 347, 349, 352, 358, 359; see also Gases, inhaled clearance mechanisms, 264-266, 283 clearance rates and times, 270-271, 303 damage from reactive gases, 370 deposition efficiencies, 253, 256, 258-259 diesel-engine exhaust particles, 275-277 distal airway model, 329 dosimetry models, 376-377 liquid lining, 370-371, 376-377, 379-380 metabolism of particle-associated carcino- gens, 310-311 particle deposition in, 252 species differences in, 245 structure, 244-246, 325, 328-329 ventilatory parameters in, 246 see also Alveoli Pyrene carcinogenicity, 302, 559, 562, 565, 571 urban concentrations, 145 vapor pressure, 124 washout ratio, 108 Pyridine, urban concentrations, 146 Q Quinoline, urban concentrations, 146 Quinones, 67, 310, 595, 596 R Radon, 213, 216, 224 Regulation, see Emission regulation Research recommendations acetaldehyde, 122, 127, 583, 597, 599 acid deposition, 109 acrolein, 583, 584-585, 597-599 aerosol processes, 28, 143, 176, 181, 198 air quality modeling, 29, 169, 175, 177, 179, 181, 187, 193, 194, 196-199 alcohols, 147, 157, 582, 598 aldehydes, 31, 122, 127, 146, 156, 582, 586, 588, 596, 597-599 alkanes, 116, 127 alternative fuels, 122, 127 alveolar macrophages, 274, 312, 317, 487, 491, 512, 514

OCR for page 659
686 Index analytical techniques and instrumentation, 28-29, 126, 128, 139, 156-157 anatomical models, 32, 379, 383 animal studies/models, 263, 274, 281, 284, <86, 452, 457-458, 459-460, 477, 511, 514, 570, 573, 619, 622, 643, 647, 652 asthma, 31, 34, 480-481, 489-490 atherogenesis, 607-610, 618-619, 621 622 atmospheric chemical reactions, 105, 112, 116, 125-127, 143, 156, 175, 179 atmospheric transport and dispersion of pollutants, 85, 87-89, 92, 93-94, 193, 199 attributable risk for disease, 409 bioavailability of adsorbed materials, 281, 286 biochemical properties of respiratory tract, 336, 361-362 biological monitoring of exposure and dis ease, 28-29, 34, 223-226, 232-233, 443, 451-452, 570, 573, 588, 598 bioreactivity of inhaled toxic gases, 381, 383 carbon monoxide, 646, 652 carbonyls, 122, 127 carboxylic acids, 122, 127 carcinogenic effects, 31, 526, 530, 533, 537, 545-550, 571-573, 584-585, 588, 598 catechols, 582, 598 cell culture studies, 487, 491, 586, 599 cellular inflammatory response, 422, 425, 434-435, 442, 444, 458 chronic diseases, 31, 34, 455-457, 458-460, 480, 489-490 coexposures, 281, 283, 285, 287 coronary heart disease, 32 cross-disciplinary collaboration, 196 cross-species calibration, 285 Resorption of particle-associated compounds, 306, 311, 316 diesel-engine exhaust, 28, 30, 53, 59, 61, 69-72, 281, 286, 454, 460, 545, 547 549 dinitrogen pentoxide, 112, 126-127 DNA adducts, 568, 570, 573, 597, 599 dose dependency, 452, 459 dosimetry modeling, 29-30, 376, 382, 383, 539, 549 dry deposition of pollutants, 92, 94, 105, 108, 127, 177, 198-199 emission control, 52-53, 58, 64, 69, 71, 72 environmental chamber studies, 480 epidemiological studies, 34, 217, 400-402, 405, 407, 408, 410-411, 509, 514, 618, 621 ethanol, 122, 127 evaporative emissions, 54, 60, 71, 72 exposure assessment, 28-30, 32, 85, 92-94, 151, 157, 217-219, 223-224, 231-233, 410-411 extrapolation modeling, 30, 32, 34, 263, 284-285, 358, 363 fog chemistry, 179, 199 formaldehyde, 28, 58-59, 69, 71, 122, 127, 146, 156, 583, 585, 597-599 fuel additives, 60, 61, 71 gas-to-particle conversion processes, 105, 127 heterocyclic organic compounds, 147, 157 human studies, 34, 459, 460 hydrocarbons, 58, 61, 70, 123, 127, 139, 156-157 hydrochloric acid, 147, 157 hydroxyl radical, 30, 116, 123, 127 hygroscopicity of particles, 263, 287 immune system response to particle-associ ated organics, 313-314, 317 incomplete combustion products, 122, 127 indoor air quality, 29, 32, 151, 157, 194, 198 inhaled-particle toxicity, 303, 306, 315 316 ketones, 122, 127 manganese, 649, 653 measurement of emissions, 58-59, 64, 69-72 metabolism of particle-associated organics, 311, 314, 316-317 metal species in diesel-engine exhaust, 61 methanol emissions, 69, 122, 127, 587, 598, 647-648, 652-653 methanol-fueled vehicles, 58 models/modeling, 54, 71, 85, 92, 94, 169, 175, 177, 193-194, 198-199, 231-233, 263, 287, 352, 362 model validation, 29, 187, 197-198 monitoring equipment, 30, 146, 149, 156-157, 223-224, 232-233 mucous characterization, 274, 287 neurotoxicity, 32, 635-636, 639, 643-644, 646-653 nitrate radicals, 112, 126-127 nitric acid, 147, 157

OCR for page 659
Index 687 nitroaromatics, 69 nitrogen oxides, 28, 112, 126-127 nitro-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, 28, 31, 7O, 71, 125, 127, 147, 157, 568, 572-573 nitrous acid, 69-7O, 72, 112, 126-127 oxidant exposure/respiratory morbidity re lationship, 40O, 403, 41O, 444, 458 ozone, 430-432, 435-436, 471, 477, 485, 490 particle deposition in and clearance from respiratory tract, SO, 32, 262-263, 273-275, 281, 284, 286-287, 303, 316, 314 particulate emissions, 53, 61, 69-71, 105, 116, 127, 143, 156 pathobiology of emission-related diseases, 445, 448-449, 452, 457-460 peroxyacetyl nitrate, 147, 157 phenols, 582, 598 physical modeling, 85, 88, 93-94, 284 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, 28, 31, 34, 7O, 72, 125, 127, 311, 316-317, 568-573 pulmonary airflow dynamics, 249-250, 263, 286-287, 352, 362 pulmonary defense mechanisms, 51 1, 514 pulmonary disease pathogenesis, 32-34, 448-449, 452, 455-457, 458-460 pulmonary fibrosis, 425, 426, 429, 435 pulmonary function, 249, 274, 282, 284, 286, 361, 363, 402-403, 410 pulmonary uptake of gas-phase pollutants, 32, 340, 352, 362-363, 471, 487, 490 respiratory infection, 31, 34, 509, 511-512, 514 respiratory tract morphometry, 30, 32, 246, 284-287, 380, 383, 430 response to injury, 31, 418, 420-422, 425-426, 434-435 sensitive populations, 32, 33, 218, 246, 263, 281-282, 284, 286, 432, 436, 509, 514, 530, 550 sensory impairment, 635, 651 street canyon concentrations, 85, 87, 94, 175, 199 synergistic interactions, 431, 435, 452 toxicity modifiers, 281, 286 toxicity role in carcinogenesis, 533, 550 tracer gas studies, 87-89, 92, 94, 418, 434, 487 unregulated pollutants, 28-30, 69, 146-147, 157 wet deposition of pollutants, 105, 127 wind measurements, 89, 92-94 wind tunnel simulations, 85, 94 Respirable particles correlation of outdoor measurements with individual exposure, 219-221 definition, 143 indirect assessment of exposure to, 214 indoor concentrations, 155, 223 measurement with personal monitors, 212-213 microenvironments contributing to, 216 personal monitoring studies, 230 sources, 224 urban concentrations, 155 Respiratory distress syndrome, 420, 425, 426 Respiratory epithelium aldehyde action on, 585 in asthmatics, 468, 470, 481-485 cell types, 371, 420-421, 442-443 functions, 481 ion transport, 470, 484 liquid lining, 32, 369-371, 373; see also Mucociliary system; Mucus mucociliary transport, 484-485 mucosal binding affinity, 512-513 mucous production and secretion, 470, 483-484 nasal epithelium as a model of, 469, 485 oxidant damage to, 33, 370, 418-419, 420-421, 468, 473, 478, 481-485, 507-508 permeability, 33, 418, 470, 482-483 Respiratory infections age factor in, 500, 505 altered-host studies, 511 alveolar macrophage functions, 502-503, 512, 513 animal studies, 506-508, 510, 513 antiviral defense mechanisms, 511-512 automotive emissions, effect on, 500-515 bronchial hyperreactivity from, 500 bronchial mucous transport, effect on, 273 bronchitis (bacterial), 501, 502 diagnosis, 508-509 documentation and measurement of, 503-505 epidemiological study approaches, 407-408, 503-506, 507, 508-510, 513 experimental studies, 506-507, 510-513 high-risk populations, 500, 506, 509-510 human studies, 510

OCR for page 659
688 Index immunologic modulators, 511-512 infectious agents, 501-503, 505, 510 infectivity models, 510 influenza, 500 laboratory evidence of, 504-505 long-term effects, 503 lung defense mechanisms, 502-503, 513 mucosal binding affinity for pathogenic bacteria, 512-513 occurrence, 500, 501-502 personal history and physical examination, 504 pneumonia, 500-502, 505 resistance against, 507-508 risk factors, 407 seasonal pattern, 505 severity of, 505 socioeconomic and family setting influences, 506 susceptibility determinants, 500, 501, 513 synergistic effects of viral plus bacterial in- fections, 507 viral, 501, 507 Respiratory tract age-related changes in, 247-248 airflow patterns, 248-249, 325-329 airway cells, 245, 266, 371-372, 442-443; see also Alveolar macrophages carcinogenic response of, 305 chemical reactions in, 374-375, 380-382 clearance kinetics, 266-272, 303-304 clearance mechanisms, 263-266, 283, 302 defense mechanisms, 23-24, 33, 442-443, 455, 502-503, 507-508, 511-513 deposition of inhaled particles in, 22, 250-263, 302 disposition of metal emissions in, 276 280 extrapolation from animals to humans. 248 factors modifying particle clearance from, 272-273 fluid convection in, 373 gas transport fundamentals in, 331-341; see also Gases, inhaled hemodynamics, 325, 329-331 liquid lining, 369-371, 373, 376-377, 379; see also Mucociliary system; Mucus lower, see Pulmonary region; Tracheobron chial tree measurement of particle clearance from, 267-268 measurement of particle deposition in, 253-258 metabolism of particle-associated carcino gens, 309-311 models, 244, 247, 327-329, 336, 339, 346, 349, 369 retention of deposited particles, 263-273 species differences in structure, 23, 241-244, 324-325 structure, 240-246, 252-253, 324-331, 371-372, 425, 442-443 synergy of oxidant species in, 430-431, 433, 452, 471 see also Pulmonary region; Tracheobron chial tree; Upper respiratory tract Rest, Kathleen M., 389-413 Rhinitis, 273 Risk attributable, 26, 408-409 comparative, 7 components of, 19-24 Risk assessment air quality models for, 174 for alcohol and aldehyde emissions. 595-597 biological monitoring as basis for, 218 cancer, 534-539, 543-546 chemical compound information needed for, 100 for chronic diseases, 431-432 comparative potency approach, 544 dose determination for, 368 of diesel-engine exhaust, 543-546 exposure data for, 211, 232, 283 limitations of methodologies, 18, 432 research needs, 7 . . , uncertainty In, ~ Ruckelshaus, William D., 1-2 Rural areas . . . . mlcroenvlronments potentla. . y Important for exposure assessment, 215 ozone concentrations in, 80 Russell, Armistead G., 161-205 Ryan, P. Barry, 207-238 S Samson, PerryJ., 77-97 Schlesinger, Richard B., 239-298 Sensitive populations definition of, 5-6, 395, 417

OCR for page 659
Index 689 epidemiological studies of, 395-399, 405, 509-510 identification of, 24, 25, 432-433 monitoring exposure of, 214 to ozone exposure, 432-433 to respiratory infections, 500, 509 Sexton, Ken, 207-238 Sinusitis, chronic, 273 Small airways disease Soot animal models of, 449 biochemical evidence of, 451-453 cigarette smoking and, 446, 449 concept and quantitation, 446 definition, 446 morphological evidence of, 446, 451, 453 mucous hypersecretion and, 446 multidisciplinary studies, 453-454 physiological evidence of, 450-451 progression to COPD, 402 relationship of vehicular emissions to, 450-454 Smog chemistry, 140-141, 142, 144, 177 Smooth muscle cellular response associated with atheroscle- rosis, 607-609, 619-620 chemical mediation of, 476, 477-478, 486 epithelial-derived relaxing activity, 481 innervation, 475-476 modeling, 485 reactions to allergens, 469, 474 cellular response to, 314 concerns about, 139, 141 lung clearance rates, 303 Source apportionment, modeling, 163, 168, 169, 174-175, 178, 181, 184, 189-192, 193-195, 230 Species differences in alveoli, 246, 253 modeling of, 376 in nasal toxicity to formaldehyde, 376, 584-585 in respiratory tract, deposition of pollu- tants, 255, 283 in respiratory tract structure, 23, 241-245, 248, 249, 253, 255, 258, 281, 324-325, 369, 447 in responses to pollutants, 427 scaling procedures for, 23, 248, 262 in size, controlling for, 417 see also Animal studies/models; Animals, laboratory Stationary sources of pollutants ammonia, 166 asbestos, 224 benzota~pyrene, 301 butanol, 150 carbon dioxide, 147 carbon monoxide, 20, 100, 166, 224 classes of, 166 exposure assessment, importance in, 81, 166 formaldehyde, 150, 223-224 heterocyclic organic compounds, 151 hydrocarbons, 20, 148, 166 indoors, 147-148, 150, 221, 223, 399 lead, 100, 224 in Los Angeles basin, emission rates, 100 nitrates, 142 nitrogen dioxide, 221, 224, 399 nitrogen oxides, 20, 100, 135, 147-148, 193, 166 nitrosamines, 150 ozone, 148, 224 particulates, 20, 100, 151, 166, 188, 224, 301-302 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, 301, 556-557 radon, 224 reactivity with automotive emissions, 166 sulfates, 142, 224 sulfur dioxide, 148, 224 sulfur oxides, 20, 100, 166 volatile organic compounds, 20, 224 see also Source apportionment, modeling Structural models, bronchial tree, 244, 327-328 Sulfates analytical methods for characterizing, 63, 189 disposition of inhaled particles, 280-282, 281, 284 diurnal behavior, 142 formation, 113, 142, 167, 184, 189 indoor concentrations, 154, 155 monitoring of, 213 sources, 224 synergism between ozone and, 431, 480 urban aerosol concentrations, 142, 154, 155 see also Sulfuric acid Sulfides, organic, analytical methods for char- acterizing, 63 Sulfonyls, atmospheric, formation, 113

OCR for page 659
690 Sulfur dioxide atmospheric chemical reactions, 118, 139 atmospheric concentrations, 138-139, 153, 154, 155, 184, 580 atmospheric lifetime, 107 control program, 80-81 conversion to sulfate, 81, 184 dose/response data, 360-361 dosimetry modeling, 350 dry deposition velocity, 108 health effects, 302, 306, 360, 399, 466, 473 indoor concentrations, 148, 154, 155 measurement of, 63 personal monitoring of exposure to, 212-213, 399 pulmonary transport and uptake, 324, 339, 348, 353-357, 359-360, 376, 431 rate constant for gas-phase chemical removal reactions, 106 reduction strategies, 148 respiratory tract reactivity, 331-332, 374 solubility, 332-333, 350 sources, 224, 580 synergistic reactions, 431 transfer coefficient in conducting airways, 338, 340, 355-356 Sulfur hexafluoride tracer gas studies, 82, 84 Sulfur oxides animal studies of long-term exposure, 453 atmospheric transformations, 113 from diesel-engine exhaust, 63 regional-scale transport of, 89-90 sources, 20, 90, 100, 166 Sulfur, particulate, dry deposition velocities, 108 Sulfuric acid atmospheric transformation and removal, 113, 280-281 effects on respiratory tract clearance, 273, 281-282, 284 formation, 62, 113 synergism with ozone, 431, 473 Sun, James D., 299-322 T Tetrachloroethene, 108 Thiols, aliphatic, formation, 114 Tissue/organ cultures carcinogen metabolism, 309, 310, 520-521 human bronchial tissue, 487 Index measurement of biochemical properties of inhaled gases in, 362, 487 mucosal binding affinity, 513 oxidant effects on ciliary integrity, 507- 508 Toluene, 106, 107, 119, 122-123, 137, 634-635 Toxic substances, see specific substances Toxicity carcinogenesis, role in, 525, 526, 531-533, 541, 585 determinants, 21, 22, 305 mechanisms in neurobehavioral effects, 636-638 neurochemical evaluation for, 636-637 neuropathological examinations for, 637 neurophysiological examinations for, 637-638 repeated exposure experiments, 634 response mechanisms, 23-24 retention of particle-associated organics and, 305 testing guidelines, 633, 649-650 ~ ~. . . ox~co. .ogy advances in, 7 research needs and strategies, 7, 26-34 Tracheobronchial tree absorption efficiency for metal particles in, 277 airflow patterns in, 249, 258, 327-328, 349 cell types, 371 clearance mechanisms, 264, 275, 283, 302 clearance rates and times, 254, 269-270 individual variability in, 244 liquid lining, 369-370, 373 mass transfer coefficients of gas-phase pol lutants in, 340 metabolism of particle-associated carcino gens, 309-310 models, 244, 327-329, 340, 349, 353, 358 ozone depletion in, 336 particle deposition in, 252, 256, 258, 260 particle retention in, 270 pollutant gas transport and uptake, 324, 349 species differences in, 242-244, 249, 253 structure, 241-244, 249, 324-325, 327-329, 347, 369, 442 ventilatory parameters, 246-247 Weibel ordering system, 242 Transport of pollutants, see Atmospheric transport and dispersion of pollutants

OCR for page 659
Index 691 Trichloroethylene, biological markers of exposure to, 225 Tricosane, washout ratio, 108 1,2,4-Trimethylbenzene, 106, 107 Triphenylene, 559 Trucks, see Automobiles/light-duty vehicles; Vehicles, heavy-duty U Ultman, James S., 323-366 Undecane, 562 Upper respiratory tract absorption characteristics of nose and mouth, 356 absorption efficiency for metal particles in, 277 airflow patterns in, 249, 253, 325-327 cell types, 371 clearance mechanisms, 264, 302 clearance rates and times, 268-269, 303 definition, 254 deposition of particles in, 250, 255-259 functions, 347 irritants, 144 liquid lining, 369-370, 373 metabolism of particle-associated carcino gens, 309 species differences in, 241, 255 structure, 240-241, 324-327, 346, 369 Urban areas aerosol constituents in, 140, 142 aldehyde concentrations, 144-145 automotive emission contribution to air pollution in, 19-20, 93, 100 cancer incidence in, 300 concentration of pollutants in, 79-81, 86, 92, 136-137 ground-level emissions vs. point-source emissions, 92, 94 human exposure to pollutants in, 81, 92 93 microenvironments potentially important for exposure assessment, 215 nitrite aerosol concentrations in, 142 nitrous acid in, 103 nonmethane hydrocarbon concentrations in, 136 organic carbon concentrations, 140-141 ozone concentrations in, 80, 81, 93 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon concen trations, 145 street canyons, 78, 80, 81, 85-88, 93, 138, 174-175, 193 transport and dispersion of pollutants in, 81, 88-89, 93, 174 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Criteria Documents, 18 enforcement responsibilities, 4 future role of, 6-7 models, 52-53, 83-84 neurobehavioral toxicity testing guidelines, 633 Total Exposure Assessment Methodology project, 222 vehicle emission models, 53-54, 83-84 V Vanadium, disposition of inhaled particles, 280 Vehicles light-duty, see Automobiles/light-duty ve- hicles trace gas concentrations within, 149 Vehicles, heavy-duty diesel-powered, 46, 49-50, 52-53 emission control technology, 4, 40-41, 46, 49-50 emission rates, 45 emission standards, 45, 46, 53 fuel economy in, 47 gasoline-powered, 46 tampering with control devices, 53 weight, 43, 45 Ventilation anatomical measurements related to, 325 effect on dose, 253, 258-259, 261, 378-379 exposure and, 219 modes, 253 oronasal breathing, 253, 347 parameters, 23, 246-248, 253, 329-331, 379 particle sedimentation and breathing rate, 251 physical activity and, 247, 337 Vinyl chloride, 213, 225 Volatile organic compounds adsorption onto particles, 20 biological markers of exposure to, 225 correlation of outdoor measurements with individual exposure, 219-220, 221-222 diurnal variation in concentrations, 222 indoor concentrations, 222 outdoor concentrations, 222 source contributions, 20, 223-224

OCR for page 659
692 Index Total Exposure Assessment Methodology project findings, 222 W Watson, Ann Y., 11-13, 17-36 Weather, role in transport and dispersion of pollutants, 78 Wood, Ronald W., 631-657 Wright, Joanne L., 441-463 X Xenobiotics, 307, 309, 311, 592 Xylenes, 106, 107, 123, 137