Index

A

Abandoned vessels, see Submerged and abandoned vessels

ADIOS2, 111, 112

Advection, 89, 90, 98, 99, 112-113, 116

Aerosols, 85, 86

see also Volatile organic compounds

Africa, 195, 200

Aircraft fuel, 32, 46, 48-49, 51, 52, 55, 57, 59, 69, 77, 86, 88, 215-217, 254

regulatory issues, 59, 88, 219-220

Air pollution, see Aircraft fuel;

Atmospheric deposition;

Volatile organic compounds (VOC)

Alaska, 48, 52-53, 59, 121, 134-136, 137-138, 198, 199

extraction spills, 3, 34, 36, 38

Exxon Valdez,1, 11, 14, 22, 23, 75, 100, 128, 130-131, 134, 139-140, 149

natural seeps, 33, 36, 59, 70

produced waters, 71, 200, 201

transportation spills, 1, 3, 11, 14, 36, 44, 52-53, 59

American Petroleum Institute, ix, 1

Amoco Cadiz, 122, 149

Artificial islands, 125

Atlantic Ocean, 12-13, 35, 41, 45, 47, 49, 54, 70, 193-194, 196, 198

Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) maps, 26

Atmospheric deposition, 16, 22, 30, 31, 40-41, 42, 43, 44-45, 46, 48-49, 51, 55, 57, 59, 69, 71, 76-77, 78, 84-86, 87, 115, 223-231

see also Aircraft fuel;

Volatile organic compounds

aerosols, 85, 86

coastal zones, 77, 86, 223, 224, 227

committee research recommendations, 55, 61

marine mammals, impacts on, 133

models, 85, 109, 110, 223-231

polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), 32, 223

precipitation, 85

research methodology, 223-231

two- and four-stroke engines, 3-4, 22, 43, 46, 58, 65, 66, 81-82, 112, 115, 219-220

volatilization, general, 89, 113, 116, 231

B

Before-and-after and control-impact (BACI) observations, 122, 123, 156

Benthic organisms, 4, 24, 25, 33, 39

see also Sediment and sedimentation;

Shellfish

bioavailability, 31

corals, 125, 141

persistence, 31, 151-152

toxic effects, 121, 125, 148, 151-156 (passim)

Benzene, see BTEX

Bioaccumulation, 128-129

Bioavailability, 22, 28, 31, 39, 90, 102-103, 125, 128-129, 131

Biodegradation, see Microbial oxidation

Birds, see Waterfowl and marine birds

Boats, see Ships and boats

BTEX, 20, 114, 126, 127, 220

C

California, 48, 51-52, 153, 200, 201

atmospheric deposition, 48, 223, 224-225

extraction spills, 3, 34, 36, 38

natural seeps, 33, 36, 70, 191-192

transportation releases, 3, 36, 44

volatile organic compounds (VOC), 198, 199

Canada, 40-41, 47, 48

aircraft releases, 215-216

databases, 66, 75

extraction spills, 3, 34-36, 38, 40-41, 70, 193-194, 198

land-based deposition, 78, 80, 233, 234, 235-237, 238

produced waters, 71, 200, 201

transportation releases, 44-45, 75, 211-212, 213

Chemical composition of oil, 19-21, 22

Clean Air Act, 43, 66, 71, 81

Clean Water Act, 255

Climate change, 55, 120, 121

volatile organic compounds (VOC), 58-59

Coastal zones, ix, 29, 46-62(passim), 77-78, 125, 148-149, 236-242

see also Estuaries;

Waterfowl and marine birds;

Recreational vessels;

Shorelines

atmospheric depositions, 77, 86, 223, 224, 227

committee study boundary definitions, 189-190

Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) maps, 25-27

extraction spills, 2-3, 33-38, 193-194

Exxon Valdez,23, 24, 25, 75, 100, 128, 130-131, 134, 139-140, 149

International Maritime Organization (MARPOL), 78

land-based deposition, 16, 29, 66, 78, 79-80

mangroves, 62, 89, 125, 145-148

modeling of runoff, 109, 111

Persian Gulf War, 135, 136-137

pipeline spills, 39, 42, 51, 66, 73, 77, 125, 193

polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), 32, 47, 78, 79, 85, 87, 238, 239-240, 243, 244-247, 250, 251

produced water, 38, 201, 202

rural, 85, 224, 225

shoreline stranding, 22, 90, 103-104, 109, 113-114, 116

tanker spills, 14

terminal/refinery facilities, 16, 42, 44-45, 47, 51, 53, 55, 57, 59, 69, 77-78, 80, 101, 212-222, 242, 245, 246, 249

Coast Guard, 77, 221-222

transport processes, 22, 90, 103-104, 109, 113-114, 116



The National Academies | 500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement



Below are the first 10 and last 10 pages of uncorrected machine-read text (when available) of this chapter, followed by the top 30 algorithmically extracted key phrases from the chapter as a whole.
Intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text on the opening pages of each chapter. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

Do not use for reproduction, copying, pasting, or reading; exclusively for search engines.

OCR for page 259
Oil in the Sea III: Inputs, Fates, and Effects Index A Abandoned vessels, see Submerged and abandoned vessels ADIOS2, 111, 112 Advection, 89, 90, 98, 99, 112-113, 116 Aerosols, 85, 86 see also Volatile organic compounds Africa, 195, 200 Aircraft fuel, 32, 46, 48-49, 51, 52, 55, 57, 59, 69, 77, 86, 88, 215-217, 254 regulatory issues, 59, 88, 219-220 Air pollution, see Aircraft fuel; Atmospheric deposition; Volatile organic compounds (VOC) Alaska, 48, 52-53, 59, 121, 134-136, 137-138, 198, 199 extraction spills, 3, 34, 36, 38 Exxon Valdez,1, 11, 14, 22, 23, 75, 100, 128, 130-131, 134, 139-140, 149 natural seeps, 33, 36, 59, 70 produced waters, 71, 200, 201 transportation spills, 1, 3, 11, 14, 36, 44, 52-53, 59 American Petroleum Institute, ix, 1 Amoco Cadiz, 122, 149 Artificial islands, 125 Atlantic Ocean, 12-13, 35, 41, 45, 47, 49, 54, 70, 193-194, 196, 198 Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) maps, 26 Atmospheric deposition, 16, 22, 30, 31, 40-41, 42, 43, 44-45, 46, 48-49, 51, 55, 57, 59, 69, 71, 76-77, 78, 84-86, 87, 115, 223-231 see also Aircraft fuel; Volatile organic compounds aerosols, 85, 86 coastal zones, 77, 86, 223, 224, 227 committee research recommendations, 55, 61 marine mammals, impacts on, 133 models, 85, 109, 110, 223-231 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), 32, 223 precipitation, 85 research methodology, 223-231 two- and four-stroke engines, 3-4, 22, 43, 46, 58, 65, 66, 81-82, 112, 115, 219-220 volatilization, general, 89, 113, 116, 231 B Before-and-after and control-impact (BACI) observations, 122, 123, 156 Benthic organisms, 4, 24, 25, 33, 39 see also Sediment and sedimentation; Shellfish bioavailability, 31 corals, 125, 141 persistence, 31, 151-152 toxic effects, 121, 125, 148, 151-156 (passim) Benzene, see BTEX Bioaccumulation, 128-129 Bioavailability, 22, 28, 31, 39, 90, 102-103, 125, 128-129, 131 Biodegradation, see Microbial oxidation Birds, see Waterfowl and marine birds Boats, see Ships and boats BTEX, 20, 114, 126, 127, 220 C California, 48, 51-52, 153, 200, 201 atmospheric deposition, 48, 223, 224-225 extraction spills, 3, 34, 36, 38 natural seeps, 33, 36, 70, 191-192 transportation releases, 3, 36, 44 volatile organic compounds (VOC), 198, 199 Canada, 40-41, 47, 48 aircraft releases, 215-216 databases, 66, 75 extraction spills, 3, 34-36, 38, 40-41, 70, 193-194, 198 land-based deposition, 78, 80, 233, 234, 235-237, 238 produced waters, 71, 200, 201 transportation releases, 44-45, 75, 211-212, 213 Chemical composition of oil, 19-21, 22 Clean Air Act, 43, 66, 71, 81 Clean Water Act, 255 Climate change, 55, 120, 121 volatile organic compounds (VOC), 58-59 Coastal zones, ix, 29, 46-62(passim), 77-78, 125, 148-149, 236-242 see also Estuaries; Waterfowl and marine birds; Recreational vessels; Shorelines atmospheric depositions, 77, 86, 223, 224, 227 committee study boundary definitions, 189-190 Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) maps, 25-27 extraction spills, 2-3, 33-38, 193-194 Exxon Valdez,23, 24, 25, 75, 100, 128, 130-131, 134, 139-140, 149 International Maritime Organization (MARPOL), 78 land-based deposition, 16, 29, 66, 78, 79-80 mangroves, 62, 89, 125, 145-148 modeling of runoff, 109, 111 Persian Gulf War, 135, 136-137 pipeline spills, 39, 42, 51, 66, 73, 77, 125, 193 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), 32, 47, 78, 79, 85, 87, 238, 239-240, 243, 244-247, 250, 251 produced water, 38, 201, 202 rural, 85, 224, 225 shoreline stranding, 22, 90, 103-104, 109, 113-114, 116 tanker spills, 14 terminal/refinery facilities, 16, 42, 44-45, 47, 51, 53, 55, 57, 59, 69, 77-78, 80, 101, 212-222, 242, 245, 246, 249 Coast Guard, 77, 221-222 transport processes, 22, 90, 103-104, 109, 113-114, 116

OCR for page 259
Oil in the Sea III: Inputs, Fates, and Effects volatile organic compounds (VOC), 4, 59, 77 urban areas, atmospheric deposition, 85, 224-225 runoff, 16, 29, 31, 46, 53, 55, 56, 62, 66, 67, 78-79, 80, 86-87, 157, 235-242, 247-249 see also Rivers vegetation, 26-27, 125, 142, 143 mangroves, 62, 89, 125, 145-148 wetlands, 62, 89, 124, 125, 143-148 Coast Guard, ix, 1, 3, 4, 55, 58, 59, 61, 65, 75, 87, 117, 142, 194, 213 coastal facility spills, 77, 221-222 Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) maps, 25-27 operational discharges, 84, 88 pipeline spills, 193 volatile organic compounds (VOC), 4, 59 Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act, 139 natural resource damage assessments, 23, 111-112, 139 Computer technology see also Databases Internet, 24, 66, 193 models, 89, 90, 110-112, 138-139 Consumption, 1, 3-4, 7, 8, 28, 31, 32, 43, 46-47, 58, 65, 69, 86 see also Energy supply/demand; Recreational vessels; Urban areas databases, 67 maps of inputs, 36-37, 48-50 river runoff, 31, 47, 51, 55, 56, 77, 78-79, 80, 87, 101, 124, 153, 224, 233-236, 238-247, 249-251 Corals, 125, 141 Cost factors, 1 Exxon Valdez spill, 14, 23 litigation and liability, 23, 255-257 natural resource damage assessments, 23 CRUCOSA program, 76, 77 D Databases, 1, 28, 61, 66-67, 193, 233-236, 238 see also Internet Environmental Research Consulting Database, 75, 78, 82, 212-213 non-tank vessels, 82 pipelines, 73 tanker spills, 75, 213-214 Deepwater Port Act, 255 Demand for energy, see Energy supply/demand Denmark, 72, 200 see also North Sea Department of Commerce, 62 see also National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Department of Energy, ix, 202 Department of the Interior, 62 see also Geological Survey; Minerals Management Service Developing countries, 38 Diesel fuel, 77, 83, 130, 254 Dispersion, 89, 90, 99-100, 112-113 see also Transport processes, spills oil spills, 38-39, 98 produced water, 38, 151 toxicity and, 134, 151 Dissolution, 21, 89, 90, 93-94, 108, 112, 114, 115-116, 117, 127 see also Oxidation Distillates, see Light distillates; Heavy distillates Dose factors, 22 E Economic factors see also Cost factors; Energy supply/demand; Foreign trade; Funding foreign trade, 7, 8, 10, 66, 70, 78 historical perspectives, 1, 23, 121 litigation and liability, 23, 255-257 Electric power, oil demand, 7, 8 Emulsification, 89, 90, 92-93, 112, 113-114 Energy Information Agency, 209 Energy supply/demand, 65 see also Consumption US, 1, 3-4, 7-8 world, 1, 4, 7, 8-11, 16 Entrainment, 89, 90, 93, 100, 117 Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), ix, 1, 3, 4, 61, 62, 117 land-based disposition, 79 STORET database, 233-236, 238, 240 non-point source releases, 55 produced waters, 199, 202 recreational vessels, two- and four-stroke engines, 4, 58, 66, 81, 82, 88, 219 toxic effects, 156, 157 volatile organic compounds (VOC), 4, 197 Environmental Research Consulting Database, 75, 78, 82, 212-213 Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) maps, 25-27 EPA, see Environmental Protection Agency ESI, see Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) maps Estuaries, ix, 39, 46, 101 pipelines, 73 toxicity, 124, 131-132, 151-152, 155 wetlands, 62, 89, 124, 125, 143-148 Ethyl benzene, see BTEX Evaporation, 59, 86, 89, 90, 114, 115, 126, 216 EVOS Trustees, 23 Exports of oil, see Foreign trade Extraction spills, see Oil wells/platforms; Produced waters Exxon Valdez,1, 11, 14, 22, 23, 75, 100, 128, 130-131, 134, 139-140, 149 F Federal Aviation Administration, 59, 88 Federal government, general, 3, 4, 53, 55, 58-59, 61, 63, 87, 88, 117, 156 see also Funding; Legislation; Regulatory issues; specific departments and agencies Fires, coastal facility spills, 77 Fish and fisheries, 4, 14, 120, 122, 125, 130-131 see also Marine biota; Marine mammals; Shellfish Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) maps, 25-27 reproductive/developmental effects, 123-131 (passim), 133, 134-135, 137, 138, 142, 153-154, 155-156 Foreign countries, see Developing countries; International perspectives Foreign trade, 7, 8, 10, 66, 70, 78 France, 122 Funding committee study at hand, ix,x, 1, 53 ground and abandoned vessels, salvage, 67 Oil Spill Liability Trust Fund, 259 G Galeta tank spill, 142 Gasoline, 22, 32, 58, 113-114, 247-248 BTEX, 127 coastal facilities, 77 two- and four-stroke engines, 3-4, 22, 43, 46, 58, 65, 66, 81-82, 88, 112, 115, 219-220 Geographic factors, general, 1-4(passim), 25-53 (passim), 66, 89 see also International perspectives; Maps and mapping; Urban areas; specific countries, states, and water bodies databases, 66 definitions of regional boundaries, 189 Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) maps, 25-27 rural areas, 85, 224, 225 worldwide releases, total, 2, 3, 12-13, 16, 28, 29, 38, 42, 46, 192, 194-196 Geological Survey, ix, 1, 4, 53, 59, 61, 62, 117, 234, 235 extraction spills, 3 non-point source releases, 55 seeps, 2, 87 toxic effects, 156, 157 Geopolitical factors, see Foreign trade; International perspectives; Political factors Global climate change, see Climate change GNOME/ADIOS2, 111, 112 Government role, see Federal government Grease, see Oil and grease Great Lakes, 235-236 Greenhouse effect, see Climate change Ground truthing, 53 Gulf of Mexico, 46, 47, 49, 51, 56 Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) maps, 25-27 extraction spills, 3, 23, 33, 25, 35, 38, 55, 70, 105, 193, 194 Ixtoc I, 33, 105 Ixtoc II, 25 land-based deposition, general, 78, 80, 237-238

OCR for page 259
Oil in the Sea III: Inputs, Fates, and Effects Mississippi River, 47, 51, 56, 152, 153, 238, 239, 240, 244-246, 248, 249, 250, 251 natural seeps, 2, 33, 55, 56, 70, 191 produced waters, 71, 199-202(passim) toxic effects, 144, 145, 153 transportation releases, 3, 45, 55, 75 volatile organic compounds (VOC), 196, 198, 199 Gulf of Mexico Offshore Operations Monitoring Experiment, 153-154 H Heavy distillates, 22, 32, 114, 253, 254 Historical perspectives, ix, 7, 61, 65-66, 69 consumption of petroleum, 43, 46-47, 69, 78 economic factors, 1, 23, 121 energy supply/demand, 1, 3-4, 7-11, 65 Exxon Valdez,1, 11, 14, 22, 23, 75, 100, 128, 130-131, 134, 139-140, 149 Ixtoc I, 33, 105 Ixtoc II, 25 North American inputs, 34-38, 40-41, 44-59 (passim), 69, 193-194, 197-199 persistence, 29 pipelines, 73 research, previous NRC studies, ix, 1, 2, 11, 14-15, 16-17, 28, 30-31, 65, 66-67, 69-70, 72, 76, 77, 82, 84, 85, 86, 119, 123-125, 148, 223 submerged and abandoned vessels, 67, 68 wars and armed conflicts, Persian Gulf War, 134, 135, 136-137 submerged and abandoned vessels, 67 World War II, 67, 68 worldwide inputs, 12-13, 16, 46, 69-70, 72, 73, 198, 199 Human health, 31, 89 I Ice, 104-105 Impact of Oil and Related Chemicals and Wastes on the Marine Environment, 14-15 Imports, see Foreign trade International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships (MARPOL), 15, 43, 66, 75-76, 203-204, 207-212 International Energy Agency, 209 International Maritime Organization, 3, 14-15, 55 coastal facility spills, 78 operational discharges, 76, 83, 84 tanker spills, 75, 87-88, 215-216 volatile organic compounds (VOC), 4, 59, 88 International perspectives, general, 157 see also specific countries and bodies of water databases, 66 developing countries, general, 38 energy supply/demand, 1, 4, 7, 8-11 foreign trade, 7, 8, 10, 66, 70, 78 grounded and abandoned vessels, 67 institutional cooperation, 3, 4, 14-15, 55, 59, 62 non-tank vessel spills, 82 vessel operational discharges, 75-76, 83, 84, 203-204 wars and armed conflicts, Persian Gulf War, 134, 135, 136-137 submerged and abandoned vessels, 67 World War II, 67, 68 worldwide/international waters inputs, 12-13, 16, 46, 69-70, 72, 73, 213-215, 245-246, 251 International Tanker Owners Pollution Federation Ltd., 75, 82, 213 Internet, 66, 193 Exxon Valdez,24 INTERTANKO, 76, 83, 208 Ixtoc I, 25, 105 Ixtoc II, 25 J Joint Group of Experts on the Science Aspects of Marine Pollution, 14-15 L Land-based releases, 4, 22, 28, 43, 46, 48-49, 51, 55, 57, 65, 78-81, 86-87, 115 Canada, 78, 80, 233, 234, 235-237, 238 coastal terminal/refinery facilities, 16, 42, 44-45, 47, 51, 53, 55, 57, 59, 69, 77-78, 80, 101, 212-222, 242, 245, 246, 249 coastal zones, general, 16, 29, 66, 78, 79-80 Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), 79, 233-236, 238, 240 Gulf of Mexico, 78, 80, 237-238 Mississippi River, 47, 51, 56, 152, 153, 238, 239, 240, 244-246, 248, 249, 250, 251 loading measures, 31, 56, 115, 233-251 Mexico, 80, 237-238 non-point source pollution, general, 28, 47, 51, 55, 61, 87, 89, 119 oil and grease, 78-81, 233, 234-236, 238-240, 241-242, 247-250 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), 32, 78, 79, 85, 87, 238, 239-240, 243, 244-247, 250, 251, 253 research methodology, 78-81, 233-251 rivers, 31, 47, 51, 55, 56, 77, 78-79, 80, 87, 101, 124, 153, 224, 233-236, 238-247, 249-251; see also Estuaries runoff, ix, 4, 10, 16, 29, 31, 46, 53, 55, 56, 61, 62, 66, 67, 78-81, 80, 86-87, 157, 235-242, 247-249 urban runoff, 16, 29, 31, 46, 53, 55, 56, 62, 66, 67, 78-79, 80, 86-87, 157, 235-242, 247-249 Langmuir circulation, 59, 89, 92, 98-99 Legislation see also Regulatory issues Clean Air Act, 43, 66, 71, 81 Clean Water Act, 255 Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act, 139 natural resource damage assessments, 23, 111-112, 139 Deepwater Port Act, 255 Oil Pollution Act of 1990 (OPA 90), 23, 66, 67, 75, 255-257 Outer Continental Shelf Lands Act, 255 Shipowner’s Limitation of Liability Act, 255 Trans-Alaska Pipeline Authorization Act, 255 Light distillates, 22, 32, 114, 127, 253, 254 Litigation, 23, 255-257 Lloyd’s Register, 83, 205, 208 Loading measures, 21-22, 31-32, 56, 89-90, 115, 116, 253-254 land-based releases, 31, 56, 115, 233-251 light distillates, 114 models, 89, 90, 233-251 Louisiana, 73, 144, 145, 152 see also Gulf of Mexico produced waters, 71, 200, 201 M Mangroves, 62, 89, 125, 145-148 Maps and mapping Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) maps, 25-27 Exxon Valdez spill, 15 North American waters, 34-37, 40-41, 44-45, 48-49, 54, 56 population of US, 50 seaborne flow of oil, worldwide, 12-13 Marine biota, 4, 62, 91, 109, 110, 116, 119-157 see also Bioavailability; Benthic organisms; Fish and fisheries; Marine mammals; Shellfish; Toxicity; Waterfowl and marine birds; Wildlife behavioral effects, 125, 128, 135, 138 disease, 123, 127, 131-132, 133, 155, 157 food resource losses, 139 metabolic effects, 125, 127, 128-129, 149 modeling of effects, 121, 123, 128-129, 138-149 natural resource damage assessments, 23, 111-112, 139 neurological/narcotic effects, 125, 133 reproductive/developmental effects, 123-131 (passim), 125, 130-131, 133, 134-135, 137, 138, 142, 153-154, 155-156 temporal factors, 119-123(passim), 129-132, 140-141, 144, 156 Marine mammals, 29, 119, 125, 132, 133, 134, 137-138 Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) maps, 25-27 MARPOL, see International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships Methodology, see Research methodology Mexico, 193, 194, 211-212, 213 see also Gulf of Mexico land-based deposition, 80, 237-238 produced waters, 71, 200, 201

OCR for page 259
Oil in the Sea III: Inputs, Fates, and Effects production of oil, 70 tanker spills, 75 volatile organic compounds (VOC), 196, 198 Microbial oxidation, 89, 94, 95-97, 114, 149-150 Middle East exports from, 66 Persian Gulf War, 134, 135, 136-137 Minerals Management Service, ix, 1, 3, 4, 15, 53, 59, 61, 62, 117, 201 model development, 111 pipelines, 73 seeps, 2, 87 volatile organic compounds (VOC), 4, 196, 199 Mississippi River, 47, 51, 56, 152, 153, 238, 239, 240, 244-246, 248, 249, 250, 251 Models and modeling, 23, 59, 89, 90, 91, 108-112, 116, 119, 138 see also Dispersion atmospheric deposition, 85, 109, 110, 223-231 biological effects, 121, 123, 128-129, 138-149 natural resource damage assessments, 23, 111-112, 139 coastal habitat impacts, 138-139 coastal runoff, 109, 111 computer, 89, 90, 110-112, 138-139 dissolution, 93-94, 112 emulsification, 112 evaporation, 90, 112 land-based production facilities, 108, 233-251 loading, 89, 90, 233-251 natural resource damage assessments (NRDA), 23, 111-112, 139 non-point sources, 109 operational discharges, 109, 110 overwashing, 101 oxidation, 94, 95, 112 partitioning, 102 photooxidation, 95 produced water, 109 recreational boats, 109 rivers, 109, 110 seabirds, effects of spills on, 121 sediments, 109-110 seeps, 108, 109, 110 shallow-water releases, 105-106 shoreline stranding, 103-104 spreading, 97-98 vertical dispersion and entrainment, 100 volatile organic compounds (VOC), 77, 225-226 volatilization, 112 weathering, 109 wells and platforms, 108, 109, 110 Mussels, 22, 24, 128, 131, 137, 141-143 N National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, ix, 1, 4, 53, 59, 61, 62, 117 Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) maps, 25-27 extraction spills, 3 land-based releases, 4 model development, 111, 112 natural resource damage assessments, 23 seeps, 2, 87 toxic effects, 156, 157 National Oceans Industry Association, ix, 1 National Science Foundation (NSF), 2, 3 Natural gas, 2 deep subsurface releases, 59, 107-108 spills, 3 supply/demand, 8 Natural resource damage assessments, 23, 111-112, 139 Natural seeps, see Seeps Netherlands, The, 72, 200, 202 see also North Sea Non-point source pollution, 28, 47, 51, 55, 61, 87, 89, 109, 119 see also Land-based releases; Operational discharges; Recreational vessels North Cape barge spill, 92, 149 North Sea, 39, 66, 129-130, 155, 195 produced waters, 71, 72, 199, 200, 202 Norway, 71, 199, 200, 202 see also North Sea O Ocean dumping of waste, 31, 78 Office of Pipeline Safety, 3, 39 Oil and grease, 78-81, 233, 234-236, 238-240, 241-242, 247-250 Oil in the Sea: Inputs, Fates, and Effects (1985), ix, 11, 14.65, 66, 81, 123, 125, 126, 148, 156, 199 Oil Pollution Act of 1990 (OPA 90), 23, 66, 67, 75, 255-257 Oil Spill Liability Trust Fund, 259 Oil wells/platforms, 2-3, 16, 28, 30, 33-39, 51, 53, 54, 55, 57, 58, 59, 65, 66-67, 69, 70-71, 86, 119, 152-155, 226 committee study methodology, estimates, 193-202 coastal zones, 2-3, 33-38, 193-194 databases, 66-67, 70 Gulf of Mexico, 3, 23, 25, 33, 35, 38, 55, 70, 105, 193, 194 Ixtoc I, 33 Ixtoc II, 25 maps of inputs, 34-37, 40-41 modeling, 108, 109, 110 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), 32, 47, 51 regulatory issues, 39, 66, 71 volatile organic compounds (VOC), 3, 39, 65, 70, 71, 88, 153, 196-199 Operational discharges see also Produced waters; Recreational vessels Coast Guard, 84, 88 drill cuttings, 39, 66 International Maritime Organization, 76, 83, 84 international perspectives, 75-76, 83, 84, 203-204 modeling, 109, 110 regulatory issues, 15, 42-43, 55, 57, 58, 55, 58, 66, 75-76, 83, 84, 88, 203-212 ships, general, ix, 3-4, 16, 22, 31, 39, 42, 43, 46, 48-49, 51, 52, 55, 57, 59, 65, 69, 75-76, 78, 82-84, 114-115, 203-212 tankers, 75-76, 78, 82-83, 86, 88, 204-208, 226 Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries, 10 OSIS, 111 OSRA, 111 Outer Continental shelf, 66, 73, 152-155, 193, 201 see also Oil wells/platforms Outer Continental Shelf Lands Act, 255 Overwashing, 89, 101 Oxidation, 29, 89, 90, 94-97, 112, 114, 149-150, 224 P Pacific Ocean, 12-13, 34, 36, 40, 44, 46, 48, 51-52, 57, 58, 198, 237 PAH, see Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons Partitioning, 102 Persian Gulf War, 134, 135, 136-137 Persistence, 22, 28, 31, 33, 89, 113, 120, 125, 135, 151-152 see also Vocalization; Weathering processes benthic organisms, 31, 151-152 Petrleos Mexicanos (PEMEX), 193, 199, 201 Petroleum consumption, see Consumption Petroleum extraction, see Oil wells/platforms Petroleum in the Marine Environment,ix, 11, 14. 65 Petroleum transportation, see Transportation Photoactivation, 29 Photooxidation, 29, 89, 90, 94-95, 224 Pipeline Integrity Management Program, 39 Pipelines, 3, 16, 23, 28, 30, 32, 39, 42, 44-45, 51, 55, 57, 59, 66, 69, 73-74, 193-196 Coast Guard, 193 committee study methodology, estimates, 193, 194-196 databases, 67 regulatory issues, 39, 73 Plants, see Vegetation Platforms, see Oil wells/platforms Political factors, 1, 121 see also Legislation; Regulatory issues Exxon Valdez spill, 23, 255 major spills, general, 23, 119 size of spill and policy, 21 Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), 1, 3, 4, 20, 21, 29, 32, 51, 114 atmospheric deposition, 32, 223 coastal zones, 32, 47, 78, 79, 85, 87, 238, 239-240, 243, 244-247, 250, 251

OCR for page 259
Oil in the Sea III: Inputs, Fates, and Effects inputs, general, 61, 85, 87, 223-231, 238, 239-240, 243, 244-247, 250, 251, 253-254 land-based deposition, 32, 78, 79, 85, 87, 238, 239-240, 243, 244-247, 250, 251, 253 microbial oxidation, 96 modeling of spills, 112 natural seeps, 32, 33 oil wells/platforms, 32, 47, 51 partitioning, 102, 128 photooxidation, 95 research methodology, 238, 239-240, 243, 244-247, 250, 251, 253-254 sediments, 29, 102, 127, 131, 151-152 two-stroke engines, 58, 88 toxic effects, 21, 29, 31-33, 127-132, 135-136, 148, 149, 153 Precipitation, chemical, 85 Production, see Oil wells/platforms Produced waters, 22, 30, 38, 39, 40-41, 51, 55, 57, 59, 66, 69, 71-72, 114, 150-152 Alaska/Canada, 71, 200, 201 coastal zones, 38, 201, 202 databases, 67 dispersion, 38, 151 Environmental Protection Agency, 199, 202 Gulf of Mexico, 71, 199-202(passim) input estimate methodology, 30, 199-200 Mexico, 71, 200, 201 modeling, 109 North Sea, 71, 72, 199, 200, 202 oil and grease, 78-81, 200, 201 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbond (PAH), 32, 114 regulatory issues, 66, 71, 72, 151 weathering, 38 Puerto Rico, 47, 51, 53, 56, 198 R Recreational resources Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) maps, 25-27 tarballs, effects on, 104 Recreational vessels, 29, 31, 32, 43, 48-49, 51, 53, 55, 59, 69, 78, 81, 87, 115 databases, 66, 67 Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), 4, 58, 66, 81, 82, 88, 219 regulatory issues, 43, 58, 66, 81, 219-220 research methodology, 219-220 two- and four-stroke engines, 3-4, 22, 43, 46, 58, 65, 66, 81-82, 112, 115, 219-220 Refineries, see Terminal facilities and refineries Regulatory issues, 23, 55, 62, 66, 255-257 see also Legislation aircraft fuel dumping, 59, 88, 219-220 drill cuttings, 39, 66 grounded and abandoned vessels, 67 International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships (MARPOL), 15, 43, 66, 75-76, 203-204, 207-212 litigation and liability, 23, 255-257 oil wells/platforms, 39, 66, 71 pipeline safety/spills, 39, 73 produced water discharges, 66, 71, 72, 151 recreational vessels, two- and four-stroke engines, 43, 58, 66, 81, 219-220 regional data, 32-33 tanker safety, 39, 55, 62, 66, 75, 83, 87-88, 157 tarballs, 104 vessel operational discharges, 15, 42-43, 55, 57, 58, 55, 58, 66, 75-76, 83, 84, 88, 203-212 volatile organic compounds (VOCs), 4, 71, 197 Remote sensing, 53, 101 Research methodology, ix, 23 see also Computer technology; Databases; Models and modeling atmospheric deposition, 84-86 before-and-after and control-impact (BACI) observations, 122, 123, 156 biological effects, 121-123, 125, 131 coastal facility inputs, 211 committee recommendations, 53, 55, 59, 61-62, 86-88, 117, 156-157 committee study at hand,ix, 15-16, 17, 119, 189-254 ground truthing, 53 input estimation, 30-31, 53, 189-254 land-based discharges, 78-81, 233-251 natural seeps, estimates, 191-192 non-tank vessel spills, 82 NRC studies, previous, ix, 1, 2, 11, 14-15, 16-17, 28, 30-31, 65, 66-67, 69-70, 72, 76, 77, 82, 84, 85, 86, 119, 123-125, 148, 223 recreational vessels, two- and four-stroke engines, 219-220 remote sensing, 219-220 shallow-water releases, 105-106 tarballs, 104 time-series analyses, 122 volatile organic compound (VOC) inputs, 71, 196-199 Rivers, 31, 47, 51, 55, 56, 77, 78-79, 80, 87, 101, 124, 153, 224, 233-236, 238-247, 249-251 see also Estuaries Runoff, ix, 4, 10, 16, 29, 31, 46, 53, 55, 56, 61, 62, 66, 67, 78-81, 80, 86-87, 157, 235-242, 247-249 modeling, 109, 111 Rural areas, 85, 224, 225 Russia, 70 S Salinity, 122, 143-145 Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) maps, 25-27 San Jacinto River, 77 Saudi Arabia, 70, 200 Sediment and sedimentation, 4, 22, 30, 39, 59, 67, 73, 114, 117, 119 see also Benthic organisms; Shellfish polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), 29, 102, 127, 131, 151-152 toxicity, 127, 128, 130, 131, 142, 146, 151-152, 153-154 transport processes, 39, 89, 90, 100-101, 102-104, 109-110, 113-114 weathering, 28, 119, 127 Seeps, 2, 16, 21, 22, 23, 28, 30, 33, 46-47, 51, 52, 53, 57, 58, 61, 65, 67-70, 86, 113, 116 Alaska, 33, 36, 59, 70 California, 33, 36, 70, 191-192 committee study methodology, 191-192 databases, 67 Geological Survey, 2, 87 Gulf of Mexico, 2, 33, 55, 56, 70, 191 maps of inputs, 36-37, 54, 56 Minerals Management Service, 2, 87 models, 108, 109, 110 National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, 2, 87 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), 32, 33 tarballs, 89, 104 toxicity, 32, 33, 149-150, 156 Shellfish, 22, 127, 130, 132, 144-145, 148-149, 153-154 mussels, 22, 24, 128, 131, 137, 141-143 Shipowner’s Limitation of Liability Act, 255 Ships and boats, 32, 65 see also Recreational vessels; Tankers International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships, 15, 43, 66 operational discharges, ix, 3-4, 16, 22, 31, 39, 42, 43, 46, 48-49, 51, 52, 55, 57, 59, 65, 69, 75-76, 78, 82-84, 114-115, 203-212 spills, non-tank vessels, 46, 48-49, 51, 52, 55, 57, 59, 69, 214-216 submerged and abandoned vessels, 67, 68 Shorelines, ix, 14, 16, 32, 89 see also Coastal zones Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) maps, 25-27 Exxon Valdez,23, 24, 25 extraction spills, 2-3 shoreline stranding, 22, 90, 103-104, 109, 113-114, 116 transport processes, 22, 89, 90, 103-104, 109, 113-114, 116 SIMAP, 111-112 Small spills, 23, 74 see also Recreational vessels Solubility, see Dissolution Spills, 2, 22, 59-60, 89, 113-114 see also Oil wells/platforms; Pipelines; Ships and boats; Small spills; Tankers; Transport processes, spills; Weathering processes fires, 77 historical perspectives, 1, 4, 11, 12-13, 29; see also specific spills small spills, 23, 74; see also Recreational vessels size of release, 21, 55, 59, 61, 109, 120, 133-134

OCR for page 259
Oil in the Sea III: Inputs, Fates, and Effects Spreading, 89, 90, 97-98, 100 Standards, see Regulatory issues STORET database, 233-236, 238, 240, 244, 250 Submerged and abandoned vessels, 67, 68 Supply/demand, see Energy supply/demand T Tankers, ix, 3, 12-13, 16, 17, 30, 39, 42, 51, 55, 57, 59, 69, 74-76, 78, 86, 87-88, 212-216 databases, 75, 213-214 Exxon Valdez,1, 11, 14, 22, 23, 75, 100, 128, 130-131, 134, 139-140, 149 International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships, 15, 43, 66 International Maritime Organization, 75, 87-88, 215-216 maps, 34-37, 44-45 operational discharges, 75-76, 78, 82-83, 86, 88, 204-208, 226 regulatory issues, 39, 55, 62, 66, 75, 83, 87-88, 157 volatile organic compounds (VOC), 4, 30, 65, 76-77, 88, 225 Tarballs, 20, 22, 89, 90, 101, 104, 113-114, 115, 137 Temperature factors, 29, 89, 109, 122 see also Climate change atmospheric deposition, general, 85, 223, 226 biological effects, 120, 121, 123 dissolution, 93 ice, 104-105 microbial oxidation, 97 oxidation, 94, 97 volatile organic compounds (VOC), tanker releases, 76 volatilization, 115 Temporal factors, 1, 22, 61 see also Persistence; Transport processes, ecological; Weathering processes atmospheric deposition, 85 biological effects, 119-123(passim), 129-132, 140-141, 144, 156 evaporation, 90 microbial oxidation, 97 pipeline spills, 39 recreational boats, 66 small spills, 23, 28, 66 time-series analyses, 122 transportation related spills, 39, 43 Terminal facilities and refineries, 16, 42, 44-45, 47, 51, 53, 55, 57, 59, 69, 77-78, 80, 101, 212-222, 242, 245, 246, 249 Texas, 71, 144, 200 see also Gulf of Mexico Time factors, see Temporal factors Time-series analyses, 122 Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon (TPH), 61, 78, 80, 87, 240 Toulene, see BTEX Toxicity, 21, 28-29, 31, 61, 62, 125-157 bioaccumulation, 128-129 behavioral effects, 125, 128, 135, 138 benthic organisms, 121, 125, 148, 151-156 (passim) definitional issues, 125 disease, 123, 127, 131-132, 133, 155, 157 dispersion and, 134, 151 dissolution of aromatic compounds, 93 dose factors, 22 Environmental Protection Agency, 156, 157 estuaries, 124, 131-132, 151-152, 155 food resource losses, 139 Geological Survey, 156, 157 Gulf of Mexico, 144, 145, 153 human health, 31, 89 loading rates, 21-22 metabolic effects, 125, 127, 128-129, 149 National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration , 156, 157 natural seeps, 32, 33, 149-150, 156 neurological/narcotic effects, 125, 133 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), 21, 29, 31-33, 127-132, 135-136, 148, 149, 153 photooxidation, 95 produced water discharges, 38 reproductive/developmental effects, 123-131 (passim), 125, 130-131, 133, 134-135, 137, 138, 142, 153-154, 155-156 sediments, 127, 128, 130, 131, 142, 146, 151-152, 153-154 weathering, 22, 29, 126, 127-128, 144, 147 Trans-Alaska Pipeline Authorization Act, 255 Transport process, spills, 4, 22, 30, 38-39, 58, 59, 89-90, 91, 97-103, 109-114, 115, 116 see also Dispersion advection, 89, 90, 98, 99, 112-113, 116 bioavailability, 22, 28, 31, 39, 90, 102-103, 125, 128-129, 131 deep-water releases, 106-108 Langmuir circulation, 59, 89, 92, 98-99 models, 89-90, 108-112 overwashing, 89, 101 partitioning, 89, 90, 101-102, 128 pipeline spills, 39 sediments, 39, 89, 90, 100-101, 102-104, 109-110, 113-114 shallow-water releases, 105-106 shorelines, 22, 89, 90, 103-104, 109, 113-114, 116 sinking, 89, 90, 100 spreading, 89, 90, 97-98, 100, 104-105, 112-116(passim) viscosity, 20, 74, 90, 92-93, 97, 100, 114, 231 Transportation sector, 2, 3, 16, 28, 32, 39, 42, 41-43, 44-45, 47, 53, 54, 57, 65-66, 69, 72-77, 78 see also Aircraft fuel; Foreign trade; Pipelines; Ships and boats; Tankers atmospheric deposition, 42-43 databases, 67 energy demands of sector, 7, 8, 9-10 Gulf of Mexico, 3, 45, 55, 75 input assessment methodology, 203-217 maps of inputs, 36-37 motor vehicles/urban highways, 79, 80 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), 32, 42, 47 Two- and four-stroke engines, 3-4, 22, 43, 46, 58, 65, 66, 81-82, 112, 115, 219-220 U United Kingdom, 72, 199, 200, 202 see also North Sea Urban areas atmospheric deposition, 85, 224-225 Boston Harbor, chronic contamination, 131 runoff, 16, 29, 31, 46, 53, 55, 56, 62, 66, 67, 78-79, 80, 86-87, 157, 235-242, 247-249 V Vegetation, 125, 142, 143 Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) maps, 26-27 mangroves, 62, 89, 125, 145-148 Vessels, see Recreational vessels; Ships and boats; Submerged and abandoned vessels; Tankers Viscosity, 20, 74, 90, 92-93, 97, 100, 114, 231 Volatile organic compounds (VOC), 4, 43, 46, 58-59, 65, 70, 71, 87, 153 see also Aircraft fuel; Atmospheric deposition climate change and, 58-59 coastal zones, 4, 59, 77 Coast Guard, 4, 59 Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), 4, 197 extraction spills, 3, 39, 65, 70, 71, 88, 153, 196-199 Gulf of Mexico, 196, 198, 199 input estimate methodology, 196-199 International Maritime Organization, 4, 59, 88 Mexico, 196, 198 Minerals Management Service, 4, 196, 199 regulatory issues, 4, 71, 197 research methodology, 225-226 tanker releases, 4, 30, 65, 76-77, 88, 225 transportation releases, 3, 42 Volatilization, general, 89, 113, 116, 231 W War and armed conflicts Persian Gulf War, 134, 135, 136-137 submerged and abandoned vessels, 67 World War II, 67, 68 Waterfowl and marine birds, 11, 14, 22, 29, 119, 121, 122-123, 125, 132-140(passim) Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) maps, 26-27 Weathering processes, 20, 21, 89, 90, 109 bioavailability, 20, 74, 90, 92-93, 100, 114, 231 dissolution, 89, 90 emulsification and, 90, 114

OCR for page 259
Oil in the Sea III: Inputs, Fates, and Effects evaporation, 59, 86, 89, 90, 114, 115, 126, 216 pipeline spills, 39 produced water discharges, 38 sediments, 28, 119, 127 submerged oil, 101 toxicity and, 22, 29, 126, 127-128, 144, 147 Wells, see Oil wells/platforms Wetlands, 62, 89, 124, 125, 143-148 Wildlife, 11, 14, 23, 62, 89, 119, 121, 123, 125 see also Benthic organisms; Bioavailability; Fish and fisheries; Marine biota; Toxicity; Vegetation; Waterfowl and marine birds Exxon Valdez spill, 23, 24 natural seeps, 53, 87 sensitive habitats, 53, 87, 125, 138-139 Wind, 90, 92 Langmuir circulation, 59, 89, 92, 98-99 overwashing, 101 World Wide Web, see Internet X Xylene, see BTEX