Some researchers make the plausible claim that comparison questions are a more effective protection against situational effects in concealed information formats than in comparison question tests because an examinee who lacks the concealed information will be unable to discriminate between the relevant and comparison questions and will therefore not have a different physiological response to the relevant question.


Countermeasures are actions taken by an examinee to influence the physiological responses being measured and thereby produce a test result that indicates truthfulness.


When a polygraph test is scored from a chart alone, scorers are normally provided with the questions that were asked and the temporal point on the chart when each question was asked.


This assumption must be made in any preemployment screening test and is not unique to polygraph screening.


It is also possible for polygraph examinations to result in false confessions, just as with other interrogation techniques (Kassin, 1997, 1998). False confessions should probably be counted as evidence against the utility of polygraph examinations.

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