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Appendix Biographical Sketches WESLEY G. SKOGAN (Chair) is professor of political science at North- western University and a member of the research faculty of Northwestern's Institute for Policy Research--positions he has held for almost two decades. He is the sole or principal author of six books whose subjects reflect his eclectic research interests in law and politics, including community polic- ing, crime in urban America, crime victims and victim services, and how communities and neighborhoods cope with crime. His book, Disorder and Decline: Crime and the Spiral of Decay in American Cities won the 1991 distinguished scholar award of the American Sociological Association. Most of his current research focuses on citizens as producers and consumers of law. He has conducted surveys for Great Britain's Home Office on contacts between the police and the public in England and Wales; as well as surveys on drug enforcement in public housing in Washington, DC; problem-solv- ing policing and racial conflict in the United States; crime and the racial fears of white Americans; community participation in community policing; and reactions to crime in cross-national perspective. He was a member of the National Research Council's Committee on Law and Justice. He has a Ph.D. in political science from Northwestern University DAVID H. BAYLEY is distinguished professor in the School of Criminal Justice at the University at Albany, State University of New York. He was dean of the School of Criminal Justice from 1995 to 1999. A specialist in international criminal justice, with particular interest in policing, he has done extensive research in India, Japan, Australia, Canada, Britain, Singapore, and the United States. His work has focused on strategies of 393

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394 APPENDIX policing, police reform, accountability, and the tactics of patrol officers in discretionary law enforcement situations. Recently he served as a consult- ant to the U.S. government and the United Nations on police reform in Bosnia. His most recent books are What Works in Policing (1998) and Police for the Future (1994). He has an M.A. from Oxford University and a Ph.D. from Princeton University. LAWRENCE D. BOBO is the Norman Tishman and Charles M. Diker professor of sociology and African and African American studies at Harvard University. He is also acting chair of Harvard's Department of African and African American Studies and acting director of the W.E.B. Du Bois Insti- tute. He served on the National Research Council's Panel on Poverty and Family Assistance, and also on the board of overseers for the National Opin- ion Research Center's General Social Survey. He chaired the 1991 national conference of the American Association for Public Opinion Research. His research interests include racial attitudes and relations, social psychology, public opinion, and political behavior. He is an author or editor of several books on these topics, most recently Prejudice in Politics: Public Opinion, Group Position, and Wisconsin Treaty Rights Conflict. He is founding co- editor of the Du Bois Review: Social Science Research on Race. He is cur- rently writing a book on the 2000 presidential election and a second on race and crime in American public opinion. He has M.A. and Ph.D. degrees in sociology from the University of Michigan. RUTH M. DAVIS is president and chief executive officer of the Pymatuning Group, Inc., in Alexandria, Virginia, which specializes in industrial mod- ernization strategies and technology development. She is chairman of the Aerospace Corporation and vice-chairman of the Betac Corporation. She serves on the boards of 12 corporations and private organizations and was a member of the board of regents of the National Library of Medicine from 1989 to 1992. She has served as assistant secretary of energy for resource applications, and deputy undersecretary of defense for research and ad- vanced technology. She has taught at Harvard University and at the Univer- sity of Pennsylvania, and she currently serves on the University of Pennsylvania's board of overseers of the School of Engineering and Applied Science. She also serves on a number of advisory committees to the federal government, the National Research Council, and the National Academy of Engineering. She was elected to the National Academy of Engineering in 1976. She advises and provides management coordination services to the Law Enforcement Technology Transfer Program, a joint effort of the De- partment of Justice and the Department of Defense. She has a Ph.D. in mathematics from the University of Maryland.

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APPENDIX 395 JOHN E. ECK is associate professor in the Division of Criminal Justice at the University of Cincinnati, where he teaches graduate courses on research methods, police effectiveness, and criminal justice policy and undergradu- ate classes on police administration. His research focuses on the prevention of crime at places, the analysis and mapping of crime hot spots, drug deal- ing and trafficking control, criminal investigations, and police problem- solving strategies. He is a former director of research for the Police Execu- tive Research Forum, where he helped pioneer the development and testing of problem-oriented policing. He has served as a consultant to the Office of Community Oriented Policing Services, the National Institute of Justice, the Police Foundation, the Police Executive Research Forum, the Royal Cana- dian Mounted Police, and the London Metropolitan Police. He has a Ph.D. in criminology from the University of Maryland. KATHLEEN FRYDL (Study Director), who served as a program officer of the Committee on Law and Justice, is an assistant professor of history at the University of California, Berkeley. She has a Ph.D. in American history from the University of Chicago (2000); her dissertation was on the World War II Servicemen's Readjustment Act (the GI Bill). DAVID A. KLINGER is associate professor of criminology at the Univer- sity of Missouri, St. Louis. His research interests include a broad array of issues in the field of crime and justice, with an emphasis on the organization and actions of the modern police. He has published scholarly manuscripts that address arrest practices, the use of force, and how features of commu- nities affect the actions of patrol officers. He recently completed a federally funded research project on officer-involved shootings and is completing another federally funded study, which examines police special weapons and tactics (SWAT) teams. In 1997 he was the recipient of the American Society of Criminology's inaugural Ruth Caven young scholar award for outstand- ing early career contributions to the discipline of criminology. He has an M.A. in justice from American University and a Ph.D. in sociology from the University of Washington. Prior to pursuing his graduate degrees, he worked as a patrol officer for the Los Angeles and Redmond, Washington, Police Departments. JANET LAURITSEN is professor of criminology and criminal justice at the University of Missouri-St. Louis and a fellow of the National Consortium on Violence Research at Carnegie Mellon University. She recently com- pleted a visiting fellowship at the Bureau of Justice Statistics in Washington, DC. Her areas of interest are causes and consequences of victimization, the social context of crime, and quantitative research methods. Her current research focuses on disentangling the effects of individual, family, and com-

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396 APPENDIX munity factors on the risk of violent victimization in the United States. Work in progress describes how the risk of violence is related to race, ethnicity, gender, family structure, and community disadvantage. She has published widely in the areas of violence, neighborhood disadvantage and crime, juvenile violence, and research methods. She currently serves on the editorial advisory board of the Journal of Quantitative Criminology. She has a Ph.D. in sociology from the University of Illinois at Urbana. TRACEY MACLIN is professor of law at Boston University. His teaching and research interests include criminal procedure, constitutional law, and constitutional theory He has written numerous amicus curiae briefs on is- sues related to the constitutional right to be free from unreasonable searches and seizures, including for two cases argued before the U.S. Supreme Court. In addition to his teaching responsibilities at the School of Law, he has held visiting professorships at the law schools of Harvard and Cornell universi- ties. He has also served as counsel of record for the American Civil Liberties Union and the National Association of Criminal Defense Lawyers in a num- ber of U.S. Supreme Court cases. He is currently president of the board of directors of the Civil Liberties Union of Massachusetts. In 1999 he pre- sented a review of the Supreme Court's 1998-1999 term at the Federal Judicial Center and "Driving While Black? A Study in Search and Seizure" at a meeting of the National Bar Association. Before teaching law, he clerked for Chief Judge Boyce F. Martin, Jr., of the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Sixth Circuit and practiced with the law firm of Cahill, Gordon and Reindel in New York. He a J.D. from Columbia University. STEPHEN D. MASTROFSKI is the director of the Administration of Jus- tice Program, director of the Center for Justice Leadership and Manage- ment, and professor of public and international affairs at George Mason University. He previously held positions on the faculty of the School of Criminal Justice at Michigan State University and the Administration of Justice Department at the Pennsylvania State University, and was a visiting fellow at the U.S. Department of Justice. His research interests include po- lice reform and organizational change, measuring the performance of police organizations, testing theories of officer behavior, and field methods in criminological research. He and several colleagues recently conducted the Project on Policing Neighborhoods, a study on community policing at the street level, based on nearly 7,000 hours of systematic observation of patrol officers. He is widely published on the topic of policing, including police organizations, operations, and performance; communities and the police; and police innovation and reform. He has a Ph.D. in political science from the University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill.

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APPENDIX 397 TRACEY L. MEARES is professor of law at the University of Chicago and a research fellow at the American Bar Foundation. She is also a faculty member of the University of Chicago Center for the Study of Race, Politics and Culture and an executive committee member of the Northwestern/Uni- versity of Chicago Joint Center for Poverty Research. Previously she served as an honors program trial attorney in the Antitrust Division of the U.S. Department of Justice and prior to that clerked for Judge Harlington Wood, Jr., of the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Seventh Circuit. Her teaching and research interests center on criminal procedure and criminal law policy, with a particular emphasis on empirical investigation of these subjects. She has a J.D. from the University of Chicago Law School. MARK H. MOORE is the Daniel and Florence Guggenheim professor of criminal justice policy and management at the John F. Kennedy School of Government and director of the Hauser Center for Nonprofit Institutions at Harvard University. Founding Chair of the Kennedy School's Committee on Executive Programs, he served in that role for more than a decade. He is the faculty chair of the School's Program in Criminal Justice Policy and Management. He is a member of the National Research Council's Commit- tee on Law and Justice and served as chair of the Committee on Lethal School Violence. His research interests are in public management and lead- ership, criminal justice policy and management, and the intersection of the two. In the area of public management, he has recently published Creating Public Value: Strategic Management in Government. In the area of criminal justice policy, he has written two books: Buy and Bust: The Effective Regu- lation of an Illicit Market in Heroin and Dangerous Offenders: The Elusive Targets of Justice. In the intersection of public management and criminal justice, he has written (with others) From Children to Citizens: The Man- date for Juvenile Justice and Beyond 911: A New Era for Policing. He has M.P.P. and Ph.D. degrees in public policy from Harvard University. RALPH PATTERSON (Senior Project Assistant) is responsible for han- dling administrative matters and logistics for various studies under the aus- pices of the Committee on Law and Justice. Previously he worked for the Competitive Enterprise Institute in Washington, DC, on projects involving environment and health and safety issues. He has a B.A. in history from American University. RUTH D. PETERSON is professor of sociology and director of the Crimi- nal Justice Research Center at Ohio State University, where she has been on the faculty since 1985. She is also a fellow of the National Consortium of Violence Research, where she coordinates the Race and Ethnicity Research Program Area. She has conducted research on legal decision making and

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398 APPENDIX sentencing, crime and deterrence, and, most recently, patterns of urban crime. She is widely published in the areas of capital punishment, race, gender, and socioeconomic disadvantage. Her current research focuses on the linkages among racial residential segregation, concentrated social disad- vantage and race-specific crime, and the social context of prosecutorial and court decisions. She has a Ph.D. in sociology from the University of Wiscon- sin-Madison. ELAINE B. SHARP is professor of political science at the University of Kansas. Previously she was chair of the department and director of the Institute for Public Policy and Business Research at the University of Kan- sas. Her research interests include urban public policy and urban gover- nance issues and, at the national level, processes of social policy formation. She has investigated variation in city governments' responses to volatile morality issues, such as abortion clinic protests, gay rights proposals, needle exchange programs, pornography, sexually explicit enterprises, and hate crimes. She was president of the American Political Science Association's organized sections on urban politics and on public policy. She has a Ph.D. in political science from the University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill. LAWRENCE W. SHERMAN is director of the Jerry Lee Center of Crimi- nology, chair of the Graduate Group in Criminology, and the Albert M. Greenfield professor of human relations in the Department of Sociology at the University of Pennsylvania. He previously served as distinguished uni- versity professor and chair of the Department of Criminology and Criminal Justice at the University of Maryland, as Seth Boyden distinguished visiting professor at Rutgers University, and as assistant and associate professor of criminal justice at the State University of New York at Albany. Since begin- ning his career as a civilian research analyst in the New York City Police Department as an Alfred P. Sloan urban fellow in 1971, he has collaborated with more than 30 police agencies around the world, evaluating policies designed to prevent crime, reduce domestic violence, get illegal guns off the streets, prevent police corruption, close down crack houses, and help vic- tims of crime. He is the author or coauthor of four books and hundreds of articles on these topics. He is currently collaborating with the Australian Federal Police on an evaluation of victim-centered restorative justice pro- grams for juvenile violence and crime. In 2002, he served as president of the American Society of Criminology. He has an M.A. from the University of Chicago, a diploma in criminology from Cambridge University, and a Ph.D. in Sociology from Yale University. SAMUEL WALKER is Isaacson professor of criminal justice at the Univer- sity of Nebraska at Omaha. He is the author of 11 books on policing, criminal justice policy, and civil liberties, including Police Accountability.

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APPENDIX 399 His current research involves police accountability, focusing primarily on citizen oversight of the police and police early warning systems. He has served as a consultant to the Civil Rights Division of the U.S. Justice De- partment and assisted in their investigations of the New Jersey State Police and the Metropolitan Police Department of Washington, DC. In June 2001, he received the distinguished alumni award from the College of Humanities of Ohio State University. He has a Ph.D. in American history from Ohio State University. DAVID WEISBURD is professor of of criminology at the Hebrew Univer- sity Law School in Jerusalem and professor of criminology and criminal justice at the University of Maryland, College Park. He is also a senior fellow at the Police Foundation and chair of its research advisory commit- tee. He has held academic or research positions at Yale Law School, the Vera Institute of Justice, and Rutgers University, and as director of the Center for Crime Prevention Studies. He has broad experience in research and statistics in criminal justice. He has served as a principal investigator for a number of federally supported research studies, including the Minne- apolis Hot Spots Experiment and the Drug Market Analysis Program in Jersey City. He has also served as a scientific and statistical adviser to local, national, and international organizations, including the National Institute of Justice, the Institute of Law and Justice, the Office of National Drug Control Policy, the New Jersey Administrative Office of the Courts, the British Home Office Research Unit, and the Israeli Ministry of Police. He is author of a number of books on such topics as violent crime, white-collar crime, policing, criminal justice statistics, and social deviance. He has M.Phil. and Ph.D. degrees in sociology from Yale University. ROBERT WORDEN is associate professor of criminal justice at the Uni- versity at Albany, State University of New York. He is also a gubernatorial appointee to the New York State Law Enforcement Accreditation Council. Most of his research has focused on the police or drug control policy, and it includes basic and applied studies on the accountability and responsiveness of criminal justice institutions to the public. This includes basic research-- concerned with explaining the behavior of criminal justice actors in terms of political, organizational, and social influences--and applied research-- concerned with the implementation and outcomes of criminal justice poli- cies and programs. He is currently engaged in a number of projects that examine the delivery of police services in Albany. He is also the site director of the Capital District Arrestee Drug Abuse Monitoring (ADAM) project, and he directs the research for Project Safe Neighborhoods in the Northern District of New York. His most recent publications examine police officers' attitudes, behavior, and supervisory influences and police use of force. He has a Ph.D. from the University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill.

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