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8-69 close and industrial equipment is frequently used in the research activities of the universities and institutes. Most institutes are mainly single- disciplined in their staffing but the Institute of Metal Physics recruits staff from various disciplines. Young people, especially solid-state physi- cists and physical chemists, are preferred though they need 'iseasoning" by exposure to metallurgists. Students, either directly from secondary school (at age 18) or from industry (up to age 35), go to teaching institutes which are rather similar to the German "Technische Hochschule." There, they study for the Diploma (5-1/2 - 6 years of undergraduate study), Candidate (3 years of graduate study) and Doctor's degrees. Included in the training for the Diploma is considerable practical experience, making the students qualified engineers on graduation. However, the practical experience may be dispensed with in institutes where the emphasis is on science. In the final year or so of study, the students specialize, working in smaller classes with a fair amount of tutorials, and they also prepare a thesis. In their final year, under- graduates may be sent to a national research institute (e.g. Institute for Metal Physics) to finish off the Diploma work. Higher degrees may be awarded by both teaching and research Institutes. The Candidate degree compares with the Ph.D. Several examinations have to be passed during the course of study, usually on theoretical background. There has been growing emphasis in Russia on the physical and fundamental aspects of metallurgy and a few national research institutes have played a large part in this process, not only in their actual work but by general influence. For example, senior scientists at research institutes may take professorships at teaching institutes for a certain period. Their experience and basic approach is reflected in the instruction at the teaching institute and tends to strengthen the treatment of the fundamental background of the subject. Financial support for the teaching institute comes partly from the Ministry of Higher Education which supports both teaching and research activ- ities, and partly from industry which pays for research on specific industrial problems carried out on a contract basis. RES EARCH AND DEVELOPMENT Statistical Information Total national expenditures on R&D, as expressed and normalized in various ways, are given for six advanced countries in Table 8.10. While the data refer to the mid-sixties, they are probably relevant to current economic- technological strengths of the nations because the time-lag between R&D and significant commercialization is often of the order of a decade. The rela- tively heavy expenditures in the U.K. and even more so in the U.S. reflect large commitments to defense R&D, with France being the next heaviest. Canada, Germany, and Japan all showed relatively low expenditures on R&D per GNP. By 1971 expenditures had risen in France to 1.8% of GNP (Table 8.11) but were then decreasing. Japan had risen somewhat more and was still
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8-71 Table 8.11 National Expenditures on Research and Development as Percentage o f GNP Country 1963-1964 1971 Direction in 1971 , Canada 1.1 France 1. 6 1.8 Decreasing Germany 1. 4 Japan 1.4 1.8 Increasing U.K. 2.3 2.0 Steady U.S. 3.3 2.6 Decreasing U.S.S.R. 3.0 Increasing
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8-72 increasing, while the U.K. had leveled off at about 2.0%. Expenditures in the U.S. had shown a relatively big drop from 3.3% to 2.6% and were still decreasing. On the other hand, expenditures in the U.S.S.R. in 1971 were 3.0% and increasing. Table 8.12 shows the level of commitment of qualified scientists and engineers to R&D. In 1963-64 the commitment levels in Canada, France, and Germany were only a little more than half of those in Japan and the U.K., and about a quarter of the U.S. level. By 1911 France, Germany, and Japan had roughly doubled their commitments to R&D, and in the latter two countries the commitment levels were still increasing. In particular, Japan had already drawn abreast of the U.S. The U.S., on the other hand, showed little change between the 1963-64 and 1971 levels and in 1971 the trend was actually downward, in contrast to all the above countries, the commitment level in the U.S.S.R. in 1971 was 1-1/2 times that of the U.S. and was increasing. Table 8 e 13 shows the distribution in 1963-64 of R&D scientists and engineers among the industrial, governmental, private nonprofit, and higher- education sectors in the various countries. The U.K. and the U.S. had rela- tively heavy concentrations in industry, while in Canada, France, Germany, and Japan the numbers in industry were about comparable to those in the other three sectors combined. Outside the industrial sectors, the governmental sectors dominated in Canada, France, and the U.K., while universities and nonprofit institutions dominated in Japan, the U.S., and heavily in Germany. This last reflects the importance of the Max Planck Institutes. A closer look at the industrial sector is given in Table 8.14 which shows the R&D expenditures in terms of sources of support. The heavy support given to industry by the government (presumable mainly defense con- tracts) is dramatic in the U.S. and, to a somewhat lesser extent, in the U.K. and France. At the other end of the scale, governmental support of industrial R&D is quite low in Germany and nearly zero in Japan. The breakdown of total national expenditures for R&D by percentage between the defense, space, and nuclear sectors on the one hand, and all other sectors on the other is shown in Table S.15. Large variations among countries are evident. However, it is worth noting that as a percentage of GNP the expenditures on R&D in the "All Other (civilian) Sectors" differed relatively little, ranging from 1.1% to 1.5%, except for Canada which was 0.8%. Furthermore, Figure 8.2 shows that the dollar expenditures in these sectors in the U.S., Germany, France, the U.K. and Canada followed remarkably parallel growth rates from the mid-fifties to the mid-sixties. For the purpose of this report, some particularly interesting compari- sons are given in Table 8.16 on the structure of R&D expenditures in manu- facturing industries. The industrial groupings for statistical purposes are as follows: Mechanical - Other Science - Based - Aircraft Electrical (including instruments) Chemicals (including drugs and petroleum) Machinery Basic metals (including fabricated metal products) Other transport equipment - Allied products ~rubber, textiles, food and drinks Miscellaneous Manufacturing
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8-73 Table 8.12 Number of Qualified Scientists and Engineers on Research and Development Per 10,000 of Population Country 1963-1964 1971 Direction in 1971 Canada 7 France 7 12 Steady Germany 6 15 Increasing Japan 12 25 Increasing U.K. 11 ? U.S. 24 25 Decreasing U.S.S.R. 37 Increasing 1
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8-76 Table 8.15 Gross National Expenditures on Research and Development (1963-64) Defense, Space, and Nuclear Sectors All Other Sectors % of Total % of Total % of GNP Canada 26.2 73.8 0.8 France 43.4 56.6 1.1 Germany 15.9 84.1 1.2 Japan 0 100.0 1.4 U.K. 40.2 59.8 1.4 U.S. 56.3 43.7 1.5
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8-77 Fl GURE 8.2 GOVERNMENT FUNDS FOR REsEaRcH AND DEVELOPMENT OTHER THAN SPACE, NUCLEAR, aND DEFENSE RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT ~ in rnit!ions of U. S. $ 3000 2000 1000 100 UN ITE D STATE S _ ~ _, _ ~ ~ FRAN CE ~ GERMANY' / UN ITE D / ~ KINGDOM / /,' 1 / /,' - J 'I'd / ~ CANADA _ ~ - 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1953 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 YEAR
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8-79 As might be expected, the countries with larger economic resources invest relatively more heavily in the science-based industries (reflecting also, in general, a greater proportion of effort going into defense R&D in those countries). A more detailed breakdown of R&D expenditure in manufacturing ~ndus- tries in the major countries is given in Tables 8.11, 8.18 and 8.19. The R&D technical manpower totals in Table 8.20 are particularly infor- mative; there are strong efforts in certain industries in some countries reflecting particular local advantages in natural resources, but in nearly all industrial sectors where data are given, the total effort in the U.S. is greater, often considerably greater, then the combined totals of Canada, France, Germany, Japan, and the U.K. However, if all the figures were available, then probably the U.S. would lag somewhat the combined totals for the ferrous and nonferrous metal industries. This conclusion is further reinforced by the data given in Table 8.21 which compares the U.S. expenditure and technical manpower on R&D with that of the whole of Western Europe. These figures might suggest that if there is any lag of U.S. industry vis-a-vis the world it is not because of an inadequate quantity of R&D effort; it is noteworthy that the U.S. industries with the narrowest lead, or even a lag, by this measure include predominantly the basic materials industries - ferrous and nonferrous metals, chemicals, rubber, and textiles. If there are weaknesses in the U.S. R&D effort in these industries, perhaps one should look for explanation not at the magnitude of effort, primarily, but at its quality, its organization, and the general institutional barriers to innovation. It appears that massive federally-supported R&D programs in those industries with defense and space contracts has contributed to U.S. leader- ship in the aerospace, computer, and nuclear industries. But it requires sustained massive support to maintain leadership as other countries are able to follow closely with much smaller R&D efforts simply by copying the technology, often making only modest modifications. The price of a small edge in technical leadership is extremely high and even with its huge resources, the U.S. may well have to select those industries in which it needs to lead, technologically, and those in which it can afford to follow closely. Concerning priorities, it is useful to examine the trends in governmental R&D expenditures in various countries. Some of these are summarized in Table 8.22 where R&D has been grouped into 6 broad categories and given simple rank orderings. (The spacings between industrial rankings differ considerably and, of course, it has to be kept in mind that (i) defense and space expenditures dominate heavily in the U.S. while they are essentially absent in Japan, and that (ii) governmental funding of Japanese industrial R&D is negligible.) Table 8.23 gives data on the percentages of highly qualified manpower in different industrial sectors and in the total labor force. Thase exhibit a slightly heavier indulgence in professional and technical people in most U.S. industrial sectors than the average of the Western countries but, apart from the service sector, the Japanese industrial sectors show a very much
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8-133 It should be noted that research in the universities can be supported either through the SRC or through the University Grants Committee (UGC). Funding through the UGC recognizes the fact that teaching and research are essential academic functions while the SRC support, in general, is used for initiating researches of special timeliness and promise. Over the period of 1965-1970, financial stringency has forced the SRC to develop steadily its policy of selectivity and concentration. Emphasis has also shifted in the direction of supporting more graduate studies rather than research studentships, and overall to favor awards in applied science and those having industrial potentiality rather than awards in pure science. Awards have also been used to encourage the movement of graduates into industry and schoolteaching and to promote university-industry collaboration. The SRC has leaned toward research and training in engineering, for example, by limiting the support for research assistants and increasing the support for technicians. It has increased the number of fellowships to facilitate the return flow of graduates from North America to the U.K. It has encouraged coupling between secondary schools and SRC Laboratories through joint appointments. The SRC principles that guide selectivity and concentration in the support of research are broadly: (a) Certain areas, within a discipline or embracing a number of disci- plines, will be selected for more favorable-than-average support during a given period, on the basis of a review of their special potential for advancing basic science, or their economic or community value, or all three. Other important criteria will be the economy of scarce manpower and the optimum utilization of unique or expensive facilities in universities, national and international laboratories, and in industry. (b) A limited number of university departments will be given more favorable-than-average support to enable them to concentrate effort in certain areas; such departments will be selected on the basis of their leadership, past achievement, present expertise, or other relevant factors (e.g., ability to collaborate with industry). (c) This concentration of resources will be planned by shifting to favored areas from less favored areas rather than by simple addition. (d) Nevertheless, it will be essential part of SRC policy - and well publicized - that some support will always be available to any outstanding individual in any part of any subject for work of sufficient "timeliness and promise" (e.g., imagination, novelty or relevance to valuable goals). (e) The pattern of preferred topics and places will be kept under contin- uous review and not frozen. This, with item (d) above, will make it possible for any department or individual to grow, with SRC help, from a small start to a major group in any field, provided there are sufficient ideas, effort, and backing from the university itself. With a limited growth rate for SRC as a whole, it will be necessary to reduce support in major areas where programs have been completed or have lost their impetus, in order to provide backing for new centers.
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8-134 (f) The degree of concentration, i.e., the proportion of the funds given to selected areas or to selected departments, must depend upon the nature of the subject (e.g., need for very large equipment), the existing degree of concentration, the resources available (e.g., the number of trained experts in the field), and so on. But it will be the subject of appropriate review by SRC, in the light of open discussion with university and other people concerned. (g) Some of the principles to be followed in exercising selectivity in support of astronomy, space and nuclear physics research differ in important respects from those arising at present in other branches of science and engineering. Because of high threshold costs and large capital installations, consideration has to be given to the creation of regional or national facilities or participation in international organizations. The selection and support of university teams by the SRC to take advantage of such facili- ties requires close collaboration between university personnel and the staff of national and international laboratories as well as an obligation to accept the discipline which such collaboration entails. Similar considerations are likely to arise in other fields where major engineering installations are required to be shared by universities in furtherance of particular research programs. (h) The research program of the SRC Laboratories and Observatories will be kept under review to ensure the selection of the most promising subjects for study and the consequent necessary concentration of resources. SRC establishments will also provide the optimum help within their power to those engaged in research and development in universities and industry who need to use the special facilities and expertise possessed by the establishments. (i) Because the implementation of these policies means that SRC will inevitably exercise more influence over university research, it is essential that SRC should make sure that its policy is fully known and understood throughout the university sector, and that adequate opportunities are pro- vided for the policy to be discussed with the University Grants Committee, with the other Research Councils as appropriate, and with universities; and for provisional proposals in particular topics to be examined and discussed before decisions are taken. In spite of the SRC's increasing concern to support work of economic and social value, most of its funds go to supporting fundamental, long-term, curiosity-oriented research as distinguished from mission-oriented research. "But as far as the research scientist or engineer himself is concerned, the interest and methods in either kind of research are often the same and one may turn into the other at short notice." The SRC proclaims that "Basic research is of great intellectual and cultural interest but it also leads to advances in scientific knowledge which may have practical importance in the long-term and it provides an indispensable training medium at the graduate level in universities. One of the characteristics of fundamental science is the way in which discoveries in one field permeate other fields of science and technology so that the bodies of traditional disciplines are blurred and progress
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8-135 depends on interdisciplinary collaboration." Nevertheless, as the data show, the SRC over the years 1967-1969 has reduced somewhat its support for basic research and increased its support for applied science and technology. This is in recognition of the fact that the SRC "must relate its support of university research and graduate education to national needs, for example in the engineering industries, and to social needs in transport, building, noise, and pollution. However, there are signs that, on the average, those students going into applied science graduate work have lower quality first degrees than those going on into pure science - "All eligible candidates for Advanced Course Studentships with first and upper seconds were successful. In applied science all eligible candidates with lower seconds received awards." And for the research studentships, Hall eligible candidates with first class honors were successful. In applied science all eligible candidates with upper second class honors were successful. In pure science 225 eligible candidates with upper second class honors were unsuccessful." In connection with its awards, the SRC is trying a number of variations designed to enhance better university-industry coupling and the training of people for industry. It should be realized that, roughly speaking, the number of SRC awards is approximately half of the number of graduate students working in fields within the realm of the SRC. The number of first degree graduates was still rising in 1970 - the forecast figures were 13,700 scientists and 9,700 engineers, with an estimated increase above the 1969 level of 8% overall, 3% in scientists, 16% in engineers. The overall increase in "radiations forecast for 1970-72 is 5% per year. The SRC is basing its planning up to 1975 on a growth rate of 5% per year in the number of graduates. Policies, priorities and their implementation in the various scientific fields within the preview of the SRC are handled by various Boards. Those of most interest to COSMAT are the Boards of Engineering and Science. Engineering Board: - Membership of the Board is about equally represented by the universities and industry. The Board is responsible for the support of research and graduate training in aeronautical and civil engineering, chemical engineering and technology, electrical and systems engineering, mechanical and production engineering, control engineering, metallurgy and materials, computing science, and polymer science. Separate committees are responsible for each of these areas. The Board recognizes the underlying unity of science, technology, and engineering and expects to continue to give a measure of research support to pure science departments insofar as this is relevant to the furtherance of its own broad objectives, for example, in the field of materials science and poly- mers. The Board is also concerned with studies of creativity and innovation in engineering. The pursuit of research aimed at advancing the state of knowledge in engineering or applicable science is not in question, nor the need to develop areas of potential importance bridging accepted disciplines since it is here that much work of immediate relevance is to be found. It is at the interface or overlap with industrial or governmental research and exploitation that the university role has to be more clearly defined. From a review undertaken by the Metallurgy and Materials Committee, the
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8-136 following areas have been identified as meriting special attention: composite materials, surface and interfaces, and process metallurgy. The Aeronautical and Civil Engineering Committee has identified in descending order of priority: transport, building design, sound and vibration, fluid flow, structures, and aeronautics. The Mechanical and Production Engineering Committee has selected the following areas for further study: medical engineering, marine technology, and computer-aided design. It is also proposed to sponsor research into the fundamentals of grinding. Areas previously rated meriting special support include desalination, high-temperature processes, and electro-chemistry. The Control Engineering Committee has sponsored concentrated programs at universities which include, for example, development of a mathematical model for a hot-strip rolling mill, its application in a much simplified overall control strategy, and the specification of an automation scheme which is expected to lead to increased productivity. The Polymer Science Committee, relatively new, is concerning itself initially with synthesis, thermal stability and degradation, processing and physical/mechanical properties. Science Board: - The Science Board, with its various committees, is responsible for pure and applied research and graduate training in biology, chemistry, enzyme chemistry and technology, mathematics, and physics (other than astronomy, nuclear physics, radio and space research). The Science Board emphasizes the individual in research, and the culti- vation of depth of thinking together with a measure of breadth of outlook. It emphasizes the support of high-quality work, and favors especially a few selected areas of high scientific promise or value to the community. The Chemistry Committee identified photochemistry, especially research on nanosecond and picosecond flash photolysis, and organometallic chemistry as meriting special support. The Physics Committee has surveyed needs in the whole of its field (see below). Experiments using neutron-beam facilities at Harwell are being sponsored covering studies of the magnetic structure of solids, the dynamics of magnetization, the position of light atoms in crystal structures, the dynamics of atom movements in liquids, molecular rotations and vibrations, and defects in crystals. A Physics-Chemical Measurements Unit is providing an analysis service (infrared, NMR, ~ossbauer spectroscopy) to universities, making use of facili- ties at Harwell and Aldernas ton. The Physics Committee has identified the following problems, new areas, and techniques likely to need special support in the near future. Solid- state physics, generally. Plasma physics; neutron beams and the need for a high flux beam reactor; synchrotron radiation for studying gases and solids; ion implantation in semiconductors and other solids; amorphous state; surface studies; use of on-line computers; collisions between atoms and low-energy heavy particles; dye lasers; radiative recombination and energy-transfer processes in solids; mode-locked lasers giving picosecond pulses; ferro- electric materials; technological magnetism; electronic structure of alloys to match recent advances in pure metals; laser scattering spectroscopy;
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8-137 nonlinear optics; electronic properties of polymers; inert-gas solids; critical phenomena at very low temperatures, superconductor tunnelling phenomena. Clearly the physics community in the U.K. will be putting much of its emphasis on materials science. Detailed breakdowns of recent support patterns by the SRC are given in Tables 8.40 and 8.41. Scandinavia The Scandinavian countries, Denmark, Finland, Norway, and Sweden, are relatively small, poor In many natural resources, but are highly developed countries. Survival and progress of their living standard in the face of competition from the larger economic units of the world are spurring mutual attempts to cooperate in the technological spheres; one of the areas for these attempts has been materials though so far not with very tangible results. Denmark Denmark has no natural materials resources except for lime, clay, sand, and gravel. There are three State Universities and a Technical University which perform research in building materials, metals, polymers, ceramics, textiles, and solid-state physics. The Danish Academy of Sciences operates 22 applied research institutes; within the materials field these cover electronic materials, asphalt, wood, radioisotopes, paint, and natural organic materials. Some contract research is conducted in these institutes. There is considerable activity in solid-state physics which embraces the Technical University, the Orietal Institute of Arhus University, and the Ris Research Center of the Danish A.E.C. Industry sponsors some research institutes, for example, in building materials, and much in-house R&D in the chemical and electrical industries. There is no official policy in the field of materials research but the Danish Loan Fund for Industrial Research provides some risk money for industrial R&D. Attempts are being made to establish a program in the field of building materials research by the Danish Council for Scientific and Industrial Research. For a time, attention was given to the possibility of establishing a central building materials research institute but the estimated costs were prohibitive and, instead, it was concluded that research in this field must be covered by co-ordinating the activities of the existing insti- tutes and industries. Find and The most important raw material in Finland to date is wood - for building, fuel, paper and pulp, and pulp products. The industry now runs at the
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8-141 capacity of the forests. Research is directed at more efficient processing and use of wood. Other industries have developed significantly since World War II, particularly in metals - iron and steel, nonferrous metals such as copper, zinc, cobalt, nickel, chromium, selenium, vanadium, titanium, and rare earth oxides. Finland is relatively well endowed with the relevant minerals even though production so far is small. As a consequence, research is very active in the metals and mining industries and associated Geological Survey-sponsored programs. By contrast, little R&D is done in the metals-consuming industries though there are signs of growing awareness of materials questions. The chemical industry is expected to expand most rapidly in the next few years, and it is in need of more R&D not only because of its relation to the metals and forest industries, but also because of the increasing production of plastics. Nuclear energy is also expected to grow in importance, and the Finnish A.E.C. has initiated programs for research on radiation damage, corrosion' etc e There has been much university expansion going on, and the need for expanding teaching staff and facilities made it difficult to provide at the same time for research or the setting up of new interdisciplinary materials departments. Instead, academic research is carried out more along tradi- tional departmental lines, metallurgy and solid-state physics being the most prominent in the materials field. However, the former is performed in engineering departments and the latter in physics departments, with the traditional sharp division between them. This division between science and engineering also projects into the organization of National Scientific Commissions and the State Research Institutes. The State Institute of Technical Research is organized along traditional lines with laboratories specializing in various technologies. In a pending reorganization of this Institute, there is an attempt to make it more interdisciplinary by establishing an integrated materials division. Norway There are 4 universities in Norway (Oslo, Bergen, Trondheim, and Tromso). Trondheim University also includes the Technical University of Trondheim where most of the academic research in materials in Norway is conducted. Some is also done at Oslo and only minor amounts elsewhere. Materials research is carried out in the traditional departments at Trondheim and Oslo - physics, chemistry, metallurgy, etc. but at Trondheim there is a Professional Coordinating Council for constructional materials research. There are research institutes to support industry and to cover specific technological fields, e.g., building research' pulp and paper research wood working and wood technology, atomic energy, materials testing, etc. There are also some broader institutes such as the Central Institute for Industrial Research at Oslo (where about 40% of the activity can be termed materials research). Overall, most research is carried out in government or government- supported laboratories.
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8-142 There is no national policy for materials research. The Research Council for Scientific and Industrial Research includes committees organized along traditional lines - chemistry, metallurgy, technical physics, etc. There is no committee for materials, and so materials research gets split up among the committees. Furthermore the projects are to a large extent evalu- ated by committees which are use-oriented. This has its advantages and disadvantages, an example of the latter is that separate corrosion programs are sponsored by each of several committees. However, there is growing awareness of the need to coordinate the activities of the committees in the materials field. More than 25% (i.e., 9.5x106 of all the funds allocated by the Council go to projects directly concerned with materials. Of this, approximately 60% is directed to metallurgical research (e.g., electro-metallurgical processes, alloy development, corrosion, composite materials, quality improve- ment, Welding problems, fracture mechanics, etc.~; less than 10% (i.e., 0.8xlO Kr) to plastics and high polymers; somewhat more than 10% to electronic materials; about 6% to ceramics, and the rest to specific materials projects (e.g., building construction problems). Tile emphasis on metals reflects the fact that metallurgical products constitute the country's largest export field, while shipbuilding and machine tools are the larger industries in the country. Sweden Materials research is conducted at Swedish universities, special insti- tutes, and industrial laboratories. The first two tend to emphasize fundamen- tal research but are recognizing the interdisciplinary nature of materials research. They are beginning to coordinate the programs of research groups and to cooperate in optimizing the use of expensive equipment and facilities. Indeed, the Royal Institute of Technology KTH (Stockholm) and the Chalmers Institute of Technology CTH (Gothenburg) have organized materials research centers comprising various departments of the two institutions as well as interested parties from the outside. There is also an interdepartmental materials research body at Uppsala University. In addition there are trade research institutes oriented to specific industries and sponsored by industrial groups. Certain special research institutes, though oriented towards particular industries, are not industrially- sponsored and are therefore rather independent. Materials research, principally ferrous, is conducted mainly at KTH, the Institute for Metal Research, and the Swedish Atomic Energy Company. At KTH and the Institute for Metal Research the emphasis .s on physical metallurgy and metallography. Polymer research is also conducted at KTH and some at CTH. Materials research at CTH is primarily solid-state physics and applied physics, with broad emphasis on surface physics and chemistry and the border area between solid-state theory and physical metallurgy. Applied work is focused on composites and powder metallurgy. Materials research at the Lund Institute of Technology (LTH) is concerned mainly with building materials and fracture mechanics.
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8-143 Materials research at Uppsala University is mostly physical metallurgy. Ceramics and glass research is conducted at the Silicate Research Institute (Gothenburg) and the Glass Research Institute (Vaxjo) - both trade research institutes. The Defense Research Institute is concerned with heat-resisting materials, composites, corrosion (especially with titanium metals), and protective coatings. The Atomic Energy Company works on reactor applications, deformation and rapture mechanics, structural defects, and corrosion. The principal governmental body for sponsoring and overseeing materials research is the Swedish Board for Technical Development (STU), officially subordinate to the Ministry of Industry but enjoying considerable freedom while cooperating with other sponsoring agencies, private research organi- zations, and private industry. It makes use of expert committees to advise on R&D matters. One of these committees is concerned with the materials field; its chairman is the President of the Academy of Engineering Science. The STU offers three types of support - for research with no obligation for repayment, to industrial development projects with a conditional obligation to repay, and to collective trade research with the industrial sector in question as a financial partner to at least 50%. The STU has given high priority to materials technology in its appropria- tions budget, amounting to between 15 and 20% of its total budget. Steel is regarded still as a pivatal material for the future through advances in strength, toughness, weldability, and by improved production processes and the development of new alloys. Steam and atomic energy technologies call for greater heat, corrosion, and radiation resistance. Powder metallurgy is expected to grow in importance for forming more complex structural parts. It is anticipated that similar trends toward better tough- ness and heat resistance will also occur with the nonferrous metals based on aluminum and titanium. Polymers are projected to become a rapidly growing structural material. Research will be necessary for developing polymers with advanced mechanical properties to substitute for metals, also with high-temperature and radiation resistance. Environmentally degradable polymers will also be needed. Consumption of ceramics in the building industry is expected to decrease; bricks will be replaced by prefabricated wall sections, plastics will replace ceramic drain and sewer pipes. For lining furnaces, ceramics better able to withstand thermal shock will require continuing R&D. Composites are regarded as a growth field - for aeronautical engineering, for weapons, transportation equipment, and for many parts in industry (e.g., pumps, pipes, etc.), where the extra strength is worth the extra cost. Less expensive composites and fibers are needed, particularly carbon fibers, and more automation of manufacturing processes.
Representative terms from entire chapter: