III
APPENDIXES



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Partnership for Solid-State Lighting: Report of a Workshop III APPENDIXES

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Partnership for Solid-State Lighting: Report of a Workshop This page in the original is blank.

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Partnership for Solid-State Lighting: Report of a Workshop Appendix A: Speaker Biographies DAVID ATTWOOD David Attwood is currently Director, Center for X-Ray Optics at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory in Berkeley, California, and was Scientific Director, Advanced Light Source until 1988. He has held a position in the College of Engineering at the University of California at Berkeley, as Professor in Residence for Applied Science and Technology since 1989 and for Electrical Engineering and Computer Science since 1993. He also held positions in the Department of Applied Science at the University of California at Davis from 1978-1983 and at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory from 1972-1983, ultimately serving as Deputy Associate Program Leader for the Fusion Experiments Program prior to moving to Berkeley. He also held a position as Research Scientist at General Applied Science Laboratories from 1965 to 1968. Dr. Attwood is a member of the American Physical Society, Optical Society of America, American Association for the Advancement of Science, Sigma Xi, Canadian Institute for Synchrotron Radiation, and the Japanese Society for Synchrotron Radiation Research. He holds a B.S. in Engineering Science from Hofstra University, an M.S. in Astronautical Sciences from Northwestern University, and a D.Eng.Sci in Applied Physics from New York University. CHARLES BECKER Dr. Becker is the Manager of LED Projects at General Electric Corporate Research and Development, including advanced research supporting brightness LED and LED systems development. Key technologies under investigation con-

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Partnership for Solid-State Lighting: Report of a Workshop sist of phosphors, high-performance encapsulation materials, high power packages, and system integration. In previous GE assignments he managed the development of CMOS IC processes and characterization, high-performance electronic packaging, power control systems, and a broad array of technologies supporting GE’s industrial businesses. During 1997 he was a key architect of the GE corporate Design for Six Sigma engineering initiative. Dr. Becker received his Ph.D. in Physical Chemistry at the University of Chicago in 1979. He has been a member of the Board of Visitors of Duke University’s School of Engineering and of the Executive Advisory Board of the RPI Center for Integrated Electronics. He has authored 10 papers and 1 book chapter and holds 5 U.S. patents. ARPAD BERGH Arpad A. Bergh received his Ph.D. from the University of Pennsylvania in 1959 in Physical Chemistry. From 1959 to 1984 he was with Bell Laboratories. In 1968 he became head of the Compound Semiconductor Materials and Devices Development Department in Murray Hill, N.J., responsible for lasers, LEDs, photodetectors, and microwave devices. When Bellcore was formed in 1984, Dr. Bergh became Division Manager of the Device Science and Technology Research Division, conducting research in photonic devices, gallium-arsenide high-speed circuits, and display devices. In 1986 he became Executive Director of the Applied Research Program Department responsible for strategic planning and customer interface maintenance. In 1994 he retired from Bellcore to become the full-time president of the Optoelectronics Industry Development Association (OIDA) in Washington, D.C. OIDA is an industry association of the major players in the North American optoelectronic industry. Affiliate members include university centers doing research in optoelectronics. Dr. Bergh holds 11 patents and has authored over 20 papers on semiconductor materials and devices. He has coauthored Light Emitting Diodes (Oxford Press, 1976) and several book chapters on Network Systems Applications and Markets for Optoelectronic Integration. He is a fellow of the IEEE and member of OSA and SPIE. KAREN H. BROWN Dr. Karen H. Brown is the National Institute of Standards and Technology’s acting director and deputy director. As a non-regulatory agency of the U.S. Department of Commerce’s Technology Administration, NIST’s mission is to strengthen the U.S. economy and improve the quality of life by working with industry to develop and apply technology, measurements, and standards through

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Partnership for Solid-State Lighting: Report of a Workshop a portfolio of four major programs: the NIST Laboratories, the Baldrige National Quality Program, the Manufacturing Extension Partnership, and the Advanced Technology Program. Brown oversees an $800-million annual operating budget and 3,300 onsite staff complemented by 2,000 manufacturing and business specialists serving smaller manufacturers around the country. Effective January 21, 2001, Dr. Brown was designated to serve as Acting Under Secretary for Technology of the Commerce Department’s Technology Administration. She came to NIST as deputy director in January 1999. Previously she was a Distinguished Engineer at IBM Microelectronics in Hopewell Junction, N.Y. Dr. Brown also served (on assignment from IBM) as director of lithography for SEMATECH from 1994 to 1998. During her 22-year career at IBM she concentrated on solving problems in semiconductor lithography and microelectronics. She has a proven track record in management, having successfully met the challenges of moving ideas from the laboratory into manufacturing. She also has a keen awareness of the impact of national and international standards on U.S. industry and the economy, having held a variety of standards leadership positions in Semiconductor Equipment and Materials International and helping to bring a semiconductor fabrication line on board in France. A native of Schenectady, N.Y., Dr. Brown holds a B.A. in chemistry and in history and a Ph.D. in chemistry from the University of Rochester. MAKARAND CHIPALKATTI Dr. Chips Chipalkatti is marketing and technical manager for LED Light Sources and is responsible for starting up and managing OSRAM Sylvania’s LED lamp modules business for General Lighting, in collaboration with sister concern OSRAM Opto Semiconductors. Prior to his current position, Dr. Chipalkatti led OSRAM Sylvania’s OLED research and development, and worked on projects involving optical polymers, molecular semiconductors, and automotive and electrical applications. He began his career at GTE Laboratories, Inc., working with polymers in automotive, electronics, lighting applications and in fiber optics. He holds a Ph.D. in Polymer Science and Engineering from the University of Massachusetts; an M.S. degree in Chemical Engineering from Michigan Technological University; and a B.S. in Chemical Engineering from the Indian Institute of Technology in Bombay. M. GEORGE CRAFORD M. George Craford is the Chief Technology Officer of LumiLeds Lighting. He obtained a BA degree in Physics from the University of Iowa in 1961 and a Ph.D. degree in Physics from the University of Illinois in 1967. Dr. Craford began his professional career as a research physicist at Monsanto Chemical Company. Initially, his research dealt with the development of optoelectronics materi-

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Partnership for Solid-State Lighting: Report of a Workshop als and devices using a variety of compound semiconductor materials. In 1974 he became the Technical Director of the Monsanto Electronics Division with management responsibility for silicon wafer development as well as compound semiconductor materials and device development. In 1979 Dr. Craford joined HewlettPackard Company as manager in the Optoelectronics Division, responsible for the development of technology and processes for manufacturing visible light emitting diodes. In 1999 Dr. Craford assumed his current position as Chief Technical Officer of LumiLeds Lighting, a joint venture of Agilent Technologies and Philips Lighting. Dr. Craford first became known for the development of nitrogen-doped GaAsP technology for yellow and red-orange LEDs at Monsanto in the early 1970s. This became one of the dominant commercial LED technologies. At Hewlett-Packard his group maintained a leadership position in LED performance and production technology with the introduction of red and yellow AlInGaP devices, grown by MOCVD, which have better luminous efficiencies than incandescent lamps. These devices are widely used in such outdoor applications as traffic signals, highway signs, and automotive lighting. He was also responsible for programs that developed InGaN technology for blue and green emitters. Dr. Craford is a member of the National Academy of Engineering and a Fellow of the IEEE. He has received the MRS Medal, the IEEE Morris N. Liebmann Award, the Holonyak Award of the Optical of America, the Welker Award of International Symposium on Compound Semiconductors, the Electronics Division Award of the Electrochemical Society, and the Distinguished Alumni Award of the University of Illinois College of Engineering. He has published over 50 papers and book chapters, has given invited and plenary talks at a variety of conferences, and holds several commercially important patents. STEVEN DENBAARS Steven DenBaars is a Professor of Materials at the University of California at Santa Barbara (UCSB) and is also a member of the Scientific Advisory Board at Cree Lighting, Inc. From 1988 to 1991 Prof. DenBaars was involved in the fabrication of high-brightness LEDs as a member of the technical staff at Hewlett-Packard. In 1991 he joined the UCSB faculty, where he is developing new solid-state optoelectronic devices. In 1996 he cofounded Nitres, Inc., (which was acquired by Cree in May 2000) to commercialize solid-state lighting products. His research involves MOCVD growth of GaN- and InP-based vertical cavity lasers, tunable lasers, and detectors. Special interests include the effect of materials properties on device performance blue VCSEL lasers and microwave power transistors. He has received a National Science Foundation young investigator award (1995) and the Young Scientist Award from the International Symposium on Compound Semiconductors in 1998. He has served on two Department of Defense committees surveying wide band-gap semiconductor technology in Eu-

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Partnership for Solid-State Lighting: Report of a Workshop rope and Japan in 1998 and 1999. Currently, he is an associate director of the solid-state lighting and display center at UCSB, which is developing new more energy efficient light sources. He has written over 240 technical publications, 3 book chapters, and 100 conference presentations, and has been granted 7 patents. STEVEN J. DUCLOS Steven Duclos manages the Electronic and Optical Materials program at the General Electric Corporate Research and Development Center in Niskayuna, New York. The program is responsible for development of advanced electronic and optical materials for General Electric’s Lighting and Medical Systems Businesses. This includes OLED device development for general illumination, phosphors for both solid-state and conventional lighting products, and scintillators for X-ray detection in both Computed Tomography and Positron Emission Tomography. The program also develops transparent ceramic materials for advanced high-intensity lighting technologies. In addition to his work on luminescent materials Dr. Duclos has also contributed to developments in the growth of synthetic diamonds at high pressure and temperature, and processes for materials purification using luminescence detection techniques. Prior to joining the GE Corporate Research and Development Center he worked on C60 superconductivity at AT&T Bell Laboratories in Murray Hill, New Jersey. Dr. Duclos received his B.S. degree in Physics in 1984 from Washington University in St. Louis; an M.S. degree in Physics from Cornell University in Ithaca, New York, in 1987; and a Ph.D. in Physics from Cornell in 1990. He is the recipient of an AT&T Bell Laboratories Predoctoral Fellowship and the 1997 Albert W. Hull Award, GE Corporate R&D’s highest award for early career achievement. KATHARINE B. GEBBIE Katharine Blodgett Gebbie is Director of the National Institute of Standards and Technology’s Physics Laboratory, which supports U.S. industry, government, and the scientific community by providing measurement services and research for electronic, optical and radiation technologies. Its focus on atomic, molecular, optical and radiation physics reflects the continuing importance of these disciplines in developing new measurement technology. Dr. Gebbie graduated from Bryn Mawr College with a B.A. degree in physics and subsequently earned a B.S. degree in astronomy and a Ph.D. in physics from University College, London. She joined NIST in 1968 as a physicist in the Quantum Physics Division of JILA, a cooperative enterprise between NIST and the University of Colorado in Boulder. She has worked extensively on the physics of the solar and stellar atmospheres. Before being appointed Director of the newly formed Physics Laboratory in 1991, she served as Chief of the Quantum

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Partnership for Solid-State Lighting: Report of a Workshop Physics Division and Acting Director of the Center for Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics. She is a Fellow of the American Physical Society, a Fellow of JILA, and a member of several professional societies, including Sigma Xi and American Women in Science. She has served as Vice President of the International Committee on Weights and Measurers and as President of the Consultative Committee on Temperature. She has received several awards, including the Department of Commerce Gold Medal, the Women in Science and Engineering (WISE) Lifetime Achievement Award, and the Washington Academy of Sciences Award for Outstanding Contributions to the Physical Sciences. MARK GINSBERG Mark Ginsberg is Deputy Assistant Secretary for the Office of Building Technology, State and Community Programs (BTS) in the Department of Energy. In that position Mr. Ginsberg oversees a comprehensive set of programs to make buildings, equipment, and appliances more energy efficient; support state, community, and low-income energy programs; and pave the way for a healthy and prosperous future through high-efficiency research and development, building codes, and appliance standards. With a staff of 80 and a budget request of $300 million for fiscal year 2001, BTS utilizes partnerships with industry, states, national energy laboratories, universities, DOE’s field structure and regional offices to strengthen and leverage its capabilities. From December 1991 until July 1997 he directed the Federal Energy Management program, which leads the federal government’s effort to reduce its energy consumption by 30 percent and which can save American taxpayers $1 billion every year. Prior to joining DOE in 1991 Mr. Ginsberg served as Director of the Arizona Energy Office, where he earned a reputation for aggressive energy policy, solar and community energy programs, emergency preparedness, and economic development. He helped found and served as a board member and officer of the National Association of State Energy Officials. He chaired the Western Interstate Energy Board and served on the Board of the Interstate Solar Coordination Council, forerunner of the Interstate Renewable Energy Council. DAVID J. GOLDSTON David Goldston was appointed staff director of the House Committee on Science in January 2001. As such, he oversees a committee with jurisdiction over most of the federal civilian research and development budget, including programs run by NASA, the National Science Foundation, Department of Energy, Department of Commerce, and the Environmental Protection Agency. Prior to becoming staff director Mr. Goldston was legislative director for Congressman

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Partnership for Solid-State Lighting: Report of a Workshop Sherwood Boehlert (R-NY), who became chairman of the Science Committee in January 2001. Congressman Boehlert is a leading moderate Republican and has led efforts to protect the environment; Mr. Goldston was his top environmental aide and also oversaw the legislative and press operations of the office. Mr. Goldston came to Capitol Hill in 1983 as Boehlert’s press secretary. From 1985 to 1994 he served on the Science Committee as the special assistant on the Subcommittee on Science, Research, and Technology. In that role he oversaw the programs of the National Science Foundation and the National Institute of Standards and Technology and also directed the congressman’s efforts to shut down the superconducting supercollider (SSC). In 1994 and 1995 Mr. Goldston was project director at the Council on Competitiveness, a private-sector group with members from industry, labor, and academia. He directed work on the report “Endless Frontier, Limited Resources: U.S. R&D Policy for Competitiveness.” Mr. Goldston was graduated magna cum laude with a B.A. in American history from Cornell University in 1978. He has completed the course work for a Ph.D. in American history at the University of Pennsylvania. ROBERT KARLICEK Dr. Karlicek is the Director of LED Technology for GELcore LLC. He manages the development of high-brightness LED lamp development at GELcore, a joint venture of General Electric Lighting and EMCORE. Management responsibilities include the development of high-brightness LEDs in conventional packaging formats as well as the development of advanced technologies for future illumination applications. Prior to GELcore Dr. Karlicek was at EMCORE, where he started in 1996 as a Senior Staff Scientist and subsequently assumed lead responsibility for the development of GaN- and AlInGaP-based high-brightness LED technology, including reactor development, LED device design, and technology transfer to manufacturing. Prior to joining EMCORE Dr. Karlicek spent 16 years as a member of technical staff at AT&T Bell Laboratories, where his responsibilities included basic and applied research on a variety of crystal growth techniques used to fabricate laser diodes for telecommunications applications. Dr. Karlicek’s technical contributions include over 40 authored or coauthored papers in peer-reviewed technical journals, and he holds 8 U.S. patents. SHEILA KENNEDY Sheila Kennedy is a founding principal of Kennedy & Violich Architecture, an interdisciplinary design practice that explores relationships between architecture, technology, and contemporary life to develop new ways to organize program activities and space. Kennedy & Violich Architecture is a nationally recognized leader in the design of new applications for recycled materials, and the creation of electro-conductive and luminous materials that are applied in built

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Partnership for Solid-State Lighting: Report of a Workshop projects. Kennedy & Violich Architecture works collaboratively with industrial manufacturers, scientists, business leaders, artists, educators, and public agencies to define problems, propose projects, and create and realize architecture that supports client identity and institutional mission. The firm’s recent built work in architecture includes a luminous Archeology Museum under an Interstate Highway, an Elementary School Library with a bookshelf and data system that integrates books with information technology, a Dance Theatre with a shiny, sensuous, sound-absorbing building skin, and an electrified plywood floor that transforms into a high-tech desktop in a Gallery for Contemporary Art. Selected projects and material research are presented at <www.kvarch.net>. Sheila Kennedy combines practice with teaching. As Associate Professor at the Harvard University Graduate School of Design, she was the Director of the M Arch II Advanced Design Program from 1992 to 1996. She has received national recognition for her research and built work in design, including grants from the National Endowment for the Arts, an Interdisciplinary Award from Progressive Architecture, and six National Honor Awards for Design Excellence from the American Institute of Architects. The work of Kennedy & Violich has been exhibited at the San Francisco Museum of Modern Art, the Museum of Modern Art in New York, the Architectural League of New York, and the Wexner Center for Contemporary Art in Ohio. The work of Kennedy & Violich Architecture has been published internationally in many architecture journals, as well as in Art in America, Time Magazine, The Wall Street Journal, Wired, and The New York Times. Projects by Kennedy & Violich Architecture appear in the collection 10x10 (Phaidon, 2000) and New American Architects (Thames & Hudson, 2001). In 2000 the Architectural Association of London published a monograph on Kennedy’s work and writings on design in a book titled Material Misuse. CLARK McFADDEN Mr. McFadden specializes in international corporate transactions, especially the formulation of joint ventures, consortia, and international investigations and enforcement proceedings. Mr. McFadden has had a broad background in foreign affairs and international trade, having experience with congressional committees, the U.S. Department of Defense, and the National Security Council. In 1986 he was appointed general counsel to President’s Special Review Board to investigate the National Security Council system (Tower Commission). In 1979 Mr. McFadden served as Special Counsel to the Senate Foreign Relations Committee on the Strategic Arms Limitation Treaty (SALT II). From 1973 to 1976 he worked as General Counsel, Senate Armed Services Committee, and was responsible for all legislative, investigatory, and oversight activities. Mr. McFadden has a B.A. from Williams College (1968), an M.B.A. from Harvard University (1972), and a J.D. from Harvard Law School (1972).

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Partnership for Solid-State Lighting: Report of a Workshop ALTON D. ROMIG, JR. Dr. Alton D. Romig, Jr., is Vice President for Science & Technology and Partnerships and Chief Technology Officer at Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico. He is Chief Scientific Officer for the Nuclear Weapons program. He is also accountable for Sandia’s interactions with industry and the laboratories’ Campus Executive Program. In addition he is responsible for the Laboratory Directed Research & Development program (DOE’s IR&D). Dr. Romig’s responsibilities include the leadership and/or management of research, development, and engineering in nanosciences, materials and process sciences, microelectronics/ microsystems and optoelectronics, advanced manufacturing, computational sciences, modeling and simulation science, and high-energy density physics. Dr. Romig has approximately 160 technical publications, is the coauthor of 3 textbooks, and holds 2 patents. He is a past president of ASM, International (formerly American Society for Metals). He is currently the Chair of the ASM Educational Foundation. Other current professional activities include serving on and chairing a number of committees for ASM International; the Minerals, Metals, and Materials Society; the Materials Research Society; and the Microbeam Analysis Society (MAS). He is active on a number of National Academy of Engineering/National Research Council Committees and Boards. He also serves on the Boards of Technology Ventures Corporation, a Lockheed Martin subsidiary dedicated to technology commercialization, and the National Coalition for Advanced Manufacturing (NACFAM). For his pioneering work in analytical electron microscopy and solid state diffusion, Dr. Romig has received several awards, including the Burton Medal (1988), awarded by the Electron Microscopy Society of America to an Outstanding Young Scientist; the K.F.J. Heinrich Award (1991), given by the Microbeam Analysis Society to an Outstanding Young Scientist; the ASM Silver Medal for Outstanding Materials Research (1992); and the Acta Metallurgica International Lectureship (1993-94). He received his B.S., M.S., and Ph.D. degrees in materials science and engineering from Lehigh University in 1975, 1977, and 1979, respectively. In 1979 he joined Sandia National Laboratories as a member of the technical staff in the Physical Metallurgy Division. After a variety of management assignments he was named Director, Materials and Process Sciences in 1992. In 1995 he was named Director, Microelectronics and Photonics, and in 1998 Director of Microsystems Science, Technology and Components. He served in this capacity until attaining his present position in 1999. BILL SPENCER William J. Spencer was named Chairman Emeritus of the International SEMATECH Board in November 2000 after serving as Chairman of the

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Partnership for Solid-State Lighting: Report of a Workshop SEMATECH and International SEMATECH Boards since July 1996. He came to SEMATECH in October 1990 as President and Chief Executive Officer. He continued to serve as President until January 1997 and CEO until November 1997. During this time, SEMATECH became totally privately funded and expanded to include non-U.S. members. Many gave SEMATECH part of the credit for the U.S. semiconductor turn around in the 1990s. Spencer has held key research positions at Xerox Corporation, Bell Laboratories, and Sandia National Laboratories. Before joining SEMATECH in October 1990, he was Group Vice President and Senior Technical Officer at Xerox Corporation in Stamford, Connecticut from 1986 to 1990. He established new research centers in Europe and developed a plan for Xerox retaining ownership in spinout companies from research. Prior to joining the Xerox Palo Alto Research Center (PARC) as manager of the Integrated Circuit Laboratory in 1981 and as the Center Manager or PARC in 1982 to 1986, Spencer served as Director of Systems Development from 1978 to 1981 at Sandia National Laboratories in Livermore and Director of Microelectronics at Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque from 1973 to 1978, where he developed a silicon processing facility for Department of Energy needs. He began his career in 1959 at Bell Laboratories. Spencer received the Regents Meritorious Service Medal from the University of New Mexico in 1981; the C.B. Sawyer Award for contribution to “The Theory and Development of Piezoelectric Devices” in 1972; and a Citation for Achievement from William Jewell College in 1969, where he also received an Doctor of Science degree in 1990. He is a member of the National Academy of Engineering, a Fellow of IEEE, and serves on numerous advisory groups and boards. He was the Regents Professor at the University of California in the spring of l998. He has been a visiting professor at the University of California at Berkeley School of Engineering and the Haas School of Business since the Fall of 1998. He is a Research Professor of Medicine at the University of New Mexico. Dr. Spencer received an A.B. degree from William Jewell College in Liberty, Missouri, an M.S. degree in mathematics and a Ph.D. in physics from Kansas State University. MARK THOMPSON Mark Thompson graduated from the University of California at Berkeley in 1980 and from the California Institute of Technology with a Ph.D. degree in chemistry in 1985. He then took an S.E.R.C. postdoctoral fellowship with Prof. Malcolm Green in the Inorganic Chemistry Laboratory at Oxford, working on projects involving layered organometallic materials and the study of new materials for nonlinear optics. In 1987 Thompson joined the faculty of the Chemistry Department at Princeton as an Assistant Professor and in June of 1995 took and Associate Professor’s position in the Department of Chemistry at the University

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Partnership for Solid-State Lighting: Report of a Workshop of Southern California. In 1998 he was promoted to full professor in the Chemistry department at USC. Thompson’s research interests span a wide range, involving the syntheses, properties and structures of organic and metal/organic compounds. He has an active program focused on the synthesis and study of molecular and polymeric compounds for optical applications, particularly electroluminescence, as well as studying electron and energy transport in molecular solids. The photophysical properties of layered materials and their use in solar energy conversion are also very important in his work. His group has made a number of important advances in the design and fabrication of organic LEDs and solar cells. They were the first to demonstrate organic LED that efficiently utilizes phosphorescence, giving the devices efficiencies > 25 percent and have now demonstrated OLEDs with efficiencies close to 100 percent. They have prepared a novel stacked LED that gives full-color tunable emission from a single stacked R-G-B pixel, as well as transparent and flexible LEDs with high brightness and lifetime. All of these advances represent a close connection between the chemistry and engineering of these devices, in that both the architecture of the device and the tuning of the materials used to fabricate it are crucial and must be done in concert. The work in solar cells is focused on developing systems that can be used in direct photoelectrochemical processes. The thin film materials they are investigating are grown from aqueous solution and have good quantum yields (electrons out, photons absorbed). This is also a very materials-intensive project, with the optimal thin films being composed of three to four different donor and acceptor molecules, carefully chosen so that both electrical and energetic gradients are formed in the multilayer film. CHARLES TRIMBLE As one of the founders and as President, Chief Executive Officer, and currently Vice-Chair, Charles R. Trimble strategically guided Trimble Navigation to its dominant role in the GPS (Global Positioning System) information technology market. Prior to founding Trimble Navigation Mr. Trimble was manager of Integrated Circuit Research and Development at Hewlett-Packard’s Santa Clara Division. During his tenure at HP, he was recognized for developing commercial advances in efficient signal processing, high-speed analog-to-digital converters and digital time-measurement techniques to the picosecond level. Mr. Trimble received his B.S. degree in Engineering Physics, with honors, in 1963, and his M.S. degree in Electrical Engineering in 1964 from the California Institute of Technology. He was a member of the Vice-President’s Space Advisory Board’s task group on the future of U.S. Space Industrial Base for the National Space Council. In September of 1994 Mr. Trimble was honored with the Piper General Aviation award from the American Institute of Aeronautics (AIAA) for pioneering the manufacture and application of affordable GPS.

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Partnership for Solid-State Lighting: Report of a Workshop STEVE VAN SLYKE Steve Van Slyke received his B.S. in Chemistry at Ithaca College and an M.S. in Materials Science at RIT. Mr. Van Slyke joined Eastman Kodak in 1979 and is a co-inventor of organic thin film electroluminescence. He has been active in all phases of organic electroluminescence research and development and is currently leading several programs that are developing high-volume manufacturing techniques for organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs). A leading authority on OLED technology, Mr. Van Slyke has published and presented over 20 papers and holds 14 patents in the areas of OLED materials and device architecture. CHARLES W. WESSNER Having served with three federal agencies in positions of increasing responsibility, Dr. Wessner brings a unique perspective on Washington policy developments and international cooperation. He also has extensive overseas experience, both as an international civil servant with the OECD and as a senior officer with the U.S. Diplomatic Corps. Since joining the National Research Council, the operational arm of the U.S. National Academy of Sciences, he has led several major studies, has a rapidly growing list of publications, and works closely with the senior levels of the U.S. government. His work focuses on the linkages between science-based economic growth, new technology development, and international investment and trade in high technology industries. Recent work encompasses a White House-initiated study on U.S. aerospace competitiveness and a review of international competition and cooperation in high-technology industry. Currently, he directs a portfolio of activities centered around government measures to support the development of new technologies which have contributed to the New Economy. Projects now under way include Government-Industry Partnerships, including a Congressionally-mandated study of the Small Business Innovation Research Program, and a major project on Measuring and Sustaining the New Economy. Dr. Wessner frequently testifies before congressional committees interested in STEP’s work and most recently briefed congressional staff on the largest independent assessment of the SBIR program resulting from the Partnerships Program. Dr. Wessner also testifies before national commissions such as the U.S. Trade Deficit Review Commission and the Aerospace Offsets Commission. He lectures frequently at such universities as Harvard, College of William & Mary, George Mason, Georgetown, George Washington, Nottingham, Potsdam, and Helsinki University of Technology, as well as the ZEW in Mannheim, Sandia National Laboratories, and the Foreign Service Institute of the Department of State.

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Partnership for Solid-State Lighting: Report of a Workshop PATRICK WINDHAM Until April of 1998, Mr. Windham served as Senior Professional Staff Member for the Subcommittee on Science, Technology, and Space of the U.S. Senate’s Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation. He helped the senators oversee and draft legislation for several major civilian R&D agencies with responsibility for science, technology, and U.S. competitiveness; industry-government-university R&D partnerships; state economic development; federal laboratory technology transfer; high-performance computing; and computer encryption. From 1982 to 1984, he served as a legislative aide in the personal office of Senator Ernest Hollings. From 1976 to 1978, he worked as a Congressional fellow with the Senate Commerce Committee, and then returned to California from 1978 to 1982 to complete doctoral course work and exams in political science at the University of California at Berkeley. Mr. Windham holds a Masters of Public Policy from the University of California at Berkeley and a B.A. from Stanford University. He is currently an independent, California-based consultant on science and technology policy issues and an adjunct professor at Stanford University.