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References CHAPTER 2 Bayley, D.H., and H. Mendelson 1969 Minorities and the Police. New York, NY: Free Press. Bayley, D.H., and E. Bittner 1984 Learning the skills of policing. Law and Contemporary Problems 47:35-59. Bayley, D.H., and J. Garofalo 1987 Patrol officer effectiveness in managing conflict during police-citizen encounters. Pp. 81-88 in Report to the Governor, Volume III. Albany, NY: New York State Commission on Criminal Justice and the Use of Force. 1989 Management of violence by police patrol officers. Criminology 27:1-25. Biderman, A.D., and L. Johnson, J. McIntyre, and A. Weir 1967 Report on a Pilot Study in the District of Columbia on Victimization and Attitudes Toward Law Enforcement. (President's Commission on Law Enforcement and the Administration of Justice. Studies in Crime and Law Enforcement in Metropolitan Areas, Field Surveys I.) Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office. Bittner, E. 1970 The Functions of the Police in Modern Society: A Review of Background Factors, Current Practices, and Possible Role Models. Rockville, MD: National Institute of Mental Health. Bittner, E., and R.G. Rumbaut 1979 Changing conceptions of the police role: A sociological review. Pp. 239-288 in M. Tonry and M. Morris, eds., Crime and Justice, Volume 1. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press. Black, D., and A.J. Reiss 1967a Interrogation and the criminal process. Annals of the American Academy of Politi- cal and Social Science 374:47-57. 1967b Patterns of behavior in citizen and police transactions. Pp. 1-139 in Studies of Crime and Law Enforcement in Major Metropolitan Areas, Field Surveys III, Volume 2. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office. 332

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CHAPTER 2 333 Brown, M.K. 1981 Working the Street: Police Discretion and the Dilemmas of Reform. New York, NY: Russell Sage Foundation. Bureau of Justice Statistics 1998 Criminal Victimization and Perceptions of Community Safety in Twelve Cities. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office. Bynum, T.W., and R.E. Worden 1996 Police Drug Crackdowns: An Evaluation of Implementation and Effects. Washing- ton, DC: National Institute of Justice. Chermak, S.M., and E.C. Riksheim 1993 Causes of police behavior revisited. Journal of Criminal Justice 21:353- 382. Davis, K.C. 1969 Discretionary Justice: A Preliminary Inquiry. Baton Rouge, LA: Louisiana State University Press. DeJong, C., S.D. Mastrofski, and R.B. Parks 2001 Patrol officers and problem-solving: An application of expectancy theory. Justice Quarterly 18:31-61. Dunworth, T. 2000 National Evaluation of the Youth Firearms Violence Initiative. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice. Eck, J.E. 1983 Solving Crimes: The Investigation of Burglary and Robbery. Washington, DC: Po- lice Executive Research Forum. Eck, J.E., and E.R. Maguire 2000 Have changes in policing reduced violent crime? An assessment of the evidence. In A. Blumstein and T. Wallman, eds., The Crime Drop in America. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press. Flanagan, T., and D.R. Longmire, eds. 1966 Americans View Crime and Justice. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. Fosdick, R.B. 1920 American Police Systems. Montclair, NJ: Patterson Smith. Fridell, L., R. Lunney, D. Diamond, and B. Kubu 2001 Racially Biased Policing: A Principled Response. Washington, DC: Police Executive Research Forum. Goldstein, H. 1979 Improving policing: A problem oriented approach in crime. Crime and Delinquency 25:236-258. Green-Mazerolle, L. 1999 Controlling Drug and Disorder Problems: Oakland's Beat Health Program. Wash- ington, DC: National Institute of Justice. Greenwood, P., J. Petersilia, and J. Chaiken 1977 The Criminal Investigation Process. Lexington, MA: D.C. Heath. Jacob, H. 1971 Black and white perceptions of justice in the city. Law and Society Review 6:69-90. Kelling, G.L., T. Pate, D. Dieckman, and C.E. Brown 1974 The Kansas City Preventive Patrol Experiment: Technical Report. Washington, DC: Police Foundation. Kerner Commission 1968 National Advisory Commission on Civil Disorder. Washington, DC: U.S. Govern- ment Printing Office.

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334 REFERENCES Lafave, W.R 1965 Arrest: The Decision to Take a Suspect into Custody. Boston, MA: Little, Brown and Co. Levitt, S.D. 1997 Using election cycles in police hiring to estimate the effect of police on crime. Public Policy 23:523-545. Lewis, J.H., and G.L. Kelling 1979 The police foundation: Research and reform. Pp. 254-270 in J. Knutsson, E. Kuhlhorn, and A. Reiss, eds., Police and the Social Order. Stockholm, Sweden: National Swedish Council for Crime Prevention. Loftin, C., and D. McDowall 1982 The police, crime, and economic theory: An assessment. American Sociological Re- view 47:393-401. Manning, P.K. 1977 Police Work. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. Marvell, T.B., and C.E. Moody 1996 Specification problems, police levels and crime rates. Criminology 24:55-72. Mastrofski, S.D., A.J. Reiss, R.B. Parks, and R.E. Worden 1998 Community Policing in Action: Lessons from an Observational Study. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice. Mastrofski, S.D., J.B. Snipes, R.B. Parks, and C.D. Maxwell 2000 The helping hand of the law: Police control of citizens on request. Criminology 38:307-342. McCluskey, J.D., S.D. Mastrofski, and R.B. Parks 1999 To acquiesce or rebel: Predicting citizen compliance with police requests. Police Quarterly 2:389-416. Muir, W.K., Jr. 1977 Police: Streetcorner Politicians. Chicago, IL: Chicago University Press. Mulhausen, D. 2002 Research Challenges Claims of COPS Effectiveness. (Center for Data Analysis Re- port #02-02.) Washington, DC: Heritage Foundation. National Research Council 1993 Understanding and Preventing Violence: Panel on the Understanding and Control of Violent Behavior. A.J. Reiss and J.A. Roth, eds. Washington, DC: National Acad- emy Press. Parks, R., S. Mastrofski, M.K. Gray, and C. DeJong 1999 How officers spend their time with the community. Justice Quarterly 16:483-518. President's Commission on Law Enforcement and the Administration of Justice 1967 Task Force Report: The Police. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office. Reiner, R. 1994 Policing and the police. Pp. 705-772 in M. Maguire, R. Morgan, and R. Reiner, eds., The Oxford Handbook of Criminology. London, England, and New York, NY: Oxford University Press. Reiss, A., Jr. 1971 Police and the Public. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press. 1979 Systematic social observation in police research. In J. Knutsson, E. Kuhlhorn, and A. Reiss, eds., Police and the Social Order. Stockholm, Sweden: National Swedish Council for Crime Prevention. Rosenbaum, D.P., ed. 1994 The Challenge of Community Policing. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

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CHAPTER 2 335 Roth, J., J. Ryan, and C.S. Koper 2000 National Evaluation of the COPS Program--Title I of the 1994 Crime Act. Wash- ington, DC: The Urban Institute. Samuels, J. 2000 Remarks to Committee to Review Research on Police Policy and Practices Meeting, June 27, National Academy of Sciences, Washington, DC. Washington, DC: Public Access Records Office, National Academy of Sciences. Sherman, L.S. 1983 Patrol strategies for police. In J.Q. Wilson, ed., Crime and Public Policy. San Fran- cisco, CA: ICS Press/Transaction Books. Sherman, L.W. 1973 Sociology and social reform of the American police 1950-1973. Journal of Police Science and Administration. 1992 Policing Domestic Violence: Experiments and Dilemmas. New York, NY: Free Press. Sherman, L.W., D. Gottfredson, D. MacKenzie, J. Eck, P. Reuter, and S. Bushway 1997 Preventing Crime: What Works, What Doesn't, and What's Promising. College Park, MD: University of Maryland. 1998 Preventing Crime: What Works, What Doesn't, What's Promising. (Research in Brief.) Washington, DC: National Institute of Justice. Skolnick, J.H. 1966 Justice Without Trial. New York, NY: John Wiley and Sons, Inc. Skolnick, J.H., and J.J. Fyfe 1993 Above the Law: Police and the Excessive Use of Force. New York, NY: Free Press. Smith, B. 1949 Police Systems in the United States. New York, NY: Harper and Row. Smith, P.E., and R.O. Hawkins 1973 Victimization, types of citizen-police contacts and attitudes toward the police. Law and Society Review 8:135-152. Terrill, W. 1997 Police Coercion: Application of the Force Continuum. New York, NY: LFB Pub- lishing. Toch, H., and W.A. Geller, ed. 1996 Police Violence. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press. Travis, J. 1995 Criminal Justice Research and Public Policy in the United States. Presentation to the Ninth United Nations Congress on the Prevention of Crime and Treatment of Of- fenders, Cairo, Egypt, May 2. Trojanowicz, R. 1986 Evaluating a neighborhood foot patrol program: The Flint Michigan Project. In D. Rosenbaum, ed., Community Crime Prevention: Does it Work. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. Van Maanen, J. 1974 Working the street: A developmental view of police behavior. In H. Jacob, ed., The Potential for Reform in Criminal Justice. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. Walker, S. 2001 Police Accountability: The Role of Citizen Oversight. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth. Weisburd, D. 2000 Police Attitudes Toward Abuse of Authority: Findings from a National Survey. Washington, DC: National Institute of Justice.

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336 REFERENCES Weisburd, D., and L. Green 1995 Policing drug hot spots: The Jersey City drug market analysis experiment. Justice Quarterly 12:711-735. Westley, W. 1953 Violence and the police. The American Journal of Sociology 59:34-41. Wilson, J.Q. 1968 Varieties of Police Behavior: The Management of Law and Order in Eight Commu- nities. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. 1977 Investigators: Managing the FBI and Narcotics Agencies. New York, NY: Basic Books, Inc. Wilson, J.Q., and G. Kelling 1982 Broken windows: The police and neighborhood safety. Atlantic Monthly 249:29- 38. Zhao, J., and Q. Thurman 2001 A National Evaluation of the Effect of COPs Grants on Crime from 1994 to 1999. Unpublished study. CHAPTER 3 Adams, B. 1995 Evaluation of Police Training Conducted Under the Family Violence Prevention and Services Act. Washington, DC: Urban Institute. Alpert, G.P., and R.G. Dunham 1999 The force factor: Measuring and assessing police use of force and suspect resistance. Pp. 45-60 in Use of Force: Overview of National and Local Data. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice. American Bar Foundation 1957 Survey of the Administration of Justice. Washington, DC: American Bar Founda- tion. Avakame, E.F., and J.J. Fyfe 2001 A differential police treatment of male-on-female spousal violence: Some more evi- dence on the leniency thesis. Violence Against Women 7:22-45. Avakame, E.F., J.J. Fyfe, and C. McCoy 1999 Did you call the police? What did they do? An empirical assessment of Black's theory of mobilization of law. Justice Quarterly (December):765-792. Bard, M. 1970 The role of law enforcement in the helping system. North Carolina Journal of Men- tal Health 4:3-15. Bayley, D.H. 1986 The tactical choices of police patrol officers. Journal of Criminal Justice 14:329- 348. 1994 Police for the Future. New York, NY: Oxford University Press. 1998 What Works in Policing? New York, NY: Oxford University Press. Bayley, D.H., and J. Garofalo 1987 Patrol officer effectiveness in managing conflict during police-citizen encounters. Pp. B1-B88 in Report to the Governor, Volume III. Albany, NY: New York State Commission on Criminal Justice and the Use of Force. 1989 Management of violence by police patrol officers. Criminology 27:1-25. Bayley, D., and D. Shearing 2001 The New Structure of Policing: Description, Conceptualization and Research Agenda. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice, National Institute of Justice.

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CHAPTER 3 337 Bayley, D.H., and R.E. Worden 1998 Police Overtime: An Examination of Key Issues. (National Institute of Justice Re- search in Brief.) Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice. Bittner, E. 1970 The Functions of the Police in Modern Society: A Review of Background Factors, Current Practices, and Possible Role Models. Bethesda, MD: National Institute of Mental Health. Black, D. 1976 Social organization of arrest. Pp. 1087-1111 in W.B. Sanders and H.C. Daudistel, eds., Criminal Justice Process: A Reader. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers. 1980 The Manners and Customs of the Police. New York, NY: Academic Press. Bloch, P.B., and D. Anderson 1974 Policewomen on Patrol. Washington, DC: Police Foundation. Braga, A., D.L. Weisburd, E.J. Waring, L. Green-Mazerolle, W. Spelman, and F. Gajewski 1999 Problem-oriented policing in violent crime places: A randomized controlled experi- ment. Criminology 37:541-580. Brandl, S.G. 1993 Impact of case characteristics on detectives' decision making. Justice Quarterly 10:395-414. Brandl, S.G., and J. Frank 1994 The relationship between evidence, detective effort, and the disposition of burglary and robbery investigations. American Journal of Police 13:149-168. Bromley, M.L., and B.A. Reaves 1998 Comparing campus and municipal police: The human resource dimension. Policing, An International Journal of Police Strategies and Management 21:534-546. Brown, J.M., and P.A. Langan 2001 Policing and Homicide, 1976-1998: Justifiable Homicide by Police Officers Mur- dered by Felons. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice. Bureau of Justice Statistics 1998 Census of State and Local Enforcement Agencies, 1996. Available: http://www.ojp. usdoj.gov/bjs/pub/pdf/cslea96 [June 25, 2002]. 1999 American Indians and Crime. Available: http://www.ojp.usdoj.gov/bjs/pub/pdf/ aic.pdf [June 25, 2002]. 2000 Law Enforcement Management and Administrative Statistics, 1999: Data or Indi- vidual, State, and Local Agencies with 100 or More Officers. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice. Bynum, T.S., G.W. Cordner, and J.R. Greene 1982 Victim offense characteristics: Impact on police investigative decision making. Crimi- nology 20:301-318. Carter, D.L. 1986 Hispanic police officers' perception of discrimination. Police Studies 9:204-210. Carter, D.L., A.D. Sapp, and D. Stephens 1983 State of Police Education; Policy Direction for the 21st Century. Washington, DC: Police Executive Research Forum. Clarke, R.V. 1997 Situational Crime Prevention: Successful Case Studies (92nd edition). New York, NY: Harrow & Heston. Commission on Accreditation for Law Enforcement Agencies 1994 Standards for Law Enforcement Agencies, 3rd Edition. Fairfax, VA: Commission on Accreditation for Law Enforcement Agencies.

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338 REFERENCES Crank, J.P., and R. Langworthy 1992 Institutional perspective of policing. Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology 83:338-363. Cumming, E., J. Cumming, and L. Edell 1965 Policemen as philosophers, guide, and friend. Social Problems 12:276-286. Damanpour, F. 1991 Organizational innovation: A meta-analysis of the effects of determinants and mod- erators. Academy of Management Journal 34:555-590. Davis, R.C., C. Ortiz, N.J. Henderson, J. Miller, and M.K. Massie 2002 Turning Necessity into Virtue: Pittsburgh's Experience with a Federal Consent De- cree. New York, NY: Vera Institute. Donner, F. 1990 Protectors of Privilege: Red Squads and Police Repression in Urban America. Berke- ley, CA: University of California Press. Dulaney, W.M. 1996 Black Police in America. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press. Eck, J.E. 1983a Solving Crimes: The Investigation of Burglary and Robbery. Washington, DC: Po- lice Executive Research Forum. 1983b Investigations Management Conference Participants Manuals. Washington, DC: Police Executive Research Forum. 2002 Preventing crime at places. Pp. 241-294 in L.W. Sherman et al., eds., Evidence- Based Crime Prevention. New York, NY: Routledge. 2003 Police problems: The complexity of problem theory, research and evaluation. In J. Knuttsen, ed., Problem-Oriented Policing: From Innovation to Mainstream, Crime Prevention Studies 15. Monsey, NY: Criminal Justice Press. Eck, J.E., and D. Rosenbaum 1994 The new police order: Effectiveness, equity and efficiency in community policing. Pp. 2-23 in D. Rosenbaum, ed., Community Policing: Testing the Promises. Thou- sand Oaks, CA: Sage. Eck, J.E., and W. Spelman 1987 Problem Solving: Problem-Oriented Policing in Newport News. Washington, DC: Police Executive Research Forum. Ericson, R.V. 1981 Making Crime: A Study of Detective Work. Scarborough, Canada: Butterworth. Ericson, R.V., and K.D. Haggerty 1997 Policing the Risk Society. Toronto: University of Toronto Press. Federal Bureau of Investigation 2001 Crime in the United States 2000. (Unified Crime Reports.) Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice. Feinman, C. 1986 Police problems on the Navajo reservation. Police Studies 9:194-198. Fogelson, R.M. 1977 Big City Police. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. Forst, B., and P.K. Manning 1999 Privatization of Policing: Two Views. Washington, DC: Georgetown University Press. Fridell, L., R. Lunney, D. Diamond, and B. Kubu 2001 Racially Biased Policing: A Principled Response. Washington, DC: Police Executive Research Forum.

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CHAPTER 3 339 Friedrich, R.J. 1980 Police use of force--individuals, situations, and organizations. Annals of the Ameri- can Academy of Political and Social Science 452:82-97. Fyfe, J.J. 1978 Shots Fired: An Examination of New York City Police Firearms Discharges. Micro- films International, Ann Arbor, MI. Dissertation, State University of New York, Albany. 1979 Administrative interventions on police shooting discretion: An empirical examina- tion. Journal of Criminal Justice 7:309-323. 1981 Who shoots? A look at officer race and police shooting. Journal of Police Science and Administration 9:367-382. 1983 Police Personnel Practices, Baseline Data Reports (Volume 15, No. 1.) Washington, DC: International City Management Association. Fyfe, J.J., D.A. Klinger, and J.M. Flavin 1997 Differential police response to male on female spousal violence. Criminology 35:455- 474. Gardiner, J.A. 1969 Traffic and the Police: Variations in Law Enforcement Policy. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. Garner, J.H., and C.D. Maxwell 1999 Measuring the amount of force used by and against the police in six jurisdictions. Pp. 25-44 in Use of Force by Police: Overview of National and Local Data. Wash- ington, DC: National Institute of Justice. Garner, J.H., J. Buchanan, T. Schade, and J. Hepburn 1996 Understanding the Use of Force By and Against the Police. Washington, DC: Na- tional Institute of Justice. Garofalo, J., and S. Martin 1992 Bias Motivated Crimes, Their Characteristics, and Law Enforcement Response. Carbondale, IL: Southern Illinois University. Geller, W.A., and M. Scott 1992 Deadly Force: What We Know; A Practitioner's Desk Reference on Police-Involved Shootings. Washington, DC: Police Executive Research Forum. Geller, W.A., and H. Toch, eds. 1995 And Justice for All: Understanding and Controlling Police Abuse of Force. Wash- ington, DC: Police Executive Forum. General Accounting Office 1996 Federal Fugitives: More Timely Entry on National Wanted Person File Needed. Washington, DC: General Accounting Office. 2000a Racial Profiling: Limited Data Available on Motorists Stops. Washington, DC: General Accounting Office. 2000b U.S. Customs Services: Better Targeting of Airline Passengers for Personal Searches Could Produce Better Results. Washington, DC: General Accounting Office. Goldstein, H. 1977 Policing a Free Society. Cambridge, MA: Balinger Publishing Company. 1979 Improving policing: A problem oriented approach in crime. Crime and Delinquency 25:236-258. 1990 Problem-Oriented Policing. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill. Goldstein, J. 1960 Police discretion not to invoke criminal process: Low visibility decisions in the ad- ministration of justice. Yale Law Journal 60:543-594.

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340 REFERENCES Green, L. 1995 Policing places with drug problems: The multi-agency response team approach. Pp. 199-216 in J.E. Eck and D. Weisburd, eds., Crime and Place: Crime Prevention Studies 4. Monsey, NY: Criminal Justice Press. Greenberg, D.B., and B. Hantz 1975 Supercops: Play it to a Bust. New York, NY: Hawthorne Books. Greene, J.R. 2000 Community policing in America: Changing the nature, structure, and function of the police. Pp. 299-370 in J. Horney, ed., Policies, Processes, and Decisions of the Criminal Justice System: Criminal Justice, Volume 3. Washington, DC: U.S. Depart- ment of Justice. Greenwood, P., J. Petersilia, and J. Chaiken 1977 The Criminal Investigation Process. Lexington, MA: D.C. Heath. Harris, D.A. 2002 Racial profiling revisited: "Just common sense" in the fight against terror. Criminal Justice 17:36-59. Hickman, M.J., and B. Reaves 2001 Community Policing in Local Police Departments, 1997 and 1999. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice. International Association of Chiefs of Police 1973 Juvenile Justice Administration. Washington, DC: International Association of Chiefs of Police. Jeffries, E.S., J. Frank, B.W. Smith, K.J. Novak, and L.F. Travis III 1998 An examination of the productivity and perceived effectiveness of drug task forces. Police Quarterly 11:85-107. Kakalik, J.S., and S. Wildhorn 1977 The Private Police: Security and Danger. Santa Monica, CA: Rand Corporation. Kapur, S. 1995 Technical diffusion with social learning. Journal of Industrial Economics 43:173- 196. Karmen, A. 2000 New York Murder Mystery: The True Story Behind the Crime Crash of the 1990s. New York, NY: New York University Press. Katz, C. 2001 Establishment of a Police Gang Unit: An Examination of Rational and Institutional Considerations. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice. Kelling, G.L., T. Pate, D. Dieckman, and C.E. Brown 1974 The Kansas City Preventive Patrol Experiment: A Technical Report. Washington, DC: Police Foundation. Kerner Commission 1968 National Advisory Commission on Civil Disorder. Washington, DC: U.S. Govern- ment Printing Office. King, W.R. 1998 Innovativeness in American Municipal Police Organizations. Doctoral dissertation, University of Cincinnati. Kleck, G. 1991 Point Blank: Guns and Violence in America. Hawthorne, NY: Aldine de Gruyter Publishing Company. Klinger, D.A. 1995 Policing spousal assault. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency 32:308- 324.

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CHAPTER 3 341 1996 Quantifying law in police-citizen encounters. Journal of Quantitative Criminology 12:391-415. Klinger, D.A., and G.S. Bridges 1995 Measurement error in calls-for-service as an indicator of crime. Criminology 35:705- 726. Klinger, D.A., and K. Hubbs 2000 Citizen injuries from law enforcement impact munitions: Evidence from the field. Wound Ballistics Review 4:9-13. Klockars, C.B., and W.E. Harver 1993 Production and Consumption of Research in Police Agencies in the United States. Washington, DC: National Institute of Justice. Klockars, C.B., S.K. Ivkovich, W.E. Harver, and M.R. Haberfeld 2000 Measurement of Police Integrity. (Research in Brief). Washington, DC: National Institute of Justice. Knapp, W. 1973 The Knapp Commission Report on Police Corruption. New York, NY: George Braziller. Lafave, W.R. 1962 The Administration of Criminal Justice in the United States: A Monograph on the Decision to Take a Suspect into Custody. Chicago, IL: American Bar Foundation. 1965 Arrest: The Decision to Take a Suspect into Custody. Boston, MA: Little, Brown and Co. Lafree, G., B.F. Reskin, and C.A. Visher 1983 Juror's response to victim's behavior and legal issues in sexual assault trials. Social Problems 32:389-407. Langan, P.A., L.A. Greenfeld, S.K. Smith, M.R. Durose, and D.J. Levin 2001 Contacts Between Police and the Public. Washington, DC: Bureau of Justice Statis- tics. Also available: http://www.ojp.usdoj.gov/bjs/pub/pdf/cpp99.pdf [January 2003]. Law Enforcement Assistance Administration 1973 LEAA Activities July 1, 1972 to June 30, 1973. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice. Leinen, S. 1993 Gay Cops. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press. Lempert, R. 1984 From the editor. Law and Society Review 18:v. 1989 Humility is a virtue: On the publication of policy-relevant research. Law and Soci- ety Review 23:145-161. Loving, N. 1980 Responding to Spouse Abuse and Wife Beating--A Guide for Police. Washington, DC: Police Executive Research Forum. Luna, E. 1998 Growth and development of tribal police: Challenges and issues for tribal sover- eignty. Journal of Contemporary Criminal Justice 14:75-86. Manning, P.K. 1992 Information technologies and the police. Pp. 349-398 in M. Tonry and M. Norval, eds., Modern Policing. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press. Martin, S.E. 1980 Breaking and Entering-Policewomen on Patrol. Berkeley, CA: University of Califor- nia Press. 1990 On the Move: The Status of Women in Policing. Washington, DC: Police Founda- tion.

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342 REFERENCES Martin, S.E., and L.W. Sherman 1986 Catching Career Criminals: The Washington DC Repeat Offender Project. Wash- ington, DC: Police Foundation. Marx, G.T. 1988 Undercover: Police Surveillance in America. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press. Mastrofski, S.D. 1990 Prospects of change in police patrol: A decade in review. American Journal of Police 9:1-79. Mastrofski, S.D., J.B. Snipes, and A.E. Supina 1996 Compliance on demand: The public's response to specific police requests. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency 33:269-305. Mastrofski, S.D., A.J. Reiss, R.B. Parks, and R.E. Worden 1998 Community Policing in Action: Lessons from an Observational Study. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice. Maxwell, C.D., J.D. Garner, and J.A. Fagan 2001 The Effects of Arrest on Intimate Partner Violence: New Evidence from the Spouse Assault Replication Program. (NCJ Research in Brief 188199.) Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice. Mazerolle, L.G., J. Ready, W. Terrill, and E. Waring 2000 Problem-oriented policing in public housing: The Jersey City evaluation. Justice Quarterly 17:129-158. McDonald, P.P. 2001 Managing Police Operations: Implementing the New York Crime Control Model, CompStat. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth. McEwen, J.T., E.F. Connors, and M.I. Cohen 1986 Evaluation of the Differential Police Response Field Test. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice. McLaughlin, V. 1992 Police and the Use of Force: The Savannah Study. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers. McPhail, C., D. Schweingruber, and B. McCarthy 1998 Policing of Protests in the United States, 1960-1995. Pp. 49-69 in D. della Porta and H. Reiter, eds., The Control of Mass Demonstrations in Western Democracy. Min- neapolis, MN: University of Minnesota Press. Meisel, J.B., and S.L. Levin 1985 Intermarket differences in the early diffusion of an innovation. Southern Economic Journal 51:672-680. Mijares, T.C., R.M. McCarthy, and D.B. Perkins 2000 Management of Police Specialized Tactical Units. Springfield, IL: Charles C. Thomas. Milton, C.H., J.W. Halleck, J. Lardner, and G.L. Abrecht 1977 Police Use of Deadly Force. Washington, DC: Police Foundation. Monkkonen, E.H. 1981 Police in Urban America, 1860 to 1920. Cambridge, MA: Cambridge University Press. Moore, M.H., M. Sparrow, and W. Spelman 1996 Innovations in policing: From production lines to job shops. Chapter 12 in A.A. Altshuler and R.D. Behn, eds., Innovation in American Government: Challenges, Opportunities, and Dilemmas. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Press.

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