Biographical Memoirs

NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES



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Biographical Memoirs: Volume 81 Biographical Memoirs NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES

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Biographical Memoirs: Volume 81 This page in the original is blank.

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Biographical Memoirs: Volume 81 NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA Biographical Memoirs VOLUME 81 NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS WASHINGTON, D.C.

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Biographical Memoirs: Volume 81 The National Academy of Sciences was established in 1863 by Act of Congress as a private, nonprofit, self-governing membership corporation for the furtherance of science and technology, required to advise the federal government upon request within its fields of competence. Under its corporate charter the Academy established the National Research Council in 1916, the National Academy of Engineering in 1964, and the Institute of Medicine in 1970. Any opinions expressed in this memoir are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Academy of Sciences. INTERNATIONAL STANDARD BOOK NUMBER 0-309-08476-8 INTERNATIONAL STANDARD SERIAL NUMBER 0077-2933 LIBRARY OF CONGRESS CATALOG CARD NUMBER 5-26629 Available from NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS 2101 CONSTITUTION AVENUE, N.W. WASHINGTON, D.C. 20418 COPYRIGHT 2002 BY THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES ALL RIGHTS RESERVED PRINTED IN THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA

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Biographical Memoirs: Volume 81 CONTENTS     PREFACE   vii     STANLEY D. BECK BY JOHN L. WEDBERG, G. MICHAEL CHIPPENDALE, AND JOHN C. REESE   3     EARL PHILIP BENDITT BY DAVID LAGUNOFF AND GEORGE M. MARTIN   25     R. H. BING BY MICHAEL STARBIRD   49     MARVIN P. BRYANT BY ARNOLD L. DEMAIN AND RALPH F. WOLFE   67     KARL AUGUST FOLKERS BY WILLIAM SHIVE   101     KLAUS HOFMANN BY FRANCES M. FINN AND BERT W. O’MALLEY   117     LOO-KENG HUA BY HEINI HALBERSTAM   137

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Biographical Memoirs: Volume 81     HAROLD LLOYD JAMES BY PAUL BARTON   157     WILLIAM M. KAULA BY DONALD L. TURCOTTE   175     WOLFGANG KÖHLER BY ULRIC NEISSER   187     WILLIAM L. MCMILLAN BY P. W. ANDERSON   199     JAMES VAN GUNDIA NEEL BY WILLIAM J. SCHULL   215     SUSUMU OHNO BY ERNEST BEUTLER   235     WILLIAM FOGG OSGOOD BY JOSEPH L. WALSH   247     ELIZABETH S. RUSSELL BY JANE E. BARKER AND WILLYS K. SILVERS   259     LEWIS HASTINGS SARETT BY ARTHUR A. PATCHETT   279     EMILIO GINO SEGRÈ BY J. DAVID JACKSON   295     JOHN ALEXANDER SIMPSON BY EUGENE N. PARKER   319     RICHARD TOUSEY BY WILLIAM A. BAUM   341     JOHN RANDOLPH WINCKLER BY KINSEY A. ANDERSON   357

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Biographical Memoirs: Volume 81 PREFACE On March 3, 1863, Abraham Lincoln signed the Act of Incorporation that brought the National Academy of Sciences into being. In accordance with that original charter, the Academy is a private, honorary organization of scientists, elected for outstanding contributions to knowledge, who can be called upon to advise the federal government. As an institution the Academy’s goal is to work toward increasing scientific knowledge and to further the use of that knowledge for the general good. The Biographical Memoirs, begun in 1877, are a series of volumes containing the life histories and selected bibliographies of deceased members of the Academy. Colleagues familiar with the discipline and the subject’s work prepare the essays. These volumes, then, contain a record of the life and work of our most distinguished leaders in the sciences, as witnessed and interpreted by their colleagues and peers. They form a biographical history of science in America—an important part of our nation’s contribution to the intellectual heritage of the world. R. STEPHEN BERRY Home Secretary

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Biographical Memoirs: Volume 81 This page in the original is blank.