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Index A terrorist incident prevention and response, 209214 Academy of Criminal Justice Sciences, 22 time allocation for, 71 Accreditation, 102, 308309 uniformed patrol, 5762 Activities of policing See also specific activity in community policing, 32, 8588, 233 Aggressive preventive patrol, 60, 61 conceptualization of, 57 Allocation of police resources, 71, 314317 crackdowns, 236237 American Bar Association, 22, 29 for crime prevention, 73 American Indian police departments, 50 disorder policing, 228230 American Police Systems, 21 exercise of authority, 6369 American Society of Criminology, 22 field interrogations, 231 Americans with Disabilities Act, 54 in focused policing, 235236 Arrests informal enforcement measures, 162164 agency size as factor in rate of, 172 information collection and processing, citizen characteristics as factor in, 116 7577, 166168 128 innovative approaches, 9495 deterrent effectiveness of, offender investigations, 7375 characteristics and, 242 legal constraints to, 253254 domestic violence intervention, 6465, maintaining order, 6971 231232, 309310 organizational measures and outputs, gender differences as factor in, 151, 152 157162 as goal of policing, 93 in problem-oriented policing, 9293, 243 illegal search leading to, 264265 public interaction in, 58, 6263 legal definition, 159 random preventive patrols, 5, 17, 226 neighborhood characteristics and for reducing fear in community, 86 likelihood of, 191192 research needs, 214215, 218 officer attitudes as factor in, 135, 136 service activities, 71, 164165, 191 officer discretion, 64, 70 specialized services, 7778, 176179, organizational data on, 159 215216, 310311 percentage of investigations resulting in, standard model, 94, 223224 74 401

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402 INDEX police behavior in urban environments, proactive policing and, 6162, 75 194195 search and seizure protections, 262263 political factors in police practice and Civil Rights Act, 54, 81 policy, 199200 Civilian review boards. See Citizen oversight at protest demonstrations, 6566 of police racial factors in, 64, 122126, 149150, Commission on Accreditation for Law 191192, 316 Enforcement Agencies, 102 situational determinants of police Communication systems. See Dispatch behavior, 115117 system state legislation and, 205 Community characteristics, 155156 in traffic stops, 72, 160161 crime risk, 217218 vs. taking into custody, 70 organization of police agency and, 174 See also Case clearance 175 Auditing organizations, 102 police behavior and, 189193, 216 Auto theft, 246 police corruption risk and, 273 See also Urban areas Community Oriented Policing Program, 25 B Community Oriented Policing Services (COPS), 3033, 103, 105, 207 Beat Health Study, 240 Community police specialists, 178179 Behavior of police. See Determinants of Community policing police behavior; Lawfulness of police activities, 32, 8588, 233 behavior adoption and diffusion, 104105, 106, Bicycle patrol, 58 311312 Boston Ceasefire project, 241 benefits, 61 Brown v. Mississippi, 253254 characteristics, 5, 18, 84, 85, 233, 248 Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms, 249 76, 77 community relations and, 61, 62, 88, Bureau of Justice Assistance, 103 8990, 9192, 235, 298, 307 Bureau of Justice Statistics, 9, 107, 166, conceptual basis, 24 328, 329330 COPS effectiveness, 3132 degree of innovation in, 8485, 9495 C educational attainment of officers and performance in, 140 Case clearance effectiveness, 7, 3334, 232235, 246, effectiveness of follow-up investigations, 250251 227228 federal support for, 1, 11, 105106, 207 organizational data, 160 gender differences in officer behavior in, rate, 74 151152 size of police agency and, 172173 legitimating effects of, 312 Challenge of Crime in a Free Society, The, 20 officer attitudes in performance of, 32 Citation issuance, 160161 organizational structure of policing for, Citizen oversight of police, 6, 19, 55, 202 8889, 173174, 309 204, 288289, 310 police culture and, 132 Citizen policing, 5657, 89 proactive policing and, 6162, 8788 Civil liberties, 57, 195 problem-oriented policing and, 9092, 93 data collection on police practice, 319 recruitment and training of officers for, excessive force lawsuits, 278280 105106, 143, 144 Miranda rights, 207, 255258 relations with other government agencies policing of protest demonstrations, 65 in, 8990 66, 7071, 208 research recommendations, 9, 3334, 166, 330

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INDEX 403 research trends, 14, 24, 25 on interrogation practice, 253258 role of patrol officers in, 60 racial equality concerns, 253254 specialization in police agencies for, 78, sanctioning police discretion in stop and 177, 178179 search procedures, 318 Community Profile Development project, on search and seizure procedure, 262 142143 263 Complainant behavior and characteristics traffic enforcement and, 204205 delay in calling police, 227 Crime control and prevention demeanor toward police, 119 activities of, 73 as factor in police behavior, 116, 119, case clearance rate and, 227228 120121, 122, 192 characteristics of effective policing, 95 gender, 122 96 perceptions of police legitimacy, 292 citizen requests for police service, 5859, race, 123124 60 social class, 120121 citizen rights and, 6162, 75 Complaints about police behavior, 161162 community policing perspective, 8588 CompStat, 16, 76, 167, 174, 230, 309 conceptualization, 72 adoption trends, 185 disorder policing, 228230 effects on policing practice, 185, 186188 effectiveness of problem-oriented management structure and function, policing, 244246 186187, 188 fairness in policing and, 1 program features, 186187 federal law enforcement agencies, 50 rationale, 185186 focus on previous offenders, 236, 240 research needs, 188189 243 Computer-aided dispatch, 58 focused model, 45, 1718 Conflict theory, 193195, 216 geo-focused policing, 181183, 216 COPS. See Community Oriented Policing individual-level intervention, 87, 88 Services information technology for, 76 Corruption, 6, 7, 18 models of social regulation, 294297 causes, 271275 nonenforcement activities in, 164 definition, 268 nonpolice factors, 217218 environmental risk factors, 273275 nonpolice participants, 5657 forms of, 268 opportunities for improving police government commissions to investigate, capacity, 3 289290 origins of suspect profiling, 317318 measurement, 268271 patrol officer activities, 5961, 71 officer characteristics predisposing to, police crackdown effectiveness, 236237 271272 in problem-oriented policing, 91 opportunity for, 272 public expectations for policing, 1, 12 organizational environment and, 272 random patrol strategy, 226 273 recommendations for improving, 7, 328 political factors in police behavior and research methodology, 4 policy, 201 research spending, 30 strategies for preventing, 287288 research trends and topics, 2324 in vice units, 7475, 78 restorative policing rationale and effects, Cost of policing, 51 305307 federal spending, 5354, 105 situational approach, 8788 County police force, 4950 size of police agency and, 224225 Court decisions, 99100 standard model, 4, 17, 223224 influence on police behavior and traffic enforcement and, 231 policies, 54, 206207, 216, 253255, youth firearms violence prevention, 32 260261, 263267, 273, 279280

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404 INDEX Crime-mapping, 100101, 236, 238 ecological theory of, 190 Crime rate environmental factors, 155156 community characteristics and, 217218 federal standards, 54, 207214 declines in 1990s, 25, 229230 importance of research in, 109110 local distribution of police resources legal liability concerns, 275280 and, 315 legally relevant factors, 3, 7, 1516, structure of police industry and, 25 115117, 152153 Culture, police, 16, 18 local government controls, 54 community policing and, 132 neighborhood characteristics, 189193, gender issues, 80 216 officer behavior and, 6, 16, 130133 organizational factors, 4, 16, 110, 155, 156, 171172, 174175, 215216, 282288 D police culture, 6, 16, 130133 police leadership, 283 DARE program, 87 political environment, 156, 196202 Data collection for research recruitment and training, 141147, 153 on community liaison and mobilization 154 activities, 165166 research methodology, 3, 1516, 111 on corruption, 268271 113 federal support for, 1, 11, 7677, 215 research needs, 152154 on informal activities of policing, 17, research trends, 2223 214215 state government standards, 5455, 205 on information technologies and 206 practices, 167, 168 urban context, 193195, 216 on nonenforcement activities, 164165 See also Environmental influences on on officer behavior, 8 police behavior; Officer on organizational structure and characteristics; Situational factors in functioning, 9, 214215 policing on policing processes, 165 Deterrence model of social regulation, 294 on public assessments of policing, 8, 292 296 on racial profiling, 286287, 319323, Disaster response, 75 324, 325326 Discretion of individual officers, 1415, 57 recommendations, 262, 328, 329 arrest decisions, 64, 70 on search and seizure procedures, 267 domestic violence intervention, 6465 on use of force by police, 78, 67, 259 formalization of police policies and, 260, 261262 184185 Department of Justice, 12, 21, 30, 53, 105, in geo-focused policing, 182183 277 public perception of policing and, 23, Detective work. See Follow-up 15 investigations racist practices, 254 Determinants of police behavior, 215216 research, 2223, 24 citizen behavior and characteristics, 116 specialization and, 179 128, 192 Dispatch system, 5859, 60 citizen review boards, 202204 Domestic violence, 6465, 122, 200, 231 in community policing, 32 232, 285, 309310 court decisions and government Drug crimes and drug law enforcement, regulation, 54, 206207, 216, 253 206, 239, 240, 265, 317318 255, 256258, 260261, 263267, Drug Enforcement Agency, 317 273, 279280 Drunk-driving enforcement, 172, 310 diversity of police force, 147148 Due process, 253, 262

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INDEX 405 E suspect characteristics and, 242243 understudied police activities, 218 Early warning systems, 285 youth firearms violence prevention, 32 Ecological theory, 190 See also Crime control and prevention Educational attainment of officers, 79, 138, Environmental influences on police 139141, 329 behavior, 155156 Effectiveness of policing corruption risk, 273275 assessment of, 7 neighborhood characteristics, 189193, case clearance rate, 74, 160 216 community policing, 7, 3334, 232235, scope of, 189 246, 250251 size of community and police agency, 5, comparison of strategies, 247251 17, 49, 168173 COPS investments and, 3132 See also Community characteristics crackdowns, 236237 Evidence-based policing, 308 disorder policing, 228230 drop in 1990s crime rate and, 25 fairness in policing and, 2, 19 F federally mandated research, 12, 11 field interrogations, 231 Fairness in policing focused model of policing, 235243, citizens' legal behavior related to 246247, 250, 251 perception of, 6, 19 follow-up investigations, 227228 effectiveness of policing and, 2, 19 geo-focused policing, 181183 federal enforcement, 53 hot-spots policing, 238240 public perception, 56, 15, 19, 115 innovation and, 9596 research recommendations, 78, 314 intensive enforcement strategies, 228 317 232 research trends, 1314 models of crime control, 45, 1718 in resource allocation, 314317 models of social regulation, 294297 See also Legitimacy of police; Racial perceived legitimacy of police and, 291, profiling 293294, 304306 Family intervention, 87 potential effects of government Federal Bureau of Investigation National sponsorship of research in, 3435 Academy, 208209 proactive patrol methods, 6061 Federal government action, 12, 11, 3034 problem-oriented policing, 3334, 91, capacity to influence structure of 243, 244246, 251 policing, 53 racial differences in public perception, community policing initiatives, 25, 105 300 106 random preventive patrols, 5, 17, 226 data collection, 1, 11, 7677, 215 recommendations for improving, 7, 328 as driver of innovation, 103, 327 research methodologies, 218223 to eliminate racial profiling, 324325 research needs, 247 employment standards, 54 research trends and topics, 1314, 23 influence on police behavior and 24, 25 policies, 54, 207214 response time and, 226227 local context of policing and, 2, 14 size of agency and, 168173, 215 police procedure standards, 54 size of police agency and, 224225 prosecution of excessive force cases, 277, specialization and, 78 280281 standard model, 223224, 246, 247, recommendations for, 10 248, 249250 research spending, 30, 31, 5354 structural factors, 2, 52 spending on law enforcement, 5354

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406 INDEX Federal law enforcement, 50 I Firearm violence, 32 intensive enforcement strategy, 239, 241 Impact munitions, 69 Focused model of policing, 45, 1718, 249 Information management in police work effectiveness, 235243, 246247, 250, activities in, 7577, 8384, 166168 251 CompStat program, 185186, 187, 188 recommendations, 7 for hot-spots policing, 5 trends, 236 innovation in, 76 Follow-up investigations, 5, 17, 7375 for internal accountability analysis, 286 effectiveness, 227228 287 opportunities for improving crime problem identification in problem- control, 15 oriented policing, 9293 technological advances, 228 for racial profiling assessment, 319323, Foot patrols, 233, 234 325326 Ford Foundation, 2930, 100 recommendations for research on, 167, Foreign police practices, 12, 53 168 Fourteenth Amendment, 253 Innovation in policing Fourth Amendment, 262, 263, 266 adopting units and programs to foster Functions of the Police in Modern Society, legitimacy, 308312 The, 23 adoption and diffusion of, 96, 9799, 102103, 104105 CompStat as, 185, 188 G as continuous process, 95 effectiveness of policing and, 9596 Gang crime, 201, 311 federal role, 103, 327 Gay and lesbian officers, 82 identifying, 94, 98 Gender in information processing, 76 citizen characteristics as determinants of local governance as source of, 101 police behavior, 121122 organizational structure of policing and, female officers, 7980 2, 4748, 98, 106 officer's, performance and, 147148, police receptiveness to, 67 151152, 154 process of origination, 9798, 99103 as outcome factor in police-citizen professional organizations as source of, interactions, 16 101102 political factors in police policy, 200 recent efforts, 8283, 94 recruitment trends, 132, 147, 312313 research goals, 12 Geo-focused policing, 181182, 216, 236 research needs, 96, 99 See also Focused model of policing research recommendations, 9, 106108, Guns. See Firearm violence 329330 as social learning process, 102103 strategic, 8485 H technological, 8384 High-speed pursuits, 285 through court order, 99100 Hot-spots policing, 5, 1719, 61, 100101 through federal action, 103 through research, 100 effectiveness, 238240 rationale, 237238 See also Community policing; Problem- See also CompStat; Focused model of oriented policing Intelligence testing, 138 policing Internal affairs investigations, 285286 International Association of Chiefs of Police, 101, 159, 261, 262

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INDEX 407 Interrogations, 6, 54 regulatory trends, 253255 effectiveness, 231 research needs, 7, 1819, 290 effects of legal regulation on police research recommendations, 323, 324, practice, 253254 326, 328 legal rights of citizens in, 256258 research trends, 1314, 252253 non-custodial interviews, 257258 state government oversight, 5455 police compliance with regulations on, strategies for promoting, 1819, 275 256258 290 in use of force, 258262 Leadership, police J governance structure of police agencies, 5152 Jersey City Drug Hot Spots Experiment, 239 influence on officer behavior, 283 Jersey City Drug Market Analysis lawfulness of police behavior and, 6 Experiment, 240, 245 limitations of current research, 4 Jersey City Problem Oriented Policing in Legislation Violent Crime Places, 239 to eliminate racial profiling, 325 Justice Research and Statistics Association, federal, 1, 11, 54 159 recommendations for, 7 Justice Without Trial, 2223 See also specific legislation Legitimacy of police, 56, 218 citizen behavior and, 304308 K community policing effects, 312 Kansas City Crack House Raids consequences of, 304308 Experiment, 239 definition, 18, 252, 291 Kansas City Gun Project, 239, 240 determinants of public perception, 15, Kansas City Preventive Patrol Experiment, 291292, 303304 2728, 100 disadvantaged citizens' perceptions of, Knapp Commission, 269270 307308 effectiveness of policing and, 291, 293 294, 304306 L local control of police and, 51 model of self-regulation, 296297 Law Enforcement Assistance organizational role in establishing, 292, Administration, 30 308312 Law Enforcement Management and perception of procedural justice and, Administrative Statistics, 9, 107, 301303 165166, 329330 personnel practices and, 312314 Lawfulness of police behavior, 56 proactive policing and, 6162 citizen complaint data, 161162 public perspectives, 292293 definition, 18, 252, 291 racial context, 300301 external oversight, 288290 recommendations for improving, 8, 329 influence of law on, 54, 206207, 216, research methods, 292, 299 253255, 256258, 260261, 263 research needs, 326 267, 273, 279280 sources of, 298299 internal affairs investigations, 285286 See also Fairness in policing; Public legal liability of individual officer, 275 opinion and understanding 280 Lethal force, 6667 public perception of, 56, 19, 115 circumstances, 6667, 260 recommendations for improving, 78, department and government policy, 67, 290, 328 259

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408 INDEX formalized police policies on, 184185, O 216, 284285 frequency of shootings, 66, 67, 259261 Observational studies, 27, 63, 220221 organizational data, 157158 police behavior research, 111113 organizational differences, 157 Occupational Safety and Health political factors in police behavior and Administration, 56 policy, 199200 Office of Justice Programs, 53, 54 racial context, 123, 259260 Officer characteristics See also Use of force by police attitudes and beliefs, 135136, 144145, Local policing, 51 153, 190 fairness in allocation of resources, 314 attitudes toward community policing, 32 317 authoritarian personality, 129130 local government oversight, 55 corruption risk, 271272 organizational structure, 4950 cynicism, 133134, 190 size of police force, 169, 170 demographic trends, 79 Locally Initiated Research Project, 33 early warning systems, 285 Lojack, 246 educational attainment, 79, 138, 139 141, 329 female officers, 7980, 147148, 151 M 152, 154 gay and lesbian officers, 82 Mapp v. Ohio, 263, 280 integrity, 274275 Mayors, 196, 198202, 261 job satisfaction, 134 Media portrayals, 47, 171 knowledge and skills, 137139 Mentally disordered citizens, 126128 limitations of current research, 34, 16 Militarist stance, 212213 minority officers, 79, 8182 Minneapolis Domestic Violence Experiment, performance assessments, 8, 76, 282 100 283 Minneapolis Hot Spots Patrol Experiment, race, 147150, 154 238 research base, 129 Minneapolis Spouse Assault Project, 25 scope of, 110 Miranda rights, 207, 255258 search and seizure practices and, 265 Moral behavior, 296 training experiences, 141147 Municipal police force, 49, 52 Ohio v. Robinette, 318 distribution of police resources, 316 Omnibus Crime Control and Safe Streets size and structure, 170 Act (1968), 1, 11 See also Urban areas Operation Pipeline, 317 Organizational structure and functioning, 1415 N change processes, 9, 14 National Crime Information Center, 7677 citizen oversight, 202204 community liaison and mobilization National Evaluation of Youth Firearms Violence Initiative, 32 activities, 165166 National Instant Criminal Background for community policing, 85, 8889, 309 complexity, 176181 Check System, 77 National Institute of Justice, 1, 11, 23, 30 CompStat features and effects, 185189 33, 5354, 103, 112113, 167 coordination among components, 5253 corruption risk, 272273 recommendations for, 10, 330 National Science Foundation, 30, 112 current state, 2, 4851, 170171 National Sheriffs Association, 101 decentralization, 2, 14, 5253, 8889, 173175

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INDEX 409 as determinant of police behavior, 4, 16, P 110, 155, 156, 171172, 215216, 282288 Peacekeeping mission of police, 6971 distribution of employees, 58 Personality traits of officers effect of civil lawsuits against police, authoritarian, 129130 279280 corruption risk, 271272 effectiveness of training programs Police Executive Research Forum, 2930, influenced by, 144 101 in establishing legitimacy, 292, 308312 Police Foundation, 29, 100 external oversight, 288290 Police Project of the Philadelphia Public federal capacity to influence, 53 Interest Law Center, 261 formalization of police policies, 184185 Police-Public Contact Surveys, 159 geo-focused policing, 181183 Police Services Study, 112, 127, 191, 192 governance, 5152 Police Systems in the United States, 21 hierarchical differentiation, 179181 Political context of policing, 4, 1617, 52 information collection and processing commissions to investigate police activities, 166168 behavior, 289290 innovation and, 4748, 98, 106 as determinant of police behavior, 156, innovation in, 83 196202 interaction with other governmental local distribution of police resources agencies, 204205, 210, 211 and, 315 job specialization, 7778, 176179 police corruption risk and, 273274 level of government and, 4950 police hiring patterns, 225 measures and indicators of, 156162 race factors in police-citizen interaction militarism in, 212213 and, 125 nonenforcement service delivery, 164 Pregnancy Discrimination Act, 54 165 President's Commission on Law number of agencies, 48, 50 Enforcement and the Administration number of employees, 48, 50 of Justice, 20, 21, 29, 35, 112 political context, 196202 Prevention. See Crime control and populations served, 4849 prevention for problem-oriented policing, 244 Principal-agent theory, 196198 problems of fragmentation, 5253 Private security industry, 5556 research needs, 214216 research recommendations, 107 research recommendations, 9 Problem-oriented policing research trends and topics, 4, 23 adoption and diffusion, 104 self-assessment for legal compliance, characteristics, 5, 18, 84, 9091, 243 286287 244, 249 significance of, in achieving goals of community policing and, 9092, 93 policing, 168 conceptual basis, 91, 243 size of agency, 5, 17, 49, 168173, 215 crime prevention strategies, 87 state government influence, 5455, 205 degree of innovation in, 8485, 9495 206 effectiveness, 3334, 243, 244246, 251 terrorist incident preparedness, 209214 problem identification, 9293, 243244 traditional model, 9394 research recommendations, 9, 3334, use of force policies, 282283 166, 330 See also Leadership, police research trends, 14 Overtime pay, 51 role of patrol officers, 60 Problem Oriented Policing in Violent Crime Places, 240

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410 INDEX Procedural justice, 301303, 307 local distribution of police resources Processes of policing, 165 and, 314315 Professional organizations, 101102 officer's, 147150 Professional standards units, 285286 as outcome factor in police-citizen Project on Policing Neighborhoods in interactions, 16, 64, 122126, 148 Indianapolis and St. Petersburg, 32, 150, 191192 112113, 124, 127, 178179, 192, perception of police fairness, 23, 8, 15, 193 300301 Protest demonstrations, 6566, 7071, 208 police force composition, 79, 8182 209 political factors in police behavior and Public education, 73 policy, 199, 200 in community policing, 89 proactive policing and, 61 Public opinion and understanding racial threat hypothesis, 194 community policing conceptualization recruitment trends, 132, 147, 312314 of, 86 research recommendations, 125126 community policing effects on fear of research trends, 22, 25 crime, 234235 search and seizure practices and, 265, complaints filed against police, 161162, 267 195 use of force by police and, 25, 123, 260, determinants of, 47, 299 300301 discretionary authority of individual use of lethal force by police and, 66, officers and, 23, 15 123, 259260 expectations for police performance, 1, Racial profiling, 3, 6, 18, 25, 72, 124, 240 12, 217, 292 241, 318320 lawfulness of police behavior, 56, 19, accountability measures, 323324 115 data collection on police practice, 319 models of social regulation, 294297 323, 324, 325326 of organizational structure of police federal response, 324325 agencies, 171 origins of, 317318 police corruption risk and, 273 police agency self-assessments, 286287 police-public interactions, 62 public perception, 319 of racial profiling, 319, 325, 326 research recommendations, 323, 326 research recommendations, 8, 107108, research trends, 13, 15 326, 328, 329 strategies for eliminating, 287 research trends and topics, 18, 23 Random patrols, 5, 17, 226 size of police agency and, 171 Randomized experiments, 219, 221 See also Legitimacy of police Recruitment and training of officers, 139 civil disturbance management training, 208 Q for community policing, 105106, 143, 144 Quasi-experimental research, 2728, 219 demographic trends, 79, 132, 147, 312 220 314 as determinant of officer performance, R 141147, 153154 early warning systems, 285 Race and ethnicity educational attainment considerations, arrest behavior of police and, 64, 191 139141, 329 192, 316 Federal Bureau of Investigation National legal regulation of police procedure, Academy, 208209 253254 federal role, 54

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INDEX 411 female officers, 7981 on lawfulness of police behavior, 6, 78, innovative approaches, 83 1819, 290, 326, 328 limitations of current research, 34, 14 methodologies, 14, 2729, 34, 67, 111 15, 16 113, 219223 minority employees, 79, 8182 national coordination of, 10, 330331 organizational environment and, 144 on nonenforcement service activities in political context, 225 policing, 165 predictors of training success, 138 on officer characteristics, 34 reform strategy, 128129 on officer training, 146147 research needs, 146 on organizational factors, 4, 23, 175, research recommendations, 8, 147, 329 214216 screening for corruption risk, 271272 outcome evaluations, 3435 specialization, 7778, 176179 on personnel practices, 8, 16, 329 state government role, 5455 on police-public interaction, 6263 trends, 142 police receptiveness to, 67, 13, 24, 35 use of force and, 6364 potential effects of government Repeat Call Policing, 238 sponsorship, 3435 Repeat offenders, 236, 240243 on problem-oriented policing, 9, 3334, Research 166, 330 advocacy and, 24 on public experiences and perceptions, 8, on antiterrorist efforts, 910, 330 18, 23, 107108, 292, 299, 328, 329 benefits of, 35 on race factors, 125126 on citizen review boards, 204 scale of, 2122, 34 on community policing, 9, 14, 24, 25, scholarly journals on policing, 2122 3334, 330 scope of subject matter, 2227, 3646 on CompStat program, 188189 on social class variables, 121 on crime control effectiveness, 45, 19, as source of innovation, 100 2324 on specialization, 177, 178 on crime prevention, 30 terrorist incident preparedness, 212214 on determinants of police behavior, 3, on traffic enforcement, 3, 15 1516, 2223, 111113, 152154 trends in, 1314, 2027, 3435 on discretionary authority of individual on use of force by police, 78, 13, 24 officers, 2223, 24 25, 67 on distribution of police resources, 316 See also Data collection for research 317 Response time, 5, 17, 226227 on effectiveness of policing, 218223, Restorative policing, 305307 247251 evaluating research quality, 25, 29, 33 on extent of community liaison S activities, 166 Safe Streets Act, 327 on fairness of police behavior, 78, 13 14, 19, 252253 SARA, 91 federal mandates for, 12, 1112, 30 School policing, 5051 SEADOC, 208 funding of, 10, 2930, 31, 34, 5354 future prospects, 19, 327 Searches and seizures, 6, 54 generalizability, 221222 data collection, 267 legal environment, 262263, 280 goals, 12, 1112, 3031, 3435 on hierarchical structuring, 180 police compliance with law, 207, 263 on information technologies and 267 pretextual, 318 practices, 167, 168 on innovation in policing, 9, 12, 96, 99, racial context, 265, 267 106108, 329330 stop and frisk procedures, 266267

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412 INDEX suspect profiling and, 317318 Suspect characteristics, 3, 16 in traffic stops, 72 age, 116117 warrant practices, 265266 demeanor toward police, 117120, 124 Self-defense, 56 as determinant of police behavior, 116 Serious Habitual Offender/Drug Involved 128 Program, 87 effectiveness of arrest policies related to, Service activities in policing, 71, 164165 242243 neighborhood factors in delivery of, 191 employment, 242 research recommendations, 165 gender, 121122 Sheriff's departments, 4950 mental capacity, 126128 Situational factors in policing national data collection, 7677 arrest decisions, 64 perceptions of police legitimacy, 292 circumstances of unlawful searches, 265 293 complainant behavior and race, 64, 122126 characteristics, 119 social class, 120121 crime prevention strategies in community SWAT teams, 7778 policing, 8788 Systematic social observation, 27 legal factors, 115117 neighborhood vs. city-level factors, 4, 1617 T research goals, 115 scope of, 3, 15, 110, 114 Tailored responses to crime and disorder, 5, 18, 9596 significance of, in determining police behavior, 114 Team policing, 176177, 181, 182183 suspect behavior and characteristics, Tennessee v. Garner, 67, 259 Terrorist threat, 75, 156, 326 116128 use of lethal force by police, 6667, 260 coordination of policing against, 5253 Size of police force, 5, 168173, 215 information collection and processing activities, 166168 adoption of innovation and, 104 community policing movement, 169170 interorganizational coordination in consolidation movement, 169, 170, 173 response to, 210, 211 local context of policing and, 2 current profile, 49, 169 effectiveness and, 171173, 224225 police preparedness, 209214 patrol mobilization and, 170171 research needs, 212214 research recommendations, 910, 330 public perception, 171 Social class, 120121 Terry v. Ohio, 266, 267 local distribution of police resources Thurman v. Connecticut, 310 Traffic enforcement, 3, 15, 72 and, 315 neighborhood characteristics, 189191 citations issued, 160161 police behavior in urban environments, court outcomes and, 204205 data sources, 160161 193195 Specialization in policing, 7778, 176179, drunk-driving enforcement, 172, 310 215216, 310311 effects on general crime rate, 231 outcomes of traffic stops, 72 terrorist incident response, 209210 State government, 5455, 205206 percentage of police-public interactions commissions to investigate police in, 62 pretextual traffic stops, 318 behavior, 289290 State law enforcement, 50 as proactive strategy, 6061 Sting operations, 241242 race as factor in arrest decision, 123 racial profiling in, 72, 124, 286287 Stun guns, 69 Suburban areas, 317 Transportation system policing, 5051

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INDEX 413 U predisposing personality, 130 racial context, 25, 123, 192, 260, 300 Undercover work, 75 301 Uniform Crime Reports, 159, 160, 163 in range of police responses, 6364 164, 215 research recommendations, 78, 262, Uniformed patrols, 5762, 63 328 community policing approach, 88 research trends, 13, 2425 distribution of activities, 71 situational determinants of police female officers, 7980 behavior, 115 foot patrols, 233, 234 suspect characteristics as factor in, 118 geo-focused policing, 181182, 216 119 as percentage of local force, 170171 techniques, 6869 random preventive patrol, 5, 17, 226 See also Lethal force Unions, police, 55 United Kingdom, 53 Urban areas, 193195, 216 V distribution of police resources, 316, 317 See also Municipal police force Victim characteristics, 122 Urban Institute, 3132, 103, 104 Violence and the Police, 21 U.S. v. Calandra, 263 Violence and violent crime U.S. v. Leon, 265266 demographic features, 49 Use of force by police, 6 domestic conflict, 6465 circumstances and outcomes, 6768 research spending on crime prevention civil liability of officers for, 275276, per life lost, 30 278280 youth firearms violence prevention, 32 community policing conceptualization, See also Use of force by police 8687 Violent Crime Control and Law complainant characteristics as factor in, Enforcement Act (1994), 1, 11, 30 119 34, 53, 75, 104, 105, 280281 criminal liability of officers for, 275278 data collection, 78, 67, 259260, 261 262 W definition, 261262 Warrant searches, 265266 federal standards, 277, 280281 See also Searches and seizures by female officers, 151152 Whren v. United States, 318 frequency, 64, 6769 influence of administrative policies, 282 285 Y in managing protest demonstrations, 208 neighborhood characteristics and, 192, Youth 193 as factor in decision to arrest, 116117 nonlethal technologies, 69 firearms violence prevention, 32 officer attitudes and, 135 preventive interventions in community officer educational attainment and, 140 policing, 87, 88 141 officer training, 6364 organizational data, 158159 Z police compliance with law in, 259, Zero tolerance policing, 60, 61, 228230 260261

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