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APPENDIX CForum Member and Speaker Biographies FORUM MEMBERS JOSHUA LEDERBERG, Ph.D. (Chair), is professor emeritus of mo- lecular genetics and informatics and Sackler Foundation Scholar at the Rockefeller University, New York, NY. His lifelong research, for which he received the Nobel Prize in 1958, has been in genetic structure and function in microorganisms. He has a keen interest in international health and was cochair of a previous Institute of Medicine Committee on Emerging Micro- bial Threats to Health (1990-1992) and currently is cochair of the Com- mittee on Emerging Microbial Threats to Health in the 21st Century. He has been a member of the National Academy of Sciences since 1957 and is a charter member of the Institute of Medicine. STEVEN I. BRICKNER, Ph.D., is research advisor for antibacterials chemistry at Pfizer Global Research and Development. He received his Ph.D. in organic chemistry from Cornell University and was an NIH post- doctoral research fellow at the University of Wisconsin-Madison. Dr. Brickner is a medicinal chemist with nearly 20 years of research experience in the pharmaceutical industry, all focused on the discovery and develop- ment of novel antibacterial agents. He is an inventor/coinventor on 21 U.S. patents and has published numerous scientific papers, primarily in the area of the oxazolidinones. Prior to joining Pfizer in 1996, he led a team at Pharmacia and Upjohn that discovered and developed linezolid, the first member of a new class of antibiotics to be approved in the last 35 years. GAIL H. CASSELL, Ph.D., is vice president of infectious diseases re- 190

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APPENDIX C 191 search, drug discovery research, and clinical investigation at Eli Lilly & Company. Previously, she was the Charles H. McCauley professor and (since 1987) chair of the Department of Microbiology, University of Ala- bama, Schools of Medicine and Dentistry, Birmingham, a department which, under her leadership, has ranked first in research funding from the National Institutes of Health since 1989. She is a member of the Director's Advisory Committee of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Dr. Cassell is past president of the American Society for Microbiology (ASM) and is serving her third three-year term as chairman of the Public and Scientific Affairs Board of ASM. She is a former member of the Na- tional Institutes of Health Director's Advisory Committee and a former member of the Advisory Council of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases. She has also served as an adviser on infectious diseases and indirect costs of research to the White House Office on Science and Technology and was previously chair of the Board of Scientific Counselors of the National Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Dr. Cassell served eight years on the Bacteriology-Mycol- ogy-II Study Section and served as its chair for three years. She serves on the editorial boards of several prestigious scientific journals and has authored over 275 articles and book chapters. She has been intimately involved in the establishment of science policy and legislation related to biomedical re- search and public health. Or. Casse11 has received several national and international awards and an honorary degree for her research on infectious diseases. GARY CHRISTOPHERSON is senior advisor for force health protec- tion at the U.S. Department of Defense, Reserve Affairs. Previously, as principal deputy assistant secretary of defense for health affairs, he man- aged policy, the Defense Health Program budget, and performance for the Military Health System, including the $16 billion TRICARE health care system and force health protection. In that role he also launched the De- partment of State's infectious disease surveillance and response system and served as cochair on the White House's infectious disease surveillance and response subcommittee. He has also been a key figure in the department's force health protection initiative against anthrax. In early 1998 he also served as the acting assistant secretary of defense for health affairs. Joining the Department of Defense in 1994, he has served as health affairs acting principal deputy assistant secretary and senior advisor where he provided advice on a wide range of health issues and managed the relationships with the White House and other federal agencies. Previously, he served 2 years (1992-1994) with the Office of Presidential Personnel at the White House and the Presidential Transition Office. As associate director, he managed the President's appointments to the Departments of Health and Human Services and Defense as well as 10 other departments. Prior to that, he

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192 CONSIDERATIONS FOR VIRAL DISEASE ERADICATION served in a number of senior health positions with the Congress and with public and private health agencies. GORDON DEFRIESE, Ph.D., is professor of social medicine and pro- fessor of medicine (in the Division of General Medicine and Clinical Epide- miology) at the University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill School of Medi- cine. In addition, he holds appointments as professor of epidemiology and health policy and administration in the UNC-CH School of Public Health and as professor of dental ecology in the UNC-CH School of Dentistry. From 1986-2000, he served as co-director of the Robert Wood Johnson Clinical Scholars Program, co-sponsored by the UNC-CH School of Medi- cine and the Cecil G. Sheps Center for Health Services Research. He re- ceived his Ph.D. from the University of Kentucky College of Medicine. Some of his research interests are in the areas of health promotion and disease prevention, medical sociology, primary health care, rural health care, cost-benefit analyses, and cost effectiveness. He is a past president of the Association for Health Services Research and a fellow of the New York Academy of Medicine. He is founder of the Partnership for Prevention, a coalition of private-sector business and industry organizations, voluntary health organizations, and state and federal public health agencies based in Washington, D.C. that have joined together to work toward the elevation of disease prevention among the nation's health policy priorities. He is an at-large member of the National Board of Medical Examiners. Since 1994 he has served as President and CEO of the North Carolina Institute of Medicine. He is Editor-in-Chief and Publisher of the North Carolina Mecti- cal Journal. CEDRIC E. DUMONT, M.D., is medical director for the Office of Medical Services (MED) at the U.S. Department of State. Dr. Dumont graduated from Columbia University with a B.A. in 1975 and obtained his medical degree from Tufts University School of Medicine in 1980. Dr. Dumont is a board-certified internist with subspecialty training in infec- tious diseases. He completed his internal medicine residency in 1983 and infectious diseases fellowship in 1988 at Georgetown University Hospital in Washington, D.C. Dr. Dumont has been a medical practitioner for over 19 years, 2 of which included service in the Peace Corps. Since joining the Department of State in 1990, he has had substantial experience overseas in Dakar, Bamako, Kinshasa, and Brazzaville. For the past 3 years, as the medical director for the Department of State, Dr. Dumont has promoted the health of all U.S. government employees serving overseas by encourag- ing their participation in a comprehensive health maintenance program and by facilitating their access to high-quality medical care. Dr. Dumont is a very strong supporter of the professional development and advancement of MED's highly qualifies! professional staff. In addition, he has supported and encouraged the use of an electronic medical record, which will be able

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APPENDIX C ..~ 193 to monitor the health of all its beneficiaries, not only during a specific assignment but also throughout their careers in the Foreign Service. JESSE L. GOODE, M.D., M.P.H., was professor of medicine and chief of infectious diseases at the University of Minnesota and is now serving as deputy director for the Food and Drug Administration's (FDA) Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research, where he is active in a broad range of scientific, public health, and policy issues. After joining the FDA commissioner's office, he has worked closely with several centers and helped coordinate FDA's response to the antimicrobial resistance problem. He was cochair of a recently formed fecleral interagency task force which developed the national Public Health Action Plan on antimicrobial resistance. He graduated from Harvard College and attended the Albert Einstein College of Medicine followed by training in internal medicine, hematology, oncol- ogy, and infectious diseases at the University of Pennsylvania and Univer- sity of California, Los Angeles, where he was also chief medical resident. He received his master's of public health from the University of Minnesota. He has been active in community public health activities, including creating an environmental health partnership in St. Paul, Minnesota. In recent years, his laboratory's research has focused on the molecular pathogenesis of tickborne diseases. His laboratory isolated the etiological intracellular agent of the emerging tickborne infection, human granulocytic ehrlichiosis, and identified its leukocyte receptor. He has also been an active clinician and teacher and has directed or participated in major multicenter clinical stud- ies. He is a fellow of the Infectious Diseases Society of America and, among several honors, has been elected to the American Society for Clinical Inves- . . tlgatlon. RENU GU1fTA, M.D., is vice president and head of U.S. Clinical Re- search and Development at Novartis Pharmaceuticals. Previously, she was vice president of meclical, safety, and therapeutics at Covance. Dr. Gupta is a board certified pediatrician, with subspeciality training in infectious dis- eases from Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, and the University of Penn- sylvania. She was also a postdoctoral research fellow in microbiology at the University of Pennsylvania and the Wistar Institute of Anatomy and Biol- ogy, where she conducted research on the pathogenesis of infectious dis- eases. Dr. Gupta received her M.B.,Ch.B with distinction from the Univer- sity of Zambia, where she examined the problem of poor compliance in the treatment of tuberculosis in rural and urban Africa. She is currently active in a number of professional societies, including the Infectious Diseases Society of America and the American Society of Microbiology. She is a frequent presenter at the Interscience Conference on Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy and other major congresses and has been published in leadinginfectious diseases periodicals. From 1989 to mid-1998, Dr. Gupta was with Bristol-Myers Squibb Company, where she directed clinical re-

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194 CONSIDERATIONS FOR VIRAL DISEASE ERADICATION search as well as strategic planning for the Infectious Diseases and Immu- nology Divisions. For the past several years, her work has focused on a better understanding of the problem of emerging infections. This has led to her pioneering efforts in establishing the Global Antimicrobial Surveillance Program, SENTRY, a private-academic-public sector partnership. Dr. Gupta chaired the steering committee for the SENTRY Antimicrobial Sur- veilIance Program. She remains active in women and children's health is- sues, and is currently furthering education and outreach initiatives. More recently Dr. Gupta has been instrumental in the formation of the Harvard- Pharma Management Board, of which she is a member, to further the educational goals of the Scholars in Clinical Science Program at the Harvard Medical School. MARGARET A. HAMBURG, M.D., is vice president for biological programs, Nuclear Threat Initiative, Washington, D.C. The NTI is a new organization whose mission is to strengthen global security by reducing the risk of use of nuclear and other weapons of mass destruction and prevent- ing their spread. Dr. Hamburg is in charge of the biological program area. Before taking on her current position, she was assistant secretary for plan- ning and evaluation at the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, serving as a principal policy adviser to the Secretary of Health and Human Services with responsibilities including policy formulation and analysis, the development and review of regulations andlor legislation, budget analysis, strategic planning, and the conduct and coordination of policy research and program evaluation. Prior to this, she served for almost 6 years as the commissioner of health for New York City. As chief health officer in the nation's largest city, Dr. Hamburg's many accomplishments included the design and implementation of an internationally recognized tuberculosis control program that produced dramatic declines in tuberculosis cases, the development of initiatives that raised childhood immunization rates to record levels, and the creation of the first public health bioterrorism pre- paredness program in the nation. She completed her internship and resi- dency in internal medicine at the New York Hospital/Cornell University Medical Center and is certified by the American Board of Internal Medi- cine. Dr. Hamburg is a graduate of Harvard College and Harvard Medical School. She currently serves on the Harvard University Board of Overseers. She has been elected to membership in the Institute of Medicine, the New York Academy of Medicine, and the Council on Foreign Relations and is a fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science. CAROLE A. HEILMAN, Phi., is director of the Division of Microbi- ology and Infectious Diseases (DMIDj of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID). Dr. Heilman received her bachelor's de- gree in biology from Boston University in 1972 and earned her master's degree and doctorate in microbiology from Rutgers University in 1976 and

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APPENDIX C 195 1979. Dr. Heilman began her career at the National Institutes of Health as a postdoctoral research associate with the National Cancer Institute, where she carried out research on the regulation of gene expression during cancer development. In 1986 she came to NIAID as the influenza and viral respira- tory diseases program officer in DMID, and in 1988 she was appointed chief of the respiratory diseases branch, where she coordinated the develop- ment of acellular pertussis vaccines. She joined the Division of AIDS as deputy director in 1997 and was responsible for developing the Innovation Grant Program for approaches in HIV vaccine research. She is the recipient of several notable awards for outstanding achievement. Throughout her extramural career Dr. Heilman has contributed articles on vaccine design and development to many scientific journals and has served as a consultant to the World Bank and the World Health Organization. She is also a member of several professional societies, including the Infectious Diseases Society of America, the American Society for Microbiology, and the Ameri- can Society of Virology. JAMES M. HUGHES, M.D., received his B.A. in 1966 and M.D. in 1971 from Stanford University. He completed a residency in internal medi- cine at the University of Washington and a fellowship in infectious diseases at the University of Virginia. He is board-certified in internal medicine, infectious diseases, and preventive medicine. He first joined the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention as an epidemic intelligence service officer in 1973. During his CDC career, he has worked primarily in the areas of foodborne disease and infection control in health care settings. He became director of the National Center for Infectious Diseases in 1992. The center is currently working to address domestic and global challenges posed by emerging infectious diseases and the threat of bioterrorism. He is a fellow of the American College of Physicians, the Infectious Diseases Society of America, and the American Association for the Advancement of Science. He is an assistant surgeon general in the U.S. Public Health Service. SAMUEL L. KATZ, M.D., is Wilburt C. Davison professor and chair- man emeritus of pediatrics at Duke University Medical Center. He has concentrated his research on infectious diseases, focusing primarily on vac- cine research, development and policy. Dr. Katz has served on a number of scientific advisory committees and is the recipient of many prestigious awards and honorary fellowships in international organizations. He earned his M.D. at Harvard Medical School and completed his residency training at Boston hospitals. He became a staff member at Children's Hospital, working with Nobel laureate John Enders, during which time they devel- oped the attenuated measles virus vaccine now used throughout the world. He has chaired the Committee on Infectious Diseases of the American Academy of Pediatrics (the Redbook Committees, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) of the Centers for Disease Control and

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196 CONSIDERATIONS FOR VIRAL DISEASE ERADICATION Prevention, the Vaccine Priorities Study of the Institute of Medicine (IOM), and several World Health Organization (WHO) and Children's Vaccine Initiative panels on vaccines. He is a member of many scientific advisory committees including those of the NIH, IOM, and WHO. Dr. Katz's pub- lisheci studies include abundant original scientific articles, chapters in text- books, and many abstracts, editorials, and reviews. He is the coeditor of a textbook on pediatric infectious diseases and has given many named lec- tures in the United States and abroad. Currently he co-chairs the Indo-US Vaccine Action Program as well as the National Network for Immunization Information (NNII). COLONEL PATRICK KELLEY, M.D., M.P.H., Dr.P.H., is Director of the Department of Defense Global Emerging Infections System and the Director of the Division of Preventive Medicine at the Walter Reed Army Institute of Research HAIR, Silver Spring, Maryland. He obtained his M.D. from the University of Virginia and a Dr.P.H. in infectious disease epidemiology from the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. He is board-certified in general preventive medicine and a fellow of the American College of Preventive Medicine. For many years he directed the Army General Preventive Medicine Residency at WRAIR. Colonel Kelley has extensive experience leading military infectious disease studies and in managing domestic and international public health surveillance efforts. He has spoken before professional audiences in over 15 countries and has authored or co-authored over 40 scientific papers and book chapters on a variety of infectious disease and preventive medicine topics. He serves as the specialty editor for a textbook entitled, Military Preventive Medicine: Mobilization and Deployment. MARCELLE LAYTON, M.D., is the assistant commissioner for the Bureau of Communicable Diseases at the New York City Department of Health. The bureau is responsible for the surveillance and control of 51 infectious diseases and conditions reportable under the New York City Health Code. Current areas of concern include antibiotic resistance; food- borne, waterborne, and tickborne diseases; hepatitis C; and biological di- saster planning for the potential threats of bioterrorism and pandemic in- fluenza. Dr. Layton received her medical degree from Duke University. She completed an internal medicine residency at the University Health Science Center in Syracuse, New York, and an infectious disease fellowship at Yale University. In addition, Dr. Layton spent two years with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention as a fellow in the Epidemic Intelligence Service, where she was assigned to the New York City Department of Health. In the past, she has volunteered or worked with the Indian Health Service, the Alaskan Native Health Service, and clinics in northwestern Thailand and central Nepal. CARLOS LOPEZ, Ph.D., is a research fellow with Research Acquisi-

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APPENDIX C 197 tions, Eli Lilly Research Laboratories. He received his Ph.D. from the Uni- versity of Minnesota in 1970. Dr. Lopez was awarded the NTRDA post- doctora! fellowship. After his fellowship he was appointed assistant profes- sor of pathology at the University of Minnesota, where he did his research on cytomegalovirus infections in renal transplant recipients and the conse- quences of those infections. He was next appointed assistant member and head of the Laboratory of Herpesvirus Infections at the Sloan Kettering Institute for Cancer Research, where his research focused on herpes virus infections and the resistance mechanisms involved. Dr. Lopez's laboratory contributed to the immunological analysis of the earliest AIDS patients at the beginning of the AIDS epidemic in New York. He is coauthor of one of the seminal publications on this disease as well as many scientific papers and is coeditor of six books. Dr. Lopez has been a consultant to numerous agencies and organizations, including the National Institutes of Health, the Department of Veterans Affairs, and the American Cancer Society. LYNN MARKS, M.D., is board certified in internal medicine and in- fectious diseases. He was on faculty at the University of South Alabama College of Medicine in the Infectious Diseases department focusing on patient care, teaching and research. His academic research interest was on the molecular genetics of bacterial pathogenicity. He subsequently joined SmithKline Beecham's (now GlaxoSmithKline) anti-infectives clinical group and later progressed to global head of the Consumer Healthcare division Medical and Regulatory group. He then returned to pharmaceutical re- search and development as global head of the Infectious Diseases Therapeu- tic Area Strategy Team for GlaxoSmithKline. STEPHEN S. MORSE, Ph.D., is director of the Center for Public Health Preparedness at the Mailman School of Public Health of Columbia Univer- sity, and a faculty member in the Epidemiology Department. Dr. Morse recently returned to Columbia from 4 years in government service as pro- gram manager at the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA), where he co-directed the Pathogen Countermeasures program and subsequently directed the Advanced Diagnostics program. Before com- ing to Columbia, he was assistant professor of virology at The Rockefeller University in New York, where he remains an adjunct faculty member. Dr. Morse is the editor of two books, Emerging Viruses (Oxford University Press, 1993; paperback, 1996) (selected by "American Scientist" for its list of "100 Top Science Books of the 20th Century"), and The Evolutionary Biology of Viruses (Raven Press, 1994~. He currently serves as a Section Editor of the CDC journal "Emerging Infectious Diseases" and was for- merly an Editor-in-Chief of the Pasteur Institute's journal "Research in Virology". Dr. Morse was chair and principal organizer of the 1989 NIAID/ NIH Conference on Emerging Viruses (for which he originated the term and concept of emerging viruses/infections); served as a member of the

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198 CONSIDERATIONS FOR VIRAL DISEASE ERADICATION Institute of Medicine-National Academy of Sciences' Committee on Emerg- ing Microbial Threats to Health (and chaired its Task Force on Viruses), and was a contributor to its report, Emerging Infections (1992~; was a member of the IOM's Committee on Xenograft Transplantation; currently serves on the Steering Committee of the Institute of Medicine's Forum on Emerging Infections, and has served as an adviser to WHO (World Health Organization), PAHO (Pan-American Health Organization), FDA, the De- fense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA), and other agencies. He is a fellow of the New York Academy of Sciences and a past chair of its Microbiology Section. He was the founding chair of ProMED (the nonprofit international Program to Monitor Emerging Diseases) and was one of the originators of ProMED-mail, an international network inaugurated by ProMED in 1994 for outbreak reporting and disease monitoring using the Internet. Dr. Morse received his Ph.D. from the University of Wisconsin-Madison. MICHAEL T. OSTERHOLM, Ph.D., M.P.H., is director of the Center for Infectious Disease Research and Policy at the University of Minnesota where he is also professor at the School of Public Health. Previously, Dr. Osterholm was the state epidemiologist and chief of the Acute Disease Epidemiology Section for the Minnesota Department of Health. He has received numerous research awards from the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). He served as principal investigator for the CDC-sponsored Emerg- ing Infections Program in Minnesota. He has published more than 240 articles and abstracts on various emerging infectious disease problems and is the author of the best selling book, Living Terrors: What America Needs to Know to Survive the Coming Bioterrorist Catastrophe. He is past presi- dent of the Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists. He currently serves on the National Academy of Sciences, Institute of Medicine (IOM) Forum on Emerging Infections. He has also served on the IOM Committee, Food Safety, Production to Consumption, the IOM Committee on the De- partment of Defense Persian Gulf Syndrome Comprehensive Clinical Evalu- ation Program and as a reviewer for the IOM report on chemical and biological terrorism. GARY A. ROSELLE, M.D., received his M.D. from Ohio State Univer- sity School of Medicine in 1973. He served his residency at Northwestern University School of Medicine and his Infectious Diseases fellowship at the University of Cincinnati School of Medicine. Dr. Roselle is the Program Director for Infectious Diseases for VA Central Office in Washington, D.C., as well as the Chief of the Medical Service at the Cincinnati VA Medical Center. He is a professor of medicine in the Department of Internal Medi- cine, Division of Infectious Diseases at the University of Cincinnati College of Medicine. Dr. Roselle serves on several national advisory committees. In addition, he is currently heading the Emerging Pathogens Initiative for the

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APPENDIX C 199 Department of Veterans Affairs. Dr. Roselle has received commendations from the Cincinnati Medical Center Director, the Under Secretary for Health for the Department of Veterans Affairs, and the Secretary of Veterans Affairs for his work in the infectious diseases program for the Department of Veterans Affairs. He has been an invited speaker at several national and international meetings, and has published over 80 papers and severe! book chapters. DAVID M. SHLAES, M.D., Ph.D., is Vice President and Therapeutic Area Co-Leader for Infectious Diseases at Wyeth. Before joining Wyeth, Dr. Shiaes was professor of medicine at the Case Western Reserve Univer- sity School of Medicine and chief of the Infectious Diseases Section and the Clinical Microbiology Unit at the Veterans Affairs Medical Center in Cleve- land, Ohio. His major research interest has been the mechanisms and epide- miology of antimicrobial resistance in bacteria where he has published widely. He has recently become more involved in the area of public policy as it relates to the discovery and development of antibiotics. He has served on the Institute of Medicine's Forum on Emerging Infections since 1996. JANET SHOEMAKER is director of the American Society for Micro- biology's (ASM) Public Affairs Office, a position she has held since 1989. She is responsible for managing the legislative and regulatory affairs of this 42,000-member organization, the largest single biological science society in the world. She has served as principal investigator for a project funded by the National Science Foundation (NSF) to collect and disseminate data on the job market for recent doctorates in microbiology ant! has played a key role in ASM projects, including production of the ASM Employment Outlook in the Microbiological Sciences and The Impact of Managed Care and Health System Change on Clinical Microbiology. Previously, she held positions as assistant director of public affairs for ASM; as ASM coordina- tor of the U.S./U.S.S.R. Exchange Program in Microbiology, a program sponsored and coordinated by the National Science Foundation and the U.S. Department of State; and as a freelance editor and writer. She received her baccalaureate, cum laude, from the University of Massachusetts and is a graduate of George Washington University's programs in public policy and editing and publications. She has served as commissioner to the Com- mission on Professionals in Science and Technology and as the ASM repre- sentative to the ad hoc Group for Medical Research Funding and is a member of Women in Government Relations, the American Society of Association Executives, and the American Association for the Advance- ment of Science. She has coauthored published articles on research fund- ing, biotechnology, biological weapons control, and public policy issues related to microbiology. P. FREDERICK SPARLING, M.D., is J. Herbert Bate professor emeri- tus of medicine, microbiology and immunology at the University of North

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200 CONSIDERATIONS FOR VIRAL DISEASE ERADICATION Carolina (UNC) at Chapel Hill and is director of the North Carolina Sexu- ally Transmitted Infections Research Center. Previously, he served as chair of the Department of Medicine and chair of the Department of Microbiol- ogy and Immunology at UNC. He was president of the Infectious Disease Society of America in 1996-1997. He was also a member of the Institute of Medicine's Committee on Microbial Threats to Health (1991-1992~. Dr. Sparling's laboratory research is in the molecular biology of bacterial outer- membrane proteins involved in pathogenesis, with a major emphasis on gonococci and meningococci. His current studies focus on the biochemistry and genetics of iron-scavenging mechanisms used by gonococci and menin- gococci and the structure and function of the gonococcal porin proteins. He is pursuing the goal of a vaccine for gonorrhea. KAYE WACHSMUTH, Ph.D., serves as deputy administrator of the Office of Public Health and Science in the USDA's Food Safety and Inspec- tion Service. Before joining the USDA, she was the deputy director for programs at the Food and Drug Administration's Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition. Dr. Wachsmuth was with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in Atlanta from 1972 to 1994, where she was deputy director of the Division of Bacterial and Mycotic Diseases from 1991 to 1994, and chief of the Enteric Diseases Laboratory Section from 1985 to 1991. While at CDC she developed programs and conducted stud- ies in the areas of molecular epidemiology and bacterial pathogenesis. She also worked extensively in Southeast Asia and South America to establish laboratory-based diarrhea! disease surveillance programs. In addition to her positions at the FDA and CDC, Dr. Wachsmuth chairs the National Advisory Committee on Microbiological Criteria for Foods and the Codex Committee for Food Hygiene and is a member of the World Health Organization's (WHO) Expert Advisory Panel on Food Safety. Dr. Wachsmuth received her B.S. from Stetson University, Deland, Florida, and her Ph.D. in microbiology from the University of Tennessee. She is a fellow of the Infectious Diseases Society of America and the American Academy of Microbiology. She has received awards for benchmark epidemiological in- vestigations of Legionnaire's disease, cholera in Latin America, cirug-resis- tant tuberculosis, hantavirus in the western United States, and diphtheria in the former Soviet Union. The author of more than 160 scientific papers, she is on the editorial board of scientific journals and is editor of a book on cholera. C. DOUGLAS WEBB, fir., Ph.D., received his bachelor's degree in biology from Emory University and his master's and doctoral degrees in microbiology from the University of Georgia. He served in the Public Health Service at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) as both a research microbiologist and supervisory microbiologist. After the CDC, Dr. Webb went to Pfizer Pharmaceuticals and was involved in the development

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204 A: CONSIDERATIONS FOR VIRAL DISEASE ERADICATION continued to make contributions to this field. The theme of Dr. Cunningham-Rundles' research is the development of the immune system in response to encounter with microbes. She is interested in global health issues, especially cluring the perinatal period and was a U.S. delegate to the Indo-U.S. Workshop on Nutrition of Women, Infants, and Children, Hyderabad, India, February 2000. In addition to more than 100 publica- tions in scientific journals, Dr. Cunningham-Rundies has edited two books "Nutrient Modulation of Immune Response" (Marcel Dekker, Inc., 1993) and "Persistent Bacterial Infections" (American Society of Microbiology, 2000). RAYMOND H. CYPESS, D.V.M., Ph.D., is President and CEO of American Type Culture Collection (ATCC), Manassas, Virginia and Princi- pal Investigator for ATCC's Malaria Research and Reference Reagent Re- source Center (MR4) contract. Dr. Cypess was an associate professor of epidemiology and microbiology at the University of Pittsburgh School of Public Health from 1970 to 1973, professor and chairman at the New York State College of Veterinary Medicine from 1977 to 1987, and dean of the College of Graduate Health Sciences as well as professor of microbiology, immunology and comparative medicine, and Vice Provost for Research and Research Training at the University of Tennessee, Memphis from 1988 to 1993. Dr. Cypess is a member of the Board of Directors of Commonwealth Biotechnologies, Inc., a biotechnology company, and Mid Atlantic Medi- cal, an HMO. Dr. Cypess is a fellow of the Infectious Diseases Society of America and a member of the American Epidemiology Society. Dr. Cypess received a B.S. in biology from Brooklyn College, a B. Agri. from the University of Illinois, a D.V.M. from the University of Illinois, and a Ph.D. in parasitology from the University of North Carolina. CIRO A. DE QUADROS, M.D., M.P.H., completed his medical stud- ies in Brazil and received his M.P.H. from the National School of Public Health in Rio cle laneiro. He was involved with pioneering experiences for the development of strategies of surveillance and containment for smallpox eradication and in 1970 joined the World Health Organization (WHO) as Chief Epidemiologist for the Smallpox Eradication Program in Ethiopia. He transferred to the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) in 1997 to serve as the Senior Advisor on Immunizations. He directed the successful efforts of polio eradication from the Western Hemisphere and at present is the Director of the Division of Vaccines and Immunization at PAHO. Dr. de Quadros was a member of the IOM Committees "Microbial Threats to Health in the United States" and "Children's Vaccine Initiative: Planning Alternatives Strategies Toward Full U.S. Participation". He is also an Asso- ciate Adjunct Professor at the lohns Hopkins School of Hygiene and Public Health, and an Associate Professor at the School of Medicine of Case Western Reserve University. He has participated in and presented papers at

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APPENDIX C 205 over 100 conferences throughout the world and has received several inter- national awards including the 1993 Prince Mahiclol Award and the 2000 Albert B. Sabin Gold Medal. WALTER R. DOWDLE, Ph.D., is a member of The Task Force for Child Survival and Development, Atlanta, Georgia where he serves as Di- rector of the Malarone Donation Program and a consultant to the World Health Organization (WHO) on the Global Poliomyelitis Eradication Ini- tiative. Prior to joining The Task Force, Dr. Dowdle was Deputy Director for the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). He was Director of the WHO Collaborating Center for Influenza from 1968-1979 and a continuous consultant to WHO for virus diseases. He was Associate Profes- sor, School of Public Health, University of North Carolina, 1964-1984 and Honorary Fellow, John Curtin School for Medical Research, The Austra- lian National University, Canberra, 1972-1973. During his CDC career, Dr. Oowdle served as CDC Associate Director for HIV/AIDS; Director, Center for Infectious Diseases; CDC Assistant Director for Science; Direc- tor, Virology Division; Chief, Respiratory Virology Unit; and a participant in other disease prevention assignments. Dr. Dowdle has had extensive experience in virus research, vaccine development/evaluation, and formula- tion of immunization policy. His current active scientific interests include polio, influenza, HIV, and malaria. DIANE E. GRIFFIN, M.D., Ph.D., is professor and chair of the Depart- ment of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology at the Johns Hopkins School of Public Health with joint appointments in Medicine and Neurol- ogy in the School of Medicine. She graduated from Stanford University ~ ~ ~ ~ 1 ~1 ~ 1 ~' I.` School of Medicine with a M.~. and a I'h.~. In Immunology. He was an intern and resident at Stanford and an infectious diseases and virology fellow at the Johns Hopkins School of Medicine. She is a member of the Vaccine and. Related Products Advisory Pane! for the FDA, the Board of Scientific Councilors at the NINDS, the Step 1 Committee for the U.S. Meclical Licensing Examination, Research Advisory Committee for the National Multiple Sclerosis Society and the Research Advisory Committee for the Alberta Heritage Foundation for Medical Research. She is past president of the American Society for Virology and past member of the Steering Committee on Respiratory Virus Infections of the ~IO. Her laboratory at Johns Hopkins studies the pathogenesis of viral infections, particularly alphavirus encephalitis and the effect of measles on immune responses. She is the recent recipient of a grant from the Gates Foundation to develop a measles vaccine that can be used in young infants. She is a member of the American Society for Clinical Investigation, the American Neurological Association and a fellow of the Infectious Diseases Society of America and the American Association for the Advancement of Science. She has published more than 200 articles in the scientific literature.

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206 CONSIDERATIONS FOR VIRAL DISEASE ERADICATION BEATRICE H. HAHN, M.D., is professor of medicine and microbiol- ogy at the University at Alabama at Birmingham. She received her medical degree summa cum laude from the University of Munich in Germany where she subsequently interned at the Department of Internal Medicine. She did her postdoctoral training in the Laboratory of Tumor Cell Biology at the National Cancer Institute. Her current research activities are centered on studies of the origins and evolution of primate lentiviruses. In particular, Dr. Hahn's group is characterizing natural SIV reservoirs using a variety of different approaches including non-invasive testing of highly endangered wild primate populations. The goal of these studies is to assess current human risk of acquiring such zoonotic infections. She is a member of the National Institutes of Health AIDS Vaccine Research Committee which is chaired by Dr. David Baltimore and a member of the Board of Scientific Counselors-Subcommittee B at the National Cancer Institute. She has authored or co-authored over 100 papers and is editor of AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses. DONALD A. HENDERSON, M.D., currently is director of the newly created Office of Public Health Preparedness, which coordinates national response to public health emergencies. Dr. Henderson directed the WorId Health Organization's global smallpox eradication campaign and was in- strumental in 1974 in initiating WHO's global program of immunization, which is now vaccinating 80 percent of the worId's children against six major diseases and has a goal of eradicating poliomyelitis. Dr. Henderson is a lohns Hopkins University Distinguished Service Professor with appoint- ments in the departments of epidemiology and international health at the Bloomberg School of Public Health. For the past four years, he has directed the Johns Hopkins Center for Civilian Biodefense Studies, of which he is a founding director. The center was established to increase awareness of the medical and public health threats posed by biological weapons. From 1977 through August 1990, Dr. Henderson was dean of the Johns Hopkins School of Public Health. He rejoined the Hopkins faculty in June 1995 after five years of federal government service in which he served initially as Associate Director, Office of Science and Technology Policy, Executive Office of the President and later as Deputy Assistant Secretary and Senior Science Advisor in the Department of Health and Human Services. Dr. Henderson has been recognized for his work by many institutions and governments. In 1986, he received the National Medal of Science, pre- sented by the President of the United States. He is the recipient of the National Academy of Sciences' highest award, the Public Welfare Medal, and, with two colleagues, he shared the Japan Prize. Most recently he received from the Royal Society of Medicine the Edward lenner Medal. In all, 13 universities have conferred honorary degrees and 14 countries have honored him with awards and' decorations.

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APPENDIX C Or 207 ROBERT P. KADLEC, M.D., M.T.M.H., is a physician and colonel in the U.S. Air Force. He presently serves as a Professor of Military Strategy and Operations at the National War College at Fort McNair, DC. A Distin- guished Graduate of the U.S. Air Force Academy, he earned his M.D. from the Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences (USUHS). He holds a master's degree in tropical medicine and hygiene from USUHS and completed his residency in General Preventive Medicine & Public Health at Walter Reed Army Institute of Research. He also holds a master of arts degree in National Security Studies from Georgetown University. Dr. Kadlec has served as a physician for both Air Force and foint Special Operations Commands. He also served as a Senior Assistant for Counterproliferation in the Office of the Secretary of Defense for Policy. In this capacity, he represented the Secretary of Defense on the U.S. delegation to the Biological Weapons and Toxins Convention in Geneva, Switzerland and also served as a United Nations Special Commission biological weapons inspector in Iraq. He has worked on a range of policy issues concerning the nonprolif- eration and counterproliferation of biological weapons. He most recently served as a special advisor for biological warfare issues to the U.S.A.F. Surgeon General. He is an assistant clinical professor of military medicine at USUHS. MARLO LIBEL, M.D., M.P.H., is an epidemiologist in the Communi- cable Diseases Program, Disease Prevention and Control Division, at the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO). As regional advisor on com- municable diseases in the Americas, he is responsible for the implementa- tion of the Regional Plan for Surveillance and Control of Emerging and Reemerging Diseases and the revision of the International Health Regula- tions. Prior to that, he was responsible for the implementation of the Core Data/Country Profile database system which involved gathering, compil- ing, and validating core health data in collaboration with PAHO's country offices. Before this, he coorclinated PAHO's response to the cholera epi- demic; elaborated a Regional Plan for the Prevention and Control of Chol- era; and managed PAHO/HQ's and interagency cholera task forces. He managed a $3.8 million IDB grant for technical cooperation on cholera surveillance and control for 25 countries. He assisted in resource mobiliza- tion for cholera control with the IDB, the European Union, Swedish Inter- national Development Agency, and the Italian Cooperation. Dr. Libel was formerly chief of the Epidemiologicat Control Unit, at the Rio Grande do Sul State Health Department in Brazil where he was responsible for the daily technical administration and operation of the state's communicable diseases epidemiological surveillance system and immunization program. He received his medical degree in Brazil and has a master of public health degree from the Tulane School of Public Health and Tropical Medicine.

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208 CONSIDERATIONS FOR VIRAL DISEASE ERADICATION THOMAS P. MONATH, M.D., received his undergraduate degree and M.D. from Harvard University and diet postgraduate training in inter- nal medicine at the Peter Bent Brigham Hospital, Boston. Subsequently, he was Medical Officer in the Arbovirology Unit, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and then was visiting scientist at the Rockefeller Foundation Virus Research Laboratory, Ibacian, Nigeria, where he con- ducted field research on yellow fever and other arboviruses. He led investi- gations on the ecology of Lassa virus in West Africa, resulting in the discov- ery of the rodent host responsible for disease transmission to humans. From 1973-1988 he was Director of the Division of Vector-Borne Viral Diseases, CDC and was responsible for surveillance, epidemic investigations, and research on arboviruses, bubonic plague, and other zoonotic diseases. He then became Chief, Virology Division, at the U.S. Army Meclical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases, where he directed research and develop- ment efforts on antiviral drugs and vaccines against hemorrhagic fever viruses and arboviruses. In 1992, Dr. Monath became Vice President, Re- search & Medical Affairs, OraVax Inc. (now named Acambis Inc.), a bio- technology company engaged in the development of vaccines against infec- tious diseases. He initiated Acambis' vaccine R&D efforts on dengue, Japanese encephalitis, West Nile, yellow fever, Clostridium Ice, and Helicobacter pylori. In 2000, Acambis was awarded the contract for manu- facture of a cell-culture based smallpox vaccine, and Dr. Monath is Techni- cal Director of this program. He is also Adjunct Professor, Harvard School of Public Health. Dr. Monath has served as Chairman of the American Committee on Arthropod-Borne Viruses, Program Chairman and Coun- cilor of the American Society of Tropical Medicine & Hygiene, and as a member of numerous WHO, PAHO, and U.S. government committees, including the National Vaccines Advisory Committee. He has published over 300 scientific papers and book chapters and edited 5 books. ANN E. NORWOOD, M.D., is a colonel in the U.S. Army and cur- rently serves as associate professor of psychiatry ant} Associate Chairman for the Department of Psychiatry at the Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences (USUHS). Dr. Norwood received her A.B. in psychobi- ology from Vassar College and M.D. from USUHS. She completed her residency in psychiatry at Letterman Army Medical Center, San Francisco. She was the chief of psychiatry at Darnall Army Community Hospital, Ft. Hood, Texas before coming to the University in 1988. She is the recipient of the William C. Porter Award given by the Association of the Military Surgeons of the United States for outstanding contributions to military psychiatry. She holds the "A" designation for her expertise in trauma and disasters from the Army Surgeon General. She serves as the Chair of the American Psychiatric Association's Committee on Psychiatric Dimensions of Disaster. Dr. Norwood has published numerous articles and chapters on

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APPENDIX C 209 the effects of trauma and violence as well as the volume, Emotional After- math of the Persian Gulf War: Veterans, Families, Communities, and Na- tions. Most recently, she has focused on the use of biological and chemical agents by terrorists. Dr. Norwood co-authored an article on this topic for the Journal of the American Medical Association (/A MAJ and has spoken on psychological aspects of weapons of mass destruction to numerous audi- ences including the American Medical Association, the American Psychiat- ric Association, and the American Academy of Neurology. ELLYN W. OGDEN, M.P.H., is the Worldwide Polio Eradication Co- ordinator for the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) and a Senior Technical Advisor for Health and Child Survival. She is respon- sible for the Agency's polio eradication activities and related immunization and disease control efforts now focused in 20 countries. Ms. Ogden works closely with the "Polio Partner" organizations, including WHO, UNICEF, CDC, Rotary International, NGOs, Foundations and host country govern- ments and coordinates 14 USAID centrally-funded projects that contribute to polio eradication in the areas of research, implementation, and commu- nication. A graduate of the Tulane School of Public Health and Tropical Medicine, Ms. Ogden has over 15 years of international public health experience in the areas of child survival, disease prevention and control, nutrition, and health and human rights. After receiving her M.P.H., she conducted clinical epiclemiologic research in cancer and heart disease and taught research methodology at Louisiana State University Medical and Nursing Schools. She became a Peace Corps volunteer in Papua New Guinea where she ran a provincial health program to control tuberculosis, leprosy, and sexually transmitted diseases. Subsequently, at USAID, she became the Project Director of an Applied Health Research project and was responsible for coordinating the design and evaluation of projects in USAID's child survival portfolio. She was then a Johns Hopkins University Health and Child Survival Fellow in USAID's Latin America Bureau where she man- aged programs to improve children's and women's health in Central America. Ms. Ogden is an adviser on several international health advisory panels and regularly works with developing country governments, health professionals, and non-governmental organizations to improve the health of people in their country. C. I. PETERS, M.D., graduated from Rice University and Johns Hopkins School of Medicine before an internship and residency in internal medicine at Parkland Memorial Hospital, Southwestern Medical School in Dallas. His interest in tropical medicine and virology was sparked by 5 years at an NIAID laboratory in Panama after which he spent 3 years working in immunology at the Scripps Clinic and Research Foundation. He then was at the U.S. Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases where he held several positions ranging from research scientist, division

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210 CONSIDERATIONS FOR VIRAL DISEASE ERADICATION chief, to deputy commander. Subsequently he moved to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention as head of the Special Pathogens Branch. His career includes 30 years' experience with virology, pathogenesis, and epidemiology of hemorrhagic fever viruses. He developed animal models for Rift Valley fever (RVF) virus, discovered the sensitivity of RVF virus to ribavirin and immunomodulators, and has both developed and evaluated RVF vaccines through human testing. He has worked on several arena- viruses (including lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus, Lassa fever, Bolivian hemorrhagic fever, and Argentine hemorrhagic fever) and has been active in developing therapy and vaccines for these agents as well. His experience extends to other hemorrhagic viruses including Ebola, yellow fever, and Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fever virus. Dr. Peters has authored or co- authored 300 scientific publications, including more than 70 publications on RVF virus and more than 60 publications on arenaviruses, not including reviews or textbook chapters. He has worked as a bench scientist and has supervised groups with several scientists numbering up to 50 persons. Since 2001, Dr. Peters has been at the University of Texas Medical Branch in Galveston where he is a member of the WHO Collaborating Center for Tropical Diseases and a professor in the Department of Pathology and in the Department of Microbiology and Immunology. He has extensive expe- rience in high containment laboratory work ant! is incoming Director of the Biosafety Level 4 laboratory under construction at UTMB and expected to be completed in 2002. STANLEY A. PLOTEON, M.D., is currently a medical and scientific consultant, Aventis Pasteur, after seven years as Medical and Scientific Director, Pasteur Merieux Connaught Vaccines, Paris. He is also emeritus professor of pediatrics at the University of Pennsylvania and emeritus pro- fessor of virology at the Wistar Institute. Over the course of his career he has served as Senior Assistant Surgeon, Epidemic Intelligence Service, USPHS, director of the Division of Infectious Diseases at Children's Hospi- tal of Philadelphia, and as associate chairman, Department of Pediatrics, University of Pennsylvania. Dr. Plotkin has developed many vaccines, in- cluding the rubella vaccine, RA2 7/3 strain, now exclusively used in the United States and throughout the world. He has held editorial positions with many scholarly journals and is a member of numerous professional and scientific societies, including the American Academy for the Advance- ment of Science, the Society for Pediatric Research, the American Society for Microbiology, the Infectious Diseases Society of America, and the Ameri- can Epidemiologic Society. Dr. Plotkin has received several professional awards including the French Legion Medal of Honor (1998~; the Clinical Virology Award, Pan American Group for Rapid Viral Diagnosis (1995~; the Distinguished Physician Award, Pediatric Infectious Disease Society (1993~; ant! the Bruce Medal of the American College of Physicians.

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APPENDIX C 211 VINCENT R. RACANELLO, Ph.D., is Higgins Professor of Microbi- ology at the College of Physicians and Surgeons of Columbia University. He received an A.B. degree in biology from Cornell University. In 1980, for work carried out with Dr. Peter Palese, he received a Ph.D. in biomedical sciences from Mt. Sinai School of Medicine of the City University of New York. After postdoctoral work with Dr. David Baltimore at the Massachu- setts Institute of Technology, in 1982 he joined the College of Physicians and Surgeons as assistant professor of microbiology. He is the recipient of an Irma T. Hirsch! Career Scientist Award, the Searie Scholars Award, the Eli Lilly Award of the American Society for Microbiology in 1992, and an NIH Merit Award. He was a Harvey Society Lecturer in 1991, was the First Lamb Professor at Vanderbilt University and presented the Hilleman Lec- ture at the University of Chicago in 1993. Dr. Racaniello is an editor of the Journal of Virology. He previously served as a member of the World Health Organization Steering Committee on Hepatitis/Polio, chair of the Virology Study Section of the National Institutes of Health, and co-Chair of the Gordon Conference on Viruses and Cells. Research in his laboratory has focused on the mechanisms of poliovirus replication and pathogenesis. His research has produced the first infectious clone of an RNA virus, the dis- covery of the cell receptor for poliovirus, and the establishment of a mouse mode! for poliomyelitis. These contributions have revolutionized the study of animal RNA viruses. FRANK P. SIMIONE, M.S., is Vice President of Safety and Regulatory Affairs, and Director of Professional Services at American Type Culture Collection (ATCC), Manassas, Virginia. He has overall responsibility for internal safety and security for biological materials, as well as for ensuring control of the release and distribution of biological materials from ATCC. This includes assuring ATCC compliance with all domestic and interna- tional regulations for release and transport, and overseeing ATCC's Export Management System. Within Professional Services Mr. Simione manages the largest International Depository Authority under the Budapest Treaty for deposits in support of patent applications, and he has overall responsi- bility for ATCC's biorepository management contract with CDC. He has been with ATCC for 26 years, was Director of Operations from 1988 to 1996, and has been Safety Officer since 1988. Mr. Simione received a B.A. degree in biology from Temple University in 1968 and a M.S. degree in biology from Bucknell University in 1974. CARL E. TAYLOR, M.D., M.P.H., is the founding chair of the De- partment of International Health at the Johns Hopkins School of Hygiene and Public Health. He was head of that department for 23 years and is now professor emeritus of International Health. Through the mid-1980s he was UNICEF Representative in China and continued to work in various roles for UNICEF. He was founding chair of the National Council for Interna-

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212 CONSIDERATIONS FOR VIRAL DISEASE ERADICATION tional Health (now Global Health Councils and of the International Health Section of the American Public Health Section. He was chair of the 1995 Commission on the Impact of the Expanded Program on Immunization and the Polio Eradication Initiative on Health Systems in the Americas. His doctorates in medicine and public health are from Harvard and he is Hon- orary Professor in two Chinese medical universities. He has worked at field level in over 60 developing countries with a particular interest in health care reform on issues such as equity, integration of services such as infection control and nutrition and of MCH and family planning, balancing the roles of public and private providers, partnerships for community empowerment and scaling up of successful programs. STEPHEN P. TERET, my., M.P.H., is professor of health policy and management and associate chair for health and public policy in the Johns Hopkins School of Public Health. He is the director of the Johns Hopkins Center for Gun Policy and Research, and director of the Johns Hopkins Center for Law and the Public's Health. Professor Teret holds joint faculty appointments in pediatrics and in emergency medicine at the Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, and is Adjunct Professor of Health Law at the Georgetown University Law Center. Professor Teret has worked as a pov- erty lawyer and a trial lawyer in New York. Since 1979, he has been a full- time faculty member at the Johns Hopkins School of Public Health. His work includes research, teaching, and public service in the areas of injury prevention and health law. Professor Teret's work has also focused on the understanding and prevention of violence, with an emphasis on gun policy. Professor Teret is the author of many scholarly articles and books on the subject of injury epidemiology and prevention. He is a frequent lecturer at major universities throughout the country, and has served as a consultant to the President of the United States, the Attorney General, the United States Congress, federal agencies, and state legislatures. He is the recipient of distinguished career awards from the American Public Health Associa- tion and the Association of Trial Lawyers of America. RICHARD J. MOTLEY, M.D., is Loeb Eminent Scholar Chair in Pediatrics and professor of pediatrics, microbiology, and medicine at the University of Alabama at Birmingham. Dr. Whitiey also is scientist at the Cancer Research and Training Center; Associate Director of the Center for AIDS Research; and Vice-Chairman of the Department of Pediatrics at the university. Dr. Whitley is responsible for the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Collaborative Antiviral Study Group whose role is to perform clinical trials of antiviral therapies directed against medically important viral diseases of children and adults. His other research interest is in utilizing herpes simplex for gene therapy. Active investigations are result- ing in the engineering of herpes simplex virus for gene therapy of brain and liver tumors and vaccine development. Dr. Whitley received his B.A. in

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APPENDIX C 213 chemistry from Duke University and his M.D. from the George Washington University He subsequently completed an internship in pediatrics and a fellowship in infectious diseases/virology at the University of Alabama at Birmingham. He has published over 260 articles.

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