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Night Vision Current Research and Future Directions \ Symposium Proceedings Working Group on Night Vision Committee on Vision Commission on Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D.C. 1987 r

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NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special come petences and with regard for appropriate balance. This report has been reviewed by a group other than the authors according to procedures approved by a Report Review Committee consisting of members of the National Academy of Sci- ences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the futherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Frank Press is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Robert M. White is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the res- ponsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Samuel O. Thier is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering commu- nities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medi- cine. Dr. Frank Press and Dr. Robert M. White are chairman and vice chairman, respectively, of the National Research Council. This work relates to Department of the Navy contract N0014-80-C-0159 issued by the Office of Naval Research under Contract Authority NR 201-204. However, the content does not necessar- ily reflect the position or the policy of the government, and no official endorsement should be inferred. The United States government has at least a royalty-free, nonexclusive, and irrevocable license throughout the world for government purposes to publish, translate, reproduce, deli- ver, perform, dispose of, and to authorize others to do, all or any portion of this work. Copies available from: Committee on Vision National Research Council 2101 Constitution Avenue, N.W. Washington, D.C. 20418 Printed in the United States of America

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WORKING GROUP ON N IGHT VI SION CHRIS A. JOHNSON (Cochai r), Department of Ophthalmology, Unive rsity of California, Davis HERSCHEL W. LE I BOWIT Z (Cocha i r ) , Depar tment of Psychology, Pennsylvani a State University RONALD E. CARR, New York University Medical Center JO ANN KINNEY, Vision consultant, Sur ry, Maine WALTER MANORS, Center for Visual Sc fence, University of Rochester ..( WILLIAM A. MONACO, Naval Hospital, Portsmouth, Virginia DONALD G. PITTS, College of Optometry, University of Houston . ~

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COMMITTEE ON VI SION ANTHONY J. ADAMS (Chair) ~ School of Optometry, University of California, Ber keley ROBERT SERULER (Past Chair), Departments of Psychology, Ophthalmology, and Neurobiology/Physiology, Northwestern University IRVING BIEDERMAN, Department of Psychology, State University of New York, Buf falo RANDOLPH BLAKE, Cresap Neuroscience Laboratory, Northwestern University RONALD E. CARR, New York University Medical Center SHELDON EBENHOLTZ, College of Optometry, State University of New York, New York ANNE B. FULTON, Department of Ophthalmology, Children' s Hospital, Boston CHRIS A. JOHNSON, Department of Ophthalmology, University of California, Davis JO ANN KINNEY, vision consultant, Surry, Maine AZRIEL ROSENFE1D, Center for Automation Research, University of Maryland PAMELA EBERT FLATTAU, Study D irector iv

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SYMPOSIUM CONTRIBUTORS l KENNETH R. ALEXANDER, Illinois Eye and Ear Infirmary IAN L. BAILEY, University of California, Berkeley HAROLD E. BEDELL, University of Houston ELIOT L. BERSON, Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary H. RICHARD BLACKWELL, (formerly) Institute for Research in Vision Ohio State University . O. MORTENSON BLACKWELL, ~ formerly) Institute for Research in Vision, Ohio State University DAVID R . COPENHAGEN, School of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco BRIDGADIER GENERAL F. DOPPELT, U.S. Air Force School of Aerospace Medicine SHELDON EBENHOLTZ, College of Optometry, State University of New York, New York GERALD A. FISHMAN, Illinois Eye and Ear Infirmary KENNETH DISH, Pennsylvania State University RALPH NORMAN HABER, University of Illinois, Chicago LEWIS O. HARVEY, JR., University of Colorado, Boulder THOMAS HECKMAN, University of California, Davis CHRIS A. JOHNSON, University of California, Davis JO ANN KINNEY, Vision consultant, Surry, Maine v

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HERSCHEL W. LEIBOWITZ, Pennsylvania State Univernity DONALD I. A. MACLEOD, University of California, San Diego WALTER MAKOUS, Center for Visual Science, University of Rochester ROBERT MASSOF, Wilmer Eye Institute, Johns Hopkins University WILLIAM A. MONACO, NaYa1 Hospital, Portsmouth, Virginia D. ALFRED OWENS, Franklin and Marshall College CYNTHIA OWSLEY, University of Alabama, Birmingham DONALD G. PITTS, University of Houston ROBERT B. POST , University of California, Davis TOM REUTER, University of Helsinki, Finland A. F. SANDERS, Instit~t for Psychologie I, Aachen, Federal Republic of Germany JAMES B. SHEEHY, Naval Air Development Center, STANLEY SMITH, Ohio State University ANDREW STOCRMAN, University of California, San Diego Warminster, Pennsylvania COLONEL THOMAS TREDICI, U.S. Air Force School of Aerospace Medicine Hi

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FOREWORD The Committee on Vision is a standing committee of the National Research Council's Commission on Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education. The committee provides analysis and advice on scientif ic issues and applied problems involving vision. I t also attempts to stimulate the further development of visual science and to provide a forum in which basic and applied scientists, engineers, and clinicians can interact . Wor k ing g roups of the committee study questions that may involve eng ineer ing and equ ipment, physiolog ical and physical opt ics, neurophysiology, psychophysics, perception, environmental effects on vision, and treatment of visual disorders. In order for the committee to perform its role effectively, it draws on experts from a wide range Of scientific, engineering, and clinical disciplines. The members of this working group were chosen for their expertise in research related to the functioning of the human eye under conditions of low illumination and for their familiarity with the application of those research findings to the selection and training of military personnel. This report reflects their evaluation of our present understand- ing of research directions in the area of night vision. The report provides an account of the visual processes involved in night vision and of the perceptual, cognitive, and human factors issues related to the performance of visually guided tasks under low-illumination condi- tions. The report addresses available screening procedures for the testing of night vision capabilities and some of the more promising directions for further development of tests in this area. The report reviews the latest instrumentation involved in night vision research and describes the elements of a comprehensive night vision laboratory. The findings and recommendations of this working group will be of particular interest to those involved in the assessment and selection of military personnel, those engaged in the design of equipment for visually guided night operations, and those whose basic research activities continue to strengthen the knowledge base in this area. Anthony J. Adams, Chair Committee on Vision vii

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CONTENTS PREFACE SUMMARY: FINDINGS AND RECOMMENDATIONS INTRODUCTION Opening R emar k s, 17 Brigadier General F. Doppelt Ambient Illuminance Dur ing Twilight and From the Moon, 19 Herschel W. Leibowitz PHOTORECEPTOR PROPERTIES Introduction, 25 Eliot L. Berson Phototransduction and Dark Noise in Rod Photoreceptors, 26 David R. Copenhagen and Tom Reuter Night Blinding Disorders: Detection and Diagnosis, 37 Gerald A. F ishman Retinitis Pigmentosa and Allied D iseases: D iagnos ~ Is r Pathogenesi s, and Management a 41 Eliot L. Berson Changes of Illumination, 57 Walter Makous General Discussion, 76 OC ULOMOT()R AND SPAT IAL ORI ENTAT I ON FACTORS Introduction, 83 Herschel W. Leibowitz 1X . ~ V111 1 15 23 Some Aspects of 81

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Normal Variations of Visual Accommodation and Binocular Vergence: Some Implications for Night Vision, 85 D. Alf red Owens Orientation and Localization Dur ing N ight Vision, 107 Robert B. Post and Thomas Heckmann Cor rect ion of N ight Myopia: The Role of Vergence Accommodation, 116 Herschel W. Leibowitz, James B. Sheehy, and Kenneth W. Gish N ight Vision in Relation to Oculomotor Function, 124 She ldon M. E benho ltz General D iscussion, 136 SPATIAL AND TEMPORAL FACTORS AFFECTING NIGHT VISION Introduction, 143 Kenneth R. Alexander . Eccentric Regard, Task, and Optical Blur as Factors Inf luenc ing Visual Acu ity at Low Luminance s, 14 6 Harold E. Bedell Contrast Sensit ivity, 162 Lewis O. Harvey, Jr. The Perception of the Layout of Space Dur ing Flight, 174 Ralph Norman Haber Recent Investigations of Glare as a Factor in Visibility at Night, 196 H . R ichard B. lackwell and O . Mortenson B lackwell Duplicity, Phase Lags, and Destructive Interference in Mesopic and Scotopic Flicker Perception, 206 Donald I.A. MacLeod and Andrew Stockrnan Mobility and Visual Performance Under Dim Illumination, 220 Ian L. Bailey General D iscussion, 231 HUMAN PERFORMANCE I SSllES Introduct ion, 2 37 Jo Ann K inney Visual Search in Vigilant Performance, 240 A.F. Sanders x 141 235

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Peripheral Visual Function at Various Adaptation Levels Chris A. Johnson, 256 Aging and N ight Vision, 275 Cynthia Owsley The Role of Vision Models in Human Factors, 288 Andrew B. Watson General D iscussion, 299 SYMPOSIUM OVERVIEW: THREE PERSPECTIVES Perspective: Walter Makous, 305 Perspective: Perspective APPENDI XES Donald G. Pitts, 313 William A. Monaco, 316 A: Testing Night Vision: The Military Experience During and Following World War II, 321 B: Symposium Program, 333 303 319

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PREFACE In response to a request from the United States A ir Force School of Aerospace Medicine (USAF/SAM), the Committee on Vision established the Working Group on Night Vision. The working group was asked to define the relevant parameters of night vision, to summarize recent innovations in basic and applied research in the area, and to specify guidelines for establishing a comprehensive night vision laboratory. To accomplish these goals, the working group convened a symposium to review what is known about night vision and about the research methods and instrumentation underlying scientific and clinical investigation in the area. Twenty-four specialists from the fields of neuroscience, psy- chology, ophthalmology, optometry, and human factors met for three days at Brooks Air Force Base in San Antonio, Texas, in October 1985. Sympo- sium participants were asked to consider three aspects of night vision research: a general overview of the subject matter in their areas of expertise, with particular emphasis on recent developments, emerging techniques, and "hot topics"; o practical implications of the subject matter for the performance of detection, recognition, localization, and other tasks under reduced illumination conditions, especially as they pertain to aviation and related areas; and implications of the subject matter for the design and imple- mentation of screening procedures to evaluate the efficacy of night vision capabilities of individuals. Four panels were formed for the symposium to address a broad range of topics--photoreceptor properties--phototransduction, retinal dis- eases, psychophysical considerations; oculomotor factors--accommodation, convergence, spatial orientation; spatial and temporal factors--contrast sensitivity, visual acuity, glare, flicker sensitivity; and miscellane- ous topics--human factors considerations, visual search, methodology, peripheral vision, aging, and computer modeling. Our purpose was to bring together experts representing different methodological approaches to present their research findings and . ~ x~

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identify and discuss major research problems. The participants were invited to summarize innovations in night vision research since World War II; to provide a historical perspective, working group member Jo Ann Kinney summarized an unpublished review of night vision research during and after World War IT written by the late Parker Johnson (see Appendix A). The symposium program was an intensive three days with ample opportunity for formal and informal group discussion (see program in Appendix B). The working group subsequently met on two occasions to review the f indings f rom this symposium and to address the concerns of USAF/SAM regarding the establishment of a night vision laboratory. The findings and recommendations of the working group, the edited papers, and edited versions of the discussions that followed the panel presen- tations are the contents of this book. In addition to the 24 specialists who participated in the night vision symposium, a number of people contributed in important ways to the success of the symposium and to this report. Wayne Shebilske, the committee's study director through June 1985, planned the symposium and Pamela Ebert Flattau, the committee's study director after July 1985, provided important assistance in organizing the effort and in preparing the report. Gora P. Lerma, the committee's administrative secretary, provided valuable secretarial and administrative assistance. Michael K. Hayes of the National Academy Press helped improve the style and clarity of the report. And finally, Estelle H. Miller of the National Academy Press and Cheryl J. Halley of the Commission on Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education lent their excellent production skills to the project in preparing the report for publication. Chris A. Johnson Herschel W. Leibowitz Cochairs, Working Group on Night Vision . XIV