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Executive Summary Solar system exploration is ~~ grad humm endeavor which reaches out through in~rplmetary space to discover Me nature md origins of We system of planets in which we live md to learn whether life exists beyond Earth. It is ~ international enterprise invoking scientist, engineers' managers' politicians, md others' sometimes working together md sometimes in competition, to open new frontiers of knowledge. It has ~ proud past' productive present' md ~ auspicious future. Solar system exploration is ~ compelling activity. It places within our grasp answers to basic questions of profound humm interest: Are we alone: Where did we come from: What is our destiny: Furlers it leads to the erection of knowledge that will improve We humm condition. hIars md icy satellite explorations may soon provide ~ answer to the first of these questions. Exploration of comets, primitive asteroids, md Kuiper Belt objects may have much to say Rout the second. Surveys of near-Earth objects md further exploration of plme~ry atmospheres will show something about the third. Finally, explorations of all plenary environments will result in ~ much improved understanding of the natural processes that shape He world in which we live. This survey was requested by the Nations Aeronautics md Space Administration (NASA) to determine the contemporary nature of solar system exploration md why it remains ~ compelling aetivi~ today. A broad survey of the same of knowledge was requested. In Editions NASA asked for identification of the top-level seientif~e questions to guide its ongoing program md ~ prioritized list of the mod promising avenues for flight investigations md supporting ground-based activities. To accomplish this task, the Solar System Exploration Surveys (~SE Surveys) Leering Group md panels have worked with scientist, professional societies' NASA md Nations Science Foundation (NSF) officials' people ~ government md private laboratories' md members of He interested public. The remarkable breads md diversity in the subject are evident in the panel reports th~eonstitute Part Cole of this survey. Together Hey strongly reinforce He idea that ~ high-level inversion of He goals' ideas' md requirement that exist in the community is essential if ~ practical exploration spongy for the next decade is to emerge. Such ~ integrated stringy is Be objective of Part Two. CROSSCUTTING THEMES ANN KEY QIJESiTIONS Based on the material presented in Part One of this report He SSE Survey identified He following four erosmu~ing themes that form ~ appropriate basis for ~ indurated strategy that em be realized by ~ series of missions to be flown over the next decade:
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HEW FR0~ IN =E 50~R HIM I. 1~ Fort Echo Years of So~r System History. This first Demo covers the formative period thy features the initial accretion md development of Earn arid its sibling plar~ts, including the emergence of life on our globe. This pivotal epoch in ~e solar systems history is only dimly glimpsed ~ premnt. 2. Vo~s ~d Of: ~ StuffafL~fe. The second theme addresses the reality thy life requires orgasm materials arid volatiles, notably, liquid wear. These marries originally condensed in the outer reaches of ~e solar nebula arid were Lear delivered to the ply aboard orgar~ic-rich comets md asteroids. 3. 1~ Orgy ~d Photo of H~ Worm. The Bird theme recognizes thy our concept of the ``habi~ble zone', he men overtumed' arid grayly broadened, by recent findings on Earth arid elsewhere through- out our galaxy. Taking inventory of our perry neighborhood will help to ~~e ~e evolutionary pays of ~e other plums arid the eventual fad of our own. 4. Process es: How Cry Yost Work. The fours Demo seeks deeper understanding of the fundamen- ta1 mechar~isms operating in the solar system today. Comprehending such processes arid how Hey apply to perry bodie~is the keystone of perry science. It will provide deep insight into the evolution of ~1 ~e worlds within the solar system arid of the multitude of pits being discovered around other stars. . . Devolving fromthesefour crosscutting themes are 12key scientific questions. Them are shown inTable ES.~' together win the names of the facilities arid missions recommended as the most appropriate activities to address these questions. The priority arid measurement objectives of these various projects are summarized in He next section. PllIOllITIES FOR FLIGHT MISSIONS AND ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY Progress on the tabulated scientific themes md key questions will require ~ series of spacefligh~ md support- ing Earth-based activities. It is cruet to maintain ~ mix of mission sins md complexities in order to balance available resources against po~ntia1 schemes for implementation. For example' certain aspects of the key science questions em be met Trough focused md eost-effeetive Discovery missions (c$325 million), while other high- priorily science issues will require larger' more capable projects, to be called New Frontiers. About once per decade' Flagship missions (:~$650 million) will be neeess~ for sample return or comprehensive investigations of particularly worthy Greets. Some future endeavors are so vast in scope or so difficult (e.g.' sample return from Mars) that no single nation Sting alone may be willing to Slovak all of He resources necessary to accomplish them, md the SiSE Survey recommend that NASA encourage and continue to pursue cooperative program with other nations. Not only is the investigation of our celestial neighborhood inherently ~ intern~iona1 venture' but He U.S. Solar System Exploration program will also benefit programmatieally md scientifically from such joint ventures. Discovery missions are reserved for ir~E~ovative mdeompetitively procured projects responsive to new findings beyond He nations long-term strategy. Such missions em satisfy mmy of the objectives identified in Part One by the individual pmels. Given Discovery's highly su~sful Carts the SSE Survey encore the continuation of this program' which relies on principal-investigator leadership and competition to obtain the greatest science return within ~ cost ~p. A night rate of no less than one launch every 18 months is Deck Particularly critical in this stringy is the initiation of New Frontiers, ~ line of medium-class, prineipal- inve~igator-led missions ~ proposed in the Presidents fiscal year (FY) 2003 budget. The SSE Survey strongly endorses the New Frontiers initiative. These spacecraft should he competitively procured and should have flights every 2 or 3 yearly with the total cost Upped at approximately twice that of ~ Discovery mission Target deletion should he guided hy the list in this report' Experience has shown that large missions' which enable detailed' extended' md seientif~eally multifaceted observations' are ~ essential element of the mission mix. They allow the comprehensive exploration of science targets of extraordinarily high interest. Comparable pay missions have included Viking' Voyager, Galileo' md Cassini-Huygens. The SSE Survey recommends that Flagship (~$650 million) minions he developed and flown at ~ rate of Shout one per deader In addition, for large missions of such inclusive scientific breadth, ~ h road ~s Action of the community should he involved in the early planing stages.
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EXE=~E SUMMARY TABLE ES.1 ~osscu~ing Themes, Key Scientific Questions' Missions, md Facilities Crossouttir~g Themes and Key Que~ior~s Re commerl~ d New h] issiorls arid Facilitie The Few E,Mo~ ~~s of Sole System E,~to~ 1. What promises marked the initial stages of plant arid satellite formatior~9 2. How lord did it take the Is gist Jupiter to form' and how was the formation of the ice gists (Urmus Id Rapture differed from that of Jupiter Id its gas giard siblir~g' Saturr~9 3. How did the impostor flux deem during the solar system>s youth' Id in what warm did this flirt ir~fluer~e the timing of life>s emergence ore Earths vowers ~~ of: ~~e muff of Life 4. What is the history of Jollily compour~ds' especially water' across the solar systems S. What is the rapture of organic m~eria1 ire the solar Deem Id how has this muter evo He do 6. What global mechanisms offer the evolution of vol~iles ore ply etary woodiest The 0~ a~d Ero~do~ of Eat World 7. What pl=etarv processes are responsible for ~er~er~ir~ arid su~:~ir~ir~ habitable worlds' arid where are the hatit~le zorles in the solar ~em; S. Does (or dim life exist beyond Earths ?. Why have the terre~ria1 plants differed so dram:~tically ire their evolutionist 10. What hawrds do solar system objects preserlt to Earth>s biospheres Processes: Pow Pl=~ - Systems Work ~ ~ . How do the processes that shape the contemporary char:~er of planetary bodies operate ~ d i~era~9 12. What does the solar system tell us Rout the development Id evolution of extrasolar planetary systems' arid vim vers:~9 Comet Surfed Sample Return Kuiper Belt-Pluto Explorer South Pole-Aitker~ ~ shirt Sample Retum Jupiter polar Orbiter with Probes Kuiper Belt-Pluto Explorer South Pole -Aitker1 ~ asir1 Sample Retum Comet Surfed Sample Return Jupiter polar Orbiter with Probes Kuiper Belt-Pluto Explorer Comet Surfed S:~mple Return Cassini Exterlded Venus Ir1 S itu Explorer hears Upper Atmosphere Orbiter Europa Geophysical Explorer h] ars Scierloe L ~ oratory hears Sample Retum hears Sample Retum Venus Ir1 S itu Explorer h] ars Scierloe L ~ oratory h] ars Lorlg-Live d L under Network hears Sample Retum Large Synoptic Survey Telescope Kuiper Belt-Pluto Explorer South Pole -Aitker1 ~ asir1 Sample Retum Cassini Exterlded Jupiter Polar Orbiter with Probes Venus Ir1 S itu Explorer Comet Surfed Sample Return Europa Geophysical Explorer h] ars Scierloe L ~ oratory hears Upper Atmosphere Orbiter h] ars Lorlg-Live d L under Network hears Sample Retum Jupiter Polar Orbiter with Probes Cassini Exterlded Kuiper Belt-Pluto Explorer Large Synoptic Survey Telescope NOTE: Sired missions ire the Discovery and hears Scout lines might address mmy of them scientific topics' they are not shown ire order to mairrtair1 clarity.
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4 HEW FR0~ IN =E 50~R HIM Programmatic efficiencies are often gained by extending operational flight beyond their nominal lifetimes. Current Redid for continuation include Cassini' project in ~e Mars Exploration Program, arid sever al Discovery flight. The SSE Survey supports NASA,~ current Senior Renew prowess for deciding Me scientif~e merits of ~ propmed minion extension anal recommend that early planning he (lone to provide adequate funding of minion extensions particularly Flagship minions and minions with international partners+ Because resources are finite the SSE Survey prioritized all new flight missions within each category Hong with arty associated activities. To assess priorities in ~e selection of particular missions, it used the following criteria: scientific merit, ``opportunity,,' arid ~chnologica1 readiness. Scientific merit was measured by judging whether ~ project has ~e possibility of creating or charming ~ paradigm arid whether the new knowledge ~~ it produces will have ~ pivotal effect on the direction of future research, md' finally, on ~e SSE Surveys appraisal of how thy knowledge would substantially strengthen the factual base of current understanding Because of wide differences in mission mope arid ~e diverse ciroums~s of implemmt~ior~ ~e SSE Surveys ~ NASA,~ request, prioritized only within three cost classes: small (c$325 million), medium ($325 million to $650 million), arid large (:~$650 million). Also' since the hears Exploration Program line is already successfully established as ~ separate entity within NASA' its missions are prioritized separately in this report. The recommendations from ~e SSE Surveys parcels have been in~gra~d with ~e Solar System Exploration programs overall goals arid key questions in order to arrive ~ the flight-mission priorities listed in Table ES.2. The SSE Survey has included five New Frontiers missions in id priority list recognizing ~~ not all might be affordable within the constraints of the budged available over the next decade. Rid Solar System night Missions (non-Mars) Europa opt Exposer The Europa Geophysical Explorer (ECE), ~ Flagship mission' will investigate the probable subsurface ocem of Europa md its overlying fee shell as the critical firm step in underbidding the potential habitability of icy sallies. While orbiting Europe ECE will employ gravity md altimetry me~ureme~s of Europe tidal fluetu~iom to define Me properties of my interior ocem md eharae~rize Me sa~llite~s fee shell. Additions remo~-sensing observations will examine Me ~ree-dimensiona1 distribution of subsurface liquid water; elucidate the formation of surface features, including sites of current or recent activity; md identify md map surface composition' win emphasis on compounds of astrobiological interest. Prior to Europa-orbit insertion' ECE's instruments will scrutinize C~ymede md Callisto' moons that also may have subsurface ocems' thereby illuminating Europats plme~ry md astrobiological context. Europe Borough recor~E~aissmee is ~ stepping Tone toward understanding the astrobiological po~tia1 of all icy satellites md will pave the way for future ladings on this intriguing object. Kipper Bek-~to Explorer The Kuiper Belt-Pluto Explorer (KBP) will be Be first spacecraft dispatched for scientific measurement within this remote' entirely unexplored outer half of the solar system. KBP will fly pastPluto-Charon md continue on to do recor~E~aissmee of several additional Kuiper Belt objects (KBOs). KBP's value increases as it observes more KBOs md investigates the diversity of their properties. This region should be home for the mod primitive malaria in the solar system. KBP will address the prospect that KBOs have played ~ role in importing basic volatiles md molecular stock to the inner solar system' where habitable environments were created . 4 .. . . . ~ . . ~ . , .. . ~ , .. . . . . . . ~ ~ . ~ . , . ~ i. The SSE Survey mne~pates thy the '~ormahon returned from this mission might lead to ~ new paradigm for the origin md evolution of these objects md their signif~emee in She evolution of objects in ocher park of the solar system. Sou~ Pi ole-A`~= Bare Sample ~~m The South Pole-Ai~en Basin Sample lecture (SPARSE) mission will return samples from the Moon in order to coonskin the early impact history of the inner solar system md to comprehend the nature of Be Moons upper
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EXE=~E SUMMARY TABLE ES.2 Prioritized List of New Flight Missions for the Scam 2003-2013 5 Priority ire Con Cons h~issior~ Corrupt Name Description SOLAEtSYSTElYl FLIGHT MISSIONS (non-lYlar~ Smad (< $325 million Discovery missions ~ orbs launch every ~ ~ Torahs Medium (< $~50 million 3 e (~$~50 million INLAID: FLIGHT MISSIONS Among 2005) Smad (< $325 million Small> i~ov~ive' principa1-irlve~ig~or-1e d explor~ior~ missior~s Cassir~i Exerted Kuiper Belt-Pluto Explorer South Pole-Aitker1 Basin Sample Returr Jupiter Polar Artier with Probes Venus ~ Situ Explorer Comet Surface Sample Datum Europa Geophysical Explorer Orbiter mission ~ Satum A flay missior1 of several Kuiper Belt objects) ir~oludir~g Pluto~haror~) to discover their physical nature Ad urea their endowmertt of volatiles A mission to retum samples from the solar ~~em's deepen order) which pierms the lurl:~r mantle A clo~-ortitirlg polar spacecraft equipped with various ir~rumer~s Ad ~ rely for three probes that make measurements below the 100+ tar 1~1 A core sample of Verlus to te lifted into the atmosphere for compositiorla1 analysis, simultaneous atmospheric measuremerts Several piems of ~ comet)s surfam to be resumed to Each for organic analysis Ar1 orbiter of Jupiter)s im-erloru~ed satellite to seek the rapture ~ d depth of its own hears Scout lirle A competitively select lirle of hears missiorls similar ir1 corrupt to Discovery h] ore Upper Atmosphere Orbiter A spacecraft indicted to Audits of h4ars)s upper atmosphere Ad plasma erlvirorlmerrt Medium (< $~50 million ~~e (~$~50 million hears Scierloe Laboratory hears Long-Lived L=~r Network h] ore Sample Retum A Lear to carry out sophi~ic~ed surfam ob~rv~ions Ad to validate sample return ~ theologies A globally diskibu~d suite of 1~ Art equipped to make comprehensive me :~sureme~s of the plmet )s irl~rior surfam) Ad atmosphere A program to return several samples of the Red Pl=et to March for life) Dunlop Uhrorlolo~' Ad define ground truth.
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HEW FR0~ IN =E 50~R HIM marble. The South Pole-Ailken Basins the largest impact structure known in ~e solar system, peneba~s Trough the lunar crust. It is shatigraphically ~e oldest arid deepest impact feature preserved on ~e Moon. The SPA-SR mission will help Carmine ~e nature of the differentiation of ~rrestria1 pits md provide insight into the very early history of the Ear~-Moon system. SPA-SR will also enable the development of sample acquisition' hurdling md return technologies to be applied on over future missions. Jumper Bode 076~r why proms The Jupiter Polar Orbiter with Probes (JPOP) mission will determine if Jupiter he ~ central core, ~ key issue thy should help researchers amide between ~e two competing scenarios for the plus origin. It will measure wear abundar~, which plays ~ pivotal role in un~rs~ding diary Claret formation. This parameter indicates how vol~iles (H2O, CH4' NH ~ arid H2S) were incorporated in the girt plar~ets ar~d, more specifically, the degree to which vol~iles were ~ar~spor~d from beyond Neptune to ~e inner solar system. The mission will probe ~e plus Mop winds to ~ least the 100-bar pressure 1~1 arid may lead to art explar~tion of ~e extreme stability of the cloud-top weather systems. From its cloud-skimming orbit, JPOP will inve~iga~ ~e fine structure of ~e plus magnetic field, providing information on how its in~ma1 Alamo works. Lastly, ~e spacecraft will repeatedly visit the hitherto-unexplored polar plasma environment where magnetospheric currents crash into ~e turbulent atmosphere to generate powerful aurorae. V=~ ~ ~m Explorer On descent the Venus In Situ Explorer (VISE) mission will make compositional md isotopic measurement of the Exosphere md—quickly of He surface. It will loft ~ e ore sample from Venues hellish surface to cooler altitudes' where furler geoehemiea1 md miner~ogiea1 dam will be ob~ined. VISE will provide key measure- men~ of the lower Ionosphere md of surface-~nosphere interactions on Earths would-be twin. The project will elucidate the history md stability of Venues atmospheric greenhouse md id bizarre geological record. It will also advance the technologies required for the sample return from Venus expected in the following decade. Comet Surface Sample Chum The Comet Surface Sample Return (CYST) mission will collect materials from He near surface of ~ active comet md return them to Earn for analysis. These samples will furnish direct evidence on how biometry aetivily is driven. Information will be provided on the mower in which biometry materials are bound together md on how small bodies acerete ~ scales from microns to eentime~rs. By comparing materials on He nucleus against He eomats constituents, CSS1l will indie ate the selection effects ~ work. It will also inventory organic materials in domed. Finally, CSS1l will yield He first clues on crystalline structure, isotopic ratios' md the physical rel~ion- ships between vol~iles, ice' refractory materials' md the eomet~s porosity. These observations will give important information Rout He building blocks of the plme~. s~d M~`ons llecommend~ions for small missions include ~ series of Discovery flights ~ He ram of ~ least one every IS months md ~ extension to He Cassini-Huygens mission (~assini Extended}, presuming ~~ He nominal mission is successful. Discovery missions are' by intent not subject to long-term plying. leader, they exist to crepe frequent opportunities to fly small missions Caressing fundamental scientific questions md to pursue new research problems in creative md irmovative ways.
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E~E SUMMARY 7 lied Mars Flight Minion For hIars exploration' ~e SSE Survey endorses the current science-driven shaggy of seeking (id., remote sensing)' `~ Mum (science from landers)' ar~ds~ngtounders~d Mars as aplar~,understar~di~ as~obiologica1 significar~c~, md afford unique perspectives about ~e origin of life on Earth. The evolution of life arid ply - environments are intimately tied together. To understand ~e po~ntia1 habitability of Mars, whether it has or has not supported life' we mud understar~d ~tonic, magm~ic' arid hydrologic evolution as well as geochemica1 cycles of biological relevance. The return of materials from known locations on Mars is essential in order to address science goals' including those of astrobiology, arid to provide the opportunity for novel measure- men~' such as age-d~ing, md ultimate ground true. Mars Scim~ Laboratory The Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) mission will conduct in situ investigations of ~ w~r-modified sin thy has ~~n identified from orbit. It will provide ground true for orbital interpretations arid ~st hypotheses for ~e formation of geological features. The types of in situ measurements possible include atmospheric sampling' mineralogy arid chemical composition, arid Ash for ~e presence of orgar~ics. The mission should eider drill to get below the homily surface environment or have subs~tia1 rarefying capability. While carrying out id science mission, MSL should test md validate Ethnology required for leer sample return. Mars tog- ~~r Network The Mars Long-Lived Lander Network (h4L3N) is ~ grid of science stations ~~ will make eoordina~d measurement around Mars is g lobe for ~ least ~ martim year. The highe~-priority objectives for network science on Mars are Me de~rmin~ion of the plmetts interns structure, including its core; the elueid~ion of surface md near-surface composition as well as Berman md meehmiea1 properties; md extensive synoptic measurement of the atmosphere md weather. In addition, atmospheric gas isotopic observations (to eonshain the size of currently active volatile reservoirs) md measurement of subsurface oxidizing properties md surf~e-atmosphere volatile exchm~e processes will be Equable. Mars Sample Atom Mars Sample Return (MSR) is required in order to perform definitive measurement to test for Me presence of life, or for extinct life' ~ well as to address Marks geoehemie~ md thermal evolution. Further' eharaeteriz~ion of Mars is Ionosphere md now frown hydrosphere will require highly sophisticated measurements md mal~iea1 equipment. To accomplish key science goals, samples must be returned from Mars md scrutinized in terres~ia1 laboratories. For these rezones the SSE Survey recommend that NASiA hegin id planning for Mars Sample Return missions so that their implementation An occur early in the decade 2013-2023. Current studies of simplified Mars sample-return missions indigen thy such missions are now within ~hnologiea1 reach. Early on' NASA should engage prospective in~rn~iona1 parkers in the plying Ad implementation of MSR. Smad Moons Mars Scout missions are required in order to address science areas ~~ are not included in Me e ore program md to respond to new discoveries derived from current md future missions. A series of such small (c$3~ million) missions should be initiated within Me hears program for flights ~ alternating Mars launch opportunities. This program should be modeled on Me Discovery program. Mars Upper Atmosphere Orbiter (MAO) is ~ small mission dedicated to studies of Marks upper Ionosphere Ad plasma environment. This mission would provide qu~tit~ive information on Me various atmospheric escape
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Is TABLE ES.3 Recommended Techr~ology Developments HEW FR0~ IN =E SOLAR IBM Ca~ gory Recommer~ded Develop mew Power Propulsion Commur~ic~ior~ Architecture Avionics skumert~ior~ Eddy to lar~dir~g situ operations hiobili~ Co~amin~ior~ Each return Advanced radioisotope power ~stems' in-space fi~ion-reactor power source Nuclear-electric propulsion' advanced ion engines, aerocaptur Ka band' optical communication' lark Ate: arrow Autonomy' adaptability' lower mass' lower power Advanced packaging and miniaturization' Goddard oper~ir~g Deem lYliniaturization' enviror~merta1 tolerant (~mper~ure, pressure' ar~dradi~io~ Autonomous entry' precision landing' Ad hazard avoiding Sample g~herirlg' h~dlirlg, Ad analysis; drilling; irlskumert~iorl Autonomy; surface' aerial' Ad subsurface mobility; hard-to-reach acmss Forw~rd-co~amin~ior~ avoiding Ascent vehicle' ir~-spam reroute Ad E~h-retum Items NOTE: ~ old type ir~dica~s ~ priority item. fluxes' Bus quantifying current escape rams md providing ~ basis for backward extrapolation in our attempt to unversed ~e evolution of Mares atmosphere. Technology Di~tiom A significant investment in advanced Ethnology development is also news for the recommended new md future flight missions to Star succeed. Table ES.3 identifies ~ number of important areas in which Ethnology development is appropriate. The SSE Survey r~o~nen~ that NASA commit to si~if~nt new investments in advanced technology so that future high-priority night Anions An su~' llESEAlICH INFRASTllUCTUllE In ~ era of competitively selected missions for spew exploration, it will continue to be necessary to improve the technical expertise md infrastructure of orisons providing He vim services that enable the plying Ad operation of all solar system exploration missions. For missions to be the mod productive seientif~eally' ~ level of funding mud be ensured ~~ is sufficient not only for the successful operation of the flight but also for He eontempormeous analysis of He dam Ad He publication of scientific results. Moreover' He SSE Surveys mission priorities rest on ~ foundation that mud be secured md buttressed. This foundation includes fundamental research' technology development, follow-on da analysis, ground-based facilities' sample-~alysis programs' Ad education Ad public outreach Utilities. The entire pipeline that brings dam from distant spacecraft to the broad research eommuni~ must be system- ~ieally improved. Insufficient downlink communications eapaci~ Trough He Deep Space Network ~SN) currently reship Be return of dam from all missions' as, occasionally, does the DSN,s limited geographical coverage. The DON has to be continually upgraded as new technologies become available and system demands increase. Wee dam are on the ground, Hey must be swiftly archived in ~ widely Steeped Ad usable forms. The Plme~ry Da~ System (PBS) should be inelu~ as ~ scientific parker ~ He very early Cages of missions; it must be sit to accomplish its future Asks. ~ order to utilize He returned information effectively' analysis programs ought to be in place to fund investigators immediately upon delivery of ready-to-use dam to He PDS. D~-
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E~E SUMMARY ar~alysis programs should be merged across lines (~.g., Discovery, New Frontiers) rather Bars being tied to · 1- · 1 1 IHOWIOU31 mlSSlOnS. A healthy research arid analysis (R&A) program is ~e most basic requirement for ~ successful program of flight missions. The SSE Survey recommend an increase over the Delude in the funiling for fun~unent~l research and analysis programs at ~ rate Above inflation that parallels the inere~e in the number of missions, amount of ~~' anal diversity of object studied' Previous N~iona1 Research Council (NRC) studies have shown thy after ~ serious decline in the early to mid-~9Os, the overall funding for R&A programs in NASA's Office of Space Science climbed in recent years to approximately 20 percent of the overall flight-mission budget.~2 Figures supplied by NASA's Solar System Exploration program show thy ~e corresponding value for perry activities is currently closer to 25 percent arid is projected to pay ~ about his 1~1 for ~e next sever al years. The SSE Survey believes ~~ this is art appropriate allocation of resources. NASA's Astrobiology program has appropriately Gnome deeply interwoven into ~e solar system exploration research arid analysis program. The SSE Survey encourages NASA to continue the integration of astrobiology science objective with those of other splice science disciplines+ Astrohiologi~l expertise should he enlled upon when identifying optimal minion strategies and design requirement for Hight-yunlif~ed instrument that nddr~s key questions in astrobiology and planetary wienee+ Ground-based ~lemopes have teem responsible for severe major discoveries in solar system exploration during ~e past decade. Moreover' Marty flight missions are "really Inhered as ~ result of extensive ground-based charac~riz~ion of their targets. The SSE Survey reco~nends that NASA partner equally with the National Science Foundation to design, huild' and operate n survey facility' such ns the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) described in Astronomy ~d A~rophys,cs ~ Use New MdIe'~nmm'3 to ensure that LSST's prime solar system objectives are accomplished+ Other powerful new fnciliti~ highlighted in that report- for example, the James Welsh Space Telewnpe (formerly the Next Generation Spew Telescope) should he designed' whem appropriate, to he capable of Cohering moving solar system targets+ In addition, NASA should continue to support ground-hnsed oh~er~ntories for planetary science' including the planetary radar enpahiliti~ at the Areciho Oh~er~ntory in Puerto Biro and the Deep Space Networker Goldst one facility in Cnlifomin' the Infrared Telewnpe Facility on Mound Ken in Hawaii' and shares of cutting-edge telewnpes such ns the Keek telescopes on Dunn Ken' ns long ns they continue to he criti~l to minions Indoor scientifically productive+ In mticip~ion of Me return of extraterrestrial samples from several ongoing md future missions' ~ malogue to the dam pipeline must be developed for cosmic materials. The SSE Survey recommends that well before cosmic materiels are resumed from planetary missions' NASA should establish n snmple-nnalysis pm~rnm to support instrument development, Inhorntory facilities' and the training of researchers+ In addition, planetary protection requirements for missions to worlds of hiologi~l interest will require investments' ns will life-deb~tion techniques, sample quarantine facilities' and sterilization technologies+ NASAL current administrative nativities to develop planetary probation protocols for currently planned missions are np- proprinte+ Education md public outreach activities foment solar system exploration with id ultimate customers Me tax-paying public md as such are ~ extremely important component of Me program. Solar system exploration captures He imagination of young md old alike. By eorre~ly illustrating He scientific method ~ work md demonstrating scientific principles' He planets science eommunity~s efforts in communicating with student md lay people em be influential in helping to improve science library md education. In most implementations today' plenary scientists md education speeiali~s work h~d-in-h~d to derive irmov~ive md effective activities for communicating Bout solar system exploration win students, teachers, md the public. Although some problems remain' this program is well mewed md is on ~ solid foundation. CONCLUSIONS For nearly 40 years, the Up. Solar System Exploration program has led to ~ explosion of knowledge md awe with respect to our celestial neighborhood as ground-based Lopes md spacecraft have become much more
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Jo HEW FR0~ IN =E 50~R HIM capable while reaching out farmer from Earn. We are now poised to address issues about our origins thy have pulled our forbears since civilizations Chiming. Answers to profound Auctions about our origins arid our future may ~ within our grasp. This survey descries art aggressive arid yet rational strategy to deepen our ar~alysis of such questions arid finally resolve marry long-~ding mysteries during the next dwade. llEF Elk EN C ES . Spam Studies ~ card' N~ior~1 Research Cour~cil' Supports Regears a~d Da~ A~ ~~ NASAL She Program E~ of ~ovabo~ FEZ ~~' N~ior~1 Academy Pre ss' Washir~on' D.~.' ~ ?~' pp. 48-50. 2. Spam Studies ~ card' N~ior~1 Monarch Councils AN of ~e we~ a~Avat~ of HASA 7~ Bard aerospace Same M`~o~ Da~' N~ior~:~1 Academy Press' Washir~or~' D.~.' 2002> pp. 68-~. 3. Board ore Physics Ad Astronomy Ad Span Studies Board' N~ior~1 Research Cour~cil' Astronomy a~A~troph~ ~~ ~e N MtEe~' N~ior~1 Academy Press' W:~shir~or~> Deco.' 2001.
Representative terms from entire chapter: