Index

A

Active duty personnel, 39

compensation, attitudes about, 131

size of force, by Service, table, 21, 22

size of military, general, 2, 11-17 (passim), 20-23, 218, 251-252

The Adolescent Society, 180

Advertising, 1, 6-8, 10, 11, 14, 99, 115, 135, 218, 219, 221-223, 224, 225-234, 235, 236, 244-245, 260-261, 269-271, 274, 288, 289, 290, 300-306

age factors, 231-233, 237

Air Force, 228, 229, 234

Army, 227-228, 229, 234, 261

committee study methodology, 2-3, 10, 251, 288

corporate comparisons, 222-223, 225-226, 227, 229-230, 271

cost of, 111, 112-113, 114, 115, 221, 222, 246, 247, 261, 274

educational benefits, 227, 228, 229, 230, 231

mail, 219

Marine Corps, 229, 233-234, 261

Navy, 228, 229, 234

patriotism, 221-222

propensity to enlist, 216-217, 220, 226-227, 229, 231, 232-234, 249, 268, 269-271, 274

recruiter training, 241

recruitment model, 224

telephone, 219, 236, 237, 245

Afghanistan, 29

African Americans, see Black persons

Age factors, 3, 4, 189, 265, 290, 300-306

advertising, 231-233, 237

aptitude, 88-90

average age of service members, 23

civilian labor market, 119-120, 126-127, 131

developmental psychology of youth, 149-151, 180-181, 265-266

employment, 160

immigrants, 55

political participation, 154-155

population size, 51, 55, 254

propensity to serve, 171, 172

Air Force

advertising, 228, 229, 234

attrition, 33, 34, 36

compensation, attitudes about, 131

costs of recruiting resources, 113, 114

educational attainment of applicants, 78, 110

recruiting goals, by service, 24, 219

recruiting goals of individual recruiters, 238

recruiting practices, 238

retention requirements, 17, 33

satellites, protection of, 20



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Attitudes, Aptitudes, and Aspirations of American Youth: Implications for Military Recruitment Index A Active duty personnel, 39 compensation, attitudes about, 131 size of force, by Service, table, 21, 22 size of military, general, 2, 11-17 (passim), 20-23, 218, 251-252 The Adolescent Society, 180 Advertising, 1, 6-8, 10, 11, 14, 99, 115, 135, 218, 219, 221-223, 224, 225-234, 235, 236, 244-245, 260-261, 269-271, 274, 288, 289, 290, 300-306 age factors, 231-233, 237 Air Force, 228, 229, 234 Army, 227-228, 229, 234, 261 committee study methodology, 2-3, 10, 251, 288 corporate comparisons, 222-223, 225-226, 227, 229-230, 271 cost of, 111, 112-113, 114, 115, 221, 222, 246, 247, 261, 274 educational benefits, 227, 228, 229, 230, 231 mail, 219 Marine Corps, 229, 233-234, 261 Navy, 228, 229, 234 patriotism, 221-222 propensity to enlist, 216-217, 220, 226-227, 229, 231, 232-234, 249, 268, 269-271, 274 recruiter training, 241 recruitment model, 224 telephone, 219, 236, 237, 245 Afghanistan, 29 African Americans, see Black persons Age factors, 3, 4, 189, 265, 290, 300-306 advertising, 231-233, 237 aptitude, 88-90 average age of service members, 23 civilian labor market, 119-120, 126-127, 131 developmental psychology of youth, 149-151, 180-181, 265-266 employment, 160 immigrants, 55 political participation, 154-155 population size, 51, 55, 254 propensity to serve, 171, 172 Air Force advertising, 228, 229, 234 attrition, 33, 34, 36 compensation, attitudes about, 131 costs of recruiting resources, 113, 114 educational attainment of applicants, 78, 110 recruiting goals, by service, 24, 219 recruiting goals of individual recruiters, 238 recruiting practices, 238 retention requirements, 17, 33 satellites, protection of, 20

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Attitudes, Aptitudes, and Aspirations of American Youth: Implications for Military Recruitment separation after first term, 37 size of force, by Service, table, 21, 22 technical requirements of recruits, 12, 17 technological substitutes for personnel, 20 youth influencers, 186, 187 Air Force New Directions Survey, 37 Alfred P. Sloan Study, 151, 304 American Management Association, 125 The American Occupational Structure, 182 Aptitude and aptitude requirements, 13, 25-26, 28, 252-253, 258 see also Educational attainment; Skill levels; Tests and testing age factors, 88-90 Army applicants, 79-80 compensation and, 108-109 enlistment standards, 4, 71, 72, 74-75, 79, 95, 258, 273 gender factors, 255, 256 historical perspectives, 26, 28, 74, 78-81, 87-92, 258 projections, 2, 4, 15, 28, 91, 258-259 race/ethnicity and, 91 Armed Forces Qualification Test (AFQT), 4, 9, 13, 25-26, 70, 72, 75-76, 87, 88, 91, 92, 95, 99, 109, 110, 143, 147, 251, 252, 257, 258, 259 Armed Services Vocational Aptitude Battery (ASVAB), 73, 76, 80, 84, 91, 98, 99, 125, 225, 235, 237 Army, 12, 17 advertising, 227-228, 229, 234, 261 aptitude of applicants, 79-80 attrition, 33, 34, 36 compensation, attitudes about, 131 costs of recruiting resources, 113, 114, 261 educational attainment of applicants, 78, 110 educational benefits, 107, 115, 144-145 enlistment process, 100 Internet-based recruiting, 237 propensity to reenlist, 198-200, 221 recruiting goals, by service, 24, 219, 221 recruiting goals of individual recruiters, 238 recruiting stages, 224-225 separation after first term, 37 size of force, by Service, table, 21, 22 youth influencers, 186, 187 Army College Fund, 107, 115, 145, 260 Asthma, 93, 94, 96, 259 Attitudes and values, 5-6, 12, 14, 25, 150-179, 230-234, 265-269, 274, 300-306 see also Moral requirements; Propensity to enlist; Youth influencers adventure/travel, opportunities for, 153, 203, 205-207, 208, 212, 214, 229, 269 Air Force, 33, 34, 36 Alfred P. Sloan Study, 151 Army, 33, 34, 36 civic duty and volunteerism, 6, 8, 12, 37, 134, 149-150, 152-153, 154-157, 165, 171-172, 189, 263, 266, 295 recruitment strategies, 221-222 committee study methodology, 2, 9, 251 compensation, attitudes about, 12, 37, 38, 97-98, 131-133, 134, 269, 290, 296 criminal behavior and, 157, 180, 196 educational aspirations, 1, 3, 4-5, 7, 12, 44, 97-98, 150, 158-161, 181, 251, 255, 261-262, 274, 296 educational benefits of military, 159-160 employment aspirations, 12, 140, 150, 158-175, 182-185, 187, 202-217 extrinsic incentives, general, 204, 208-217, 269, 274 family, proximity to, 101-102, 153, 203, 269 gender factors, 5, 115, 116, 152-154, 158-159, 161-179, 185, 190, 198-200, 201, 204-212, 215-216, 290 General Social Survey, 188 health belief model, 192-193 historical perspectives, 5, 14, 253 income, importance of, 152, 153, 162, 163, 165, 183, 209-212 international stationing of enlistees, 101 military, general views of, 149-152 (passim), 167, 168-179, 188, 201 Monitoring the Future (MTF), 150-153 (passim), 156, 158-159, 161-177, 181, 190(n.1), 191, 199-202, 220, 265, 292, 303-304 obedience to orders, 179 patriotism, 6, 8, 12, 37, 115-116, 134, 135-136, 150-153, 154-157, 171-173, 203-207, 212-214, 216, 263, 265, 269 racial discrimination, 126, 174-175 recruiters, 223, 240-241, 242

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Attitudes, Aptitudes, and Aspirations of American Youth: Implications for Military Recruitment risk of harm in military, 102, 192, 193, 196, 217, 229 self-efficacy, 157, 191, 193-198 (passim), 217, 267-268 separation after first term, 37 social cognitive theory, 191-192 theory of reasoned action, 192, 199-200 wars and armed conflicts, attitudes toward, 178-179, 182, 189, 290 Youth Attitude Tracking Study (YATS), 115, 116, 150-151, 161, 164, 165, 190, 191, 199, 200, 202-217, 220, 230-231, 265, 269, 287-298, 303 youth developmental psychology, 149-151, 180-181, 265-266 Youth Development Study, 151, 157, 161, 164, 165, 184-185, 303 Attrition, 2-3, 12, 15, 17, 29-40, 74, 99, 253 Air Force, 33, 34, 36 Army, 33, 34, 36 cost factors, 38, 74 educational attainment and, 74 gender factors, 12, 35-37 historical perspectives, 15, 31-34, 254 Marine Corps, 33, 34, 36-37 mental illness, 35, 36, 37 Navy, 33, 34, 36 physical and medical reasons, 12, 35, 36 B Basic training, 74, 99, 100, 127 Black persons aptitude, 91 civilian vs military employment, 119, 121 educational attainment, general, 50, 51, 86-87, 141, 256 enlistment applicant qualifications, 82-83 enlistment rates, 4, 65 force structure, 23 population projections, 55, 56 propensity to enlist, 200 Bonuses for enlistment, 98, 99, 111, 112-113, 114, 115, 129, 132, 235, 261, 274 Bosnia, 30, 35 Budgetary factors, 1, 6, 16-17, 21-22, 254 see also Cost factors attrition, 38, 74 enlistment standards, 72, 74, 75 Bureau of Census, see Census Bureau C Career Exploration Program, 237 Census Bureau, 44, 47-55 (passim), 65, 117, 120, 142, 255 The Changing Nature of Work, 118-119 Coast Guard, compensation, attitudes about, 131 Cognitive ability, see Aptitude and aptitude requirements; Tests and testing College First program, 145-146 Combat, see Wars and armed conflicts Compensation, 102-113, 116-117, 147-148, 203, 259-260 see also Fringe benefits; Incentive programs; Income; Retirement benefits attitudes toward, 12, 37, 38, 97-98, 131-133, 152, 153, 162, 163, 165, 209-212, 214, 223, 259-260 basic pay, 102, 103-106, 129-130, 132 civilian pay of enlistees, 113, 114 civilian vs military, 5, 10, 11, 108-111, 127, 128-134, 165, 259-260, 262, 263, 272, 274 duration of service and, 103, 104 educational attainment and, 106, 108-110, 141-143, 260, 263, 274 food benefits, 103, 132, 260 housing, 101, 103, 106, 107, 132, 260 medical and dental benefits, 107, 132, 133, 134 promotion in rank and, 103, 104-105, 128 reassignment expenses, 101 recreational facilities, 107 recruitment techniques, 223 special and incentive pays, 105, 106, 132 tax benefits, 103 training of recruits, pay during, 100 vacations, 6, 134, 162, 163, 263, 265, 269 Computer technology see also Internet civilian employment, 123, 129, 159-160 enlistee skills, 12, 29 literacy skills, 159-160, 241, 246 recruiter training, 241 telephone voice response units, general, 245 Conscription, see Draft Corporation for National Service, 10 Cost factors, 7, 105, 111-115, 259 see also Budgetary factors

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Attitudes, Aptitudes, and Aspirations of American Youth: Implications for Military Recruitment advertising, 111, 112-113, 114, 115, 221, 222, 246, 247, 261, 274 attrition, 38, 74 automated technology, 20 civilian employee, benefit costs to, 133 college education, 140-141 delayed entry programs, 100(n.2) educational attainment vs aptitude, 80 educational benefits, 112-113, 114, 261, 264, 274 enlistment standards, 73, 74, 75 individual decision making, 98 per new recruit, 22, 38 reassignment expenses, 101 recruiters and recruiting, 111, 112-113, 114, 221, 222, 246, 247, 261 Youth Attitude Tracking Study (YATS), 296 Counselors recruiting practices, 235 youth influencers, 6, 120, 136, 149, 185, 186, 187, 189, 266, 267 Criminal behavior, 4, 13, 70, 73, 84, 92, 93, 94 recruiting practices, 235 substance abuse, 4, 10, 35, 36, 85, 92-93, 196, 259 youth attitudes and, 157, 180, 196 D Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, 20 Defense Guidance benchmarks, 72-73, 75, 78, 79, 85 Defense Manpower Data Center, 74, 122, 288, 289 see also Youth Attitude Tracking Study Delayed entry program, 98, 99, 100, 236, 237, 238 Demographic factors, 1, 3-4, 6, 12, 41-69, 139-140, 254-256, 273, 298, 302-303 see also Age factors; Educational attainment; Gender factors; Geographic factors; Immigrants; Marriage and marital status; Population size; Race/ethnicity; Socioeconomic status civilian vs military employment, 119-120 committee study methodology, 2, 9, 13, 251 enlistment standards and, 71, 72, 73, 84 fertility, 41, 42, 52, 57, 60-61, 255, 256 number of enlistees, 1, 20-21, 218, 251 propensity to enlist, 190, 195, 200-201, 270 self-efficacy, 195 Department of Homeland Security, 18 Discrimination, 126, 174-175 equal opportunity, 126, 203, 204, 212, 269 Draft, 1, 43, 102 Dropouts, 7, 77-78, 121, 138, 139, 146, 160, 264 stayouts, 138-139 stopouts, 7, 138-139, 264 Drug use, see Substance abuse Duration of enlistment, 10, 23, 100-101, 103, 104, 106, 128, 135 see also Attrition; Voluntary separation E Economic factors, 1, 6, 9, 64, 190, 201 see also Budgetary factors; Cost factors; Employment; Socioeconomic status business cycles, 31, 43, 111, 115, 117, 141, 159, 219 food benefits, 103, 132, 260 housing, 101, 103, 106, 107, 132, 260 medical benefits, 107, 132, 133, 134 socioeconomic status, 3, 139, 239 tax benefits, 103 wars based on economic interest, 178-179 Educational attainment, 9, 10, 13, 25, 42, 64, 136-147, 251 Air Force applicants, 78, 110 Army applicants, 78, 110 attrition, 74 black persons, 50, 51, 86-87, 141, 256 civilian vs military employment, 120, 121, 126, 131 college experience, 43-50, 68, 116-117, 120, 121, 136-147, 256, 261, 263-264, 290 aspirations for degrees, 1, 3, 4-5, 6, 13, 42, 59, 136-147 (passim), 150, 158-159, 181, 189, 200, 219, 251, 261-262, 263-264, 274, 296

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Attitudes, Aptitudes, and Aspirations of American Youth: Implications for Military Recruitment community colleges, 48, 137-138, 144, 146-147, 263 enlistees, 43-50, 68, 108, 109, 110 parental, 58-59, 68-69, 138, 139 compensation and, 106, 108-110, 141-143, 260, 263, 274 dropouts, 7, 77-78, 121, 138, 139, 146, 160, 264 enlistment standards, 4, 9, 13, 25-26, 28, 70-74 (passim), 78, 80, 257, 273 gender factors, 3, 5, 6, 44-46, 49-50, 58-59, 68, 86, 120, 121, 199-200, 255 aspirations, 158-159, 215-216 compensation and, 109 parental, 3, 58-59, 64, 65, 66, 182, 185-186, 255 General Equivalency Diploma (GED), 25, 72, 74, 76-78, 80, 126, 257 high school graduates, 43, 45-48, 50, 59, 70, 72, 74, 76-78, 80, 86, 95, 100, 108, 110, 120, 121, 126, 131, 142, 199-200, 251, 255, 256, 257, 260, 263, 274 Hispanics, 51, 86-87, 121, 140, 141, 256 historical perspectives, 76-78, 216, 256 applicants/enlistees, 4-5, 25-26, 49-51, 76-78, 85-87, 95, 110-111, 216, 256 aspirations, 158-161 general youth population, 43-51, 52, 53, 85-87, 95 parental, 57-59 parental, 3, 4-5, 57-60, 66, 68-69, 139, 182-183, 255, 256, 290 projections, 4, 258-259 race/ethnicity, 5, 50, 51, 86-87, 120, 121, 139-141, 216, 256 standards, 4, 9, 13, 25-26, 28, 70-74 (passim), 78, 80, 253, 257, 258, 273 Educational benefits, 6, 7, 11, 99, 103, 107-108, 115, 127, 143-146, 261, 263-264 advertising of, 227, 228, 229, 230, 231 Army, 107, 115, 144-145 attitudes toward, 159-160 cost factors, 112-113, 114, 261, 264, 274 Montgomery GI Bill, 107, 111, 117, 145 Navy, 107, 144-145 online, 147 propensity to enlist, 203 recruitment practices, 235, 245 Veterans Education Assistance Program, 143 Education and training, 99 see also Educational attainment; Educational benefits; Skill levels civilian vs military job market, 127, 135, 137-138 physical requirements of training, 73 propensity to enlist, 204, 209-212 recruiters, selection and training, 8, 11, 223, 224, 235, 240-241, 242, 249, 272-273, 275 recruiting at schools, 219, 235, 236, 237, 290 recruits, following enlistment, 17, 27-28, 29, 97-98 basically qualified recruits, 27 basic training, 74, 99, 100, 127 joint Services efforts, 19 special skill training, 100-102, 127, 253 vocational and technical, 127, 136, 137-138, 159-160 Employment, 64, 259 see also Compensation; Income; Vacations; Working conditions advertising of benefits, 227, 230, 231, 232, 233, 234, 237 attitudes toward, 12, 140, 150, 158-175, 182-185, 187, 202-217 business cycles, 31, 43, 111, 115, 117, 141, 159, 219 civilian pay of enlistees, 113, 114 civilian vs military job market, 1, 4, 10, 13, 37, 68, 97-98, 99, 108-111, 117-136, 148, 167, 202-217, 251, 261-263 advertising/recruiting, 14, 222-223, 225-226, 227, 229-230, 242-249, 262, 271-273 age factors, 119-120, 126-127, 131 combined careers, 135 compensation, 5, 10, 11, 108-111, 127, 128-134, 165, 259-260, 262, 263, 272, 274 computer technology, 123, 129, 159-160 education and training, 127, 135, 137-138 gender factors, 119, 120 number of civilian employees, 218-219

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Attitudes, Aptitudes, and Aspirations of American Youth: Implications for Military Recruitment physical and medical requirements, 126-127 public sector (non-military) job market , 117, 167 race/ethnicity, 119, 120, 121 technology, exposure to, 27, 203, 209-212, 215-216 working conditions, general, 127-128, 135-136, 166 developmental psychology of youth, 149 educational attainment and, 5, 49-51, 68, 97-98, 120, 121, 131, 136, 159, 215-216 gender factors, 49-50, 120, 121, 159, 160, 161-167, 182-183, 185-186, 215-216 historical perspectives, 49-51, 52, 53, 123, 159-163, 166 job security, 203, 204, 216, 230, 263 parental occupational status/ aspirations for children, 60, 61, 62, 82, 182-188 promotion in rank, 103 propensity to enlist, 195-196, 203, 209-212 public sector (non-military), 117, 167 recruiting practices, 235, 236, 237, 239 retirement benefits, 106, 132, 134, 260 veterans benefits, 107 Enlistment, overall, 4, 9, 13, 70-76, 84-85, 95-96, 108, 235, 251, 252-253, 257-259, 262 Army, 100 black persons and, 82-83 bonuses, 98, 99, 111, 112-113, 114, 115, 129, 132, 235, 261, 274 cost factors, 73, 74, 75 demographic factors, general, 71, 72, 73, 84 educational attainment, 4, 9, 13, 25-26, 28, 70-74, 78, 80, 257, 273 gender factors, 71, 73 Hispanics and, 4, 65 moral requirements, 98 Navy, 100 parental factors, 73 physical and medical requirements, 13, 17, 70, 71, 72, 73, 84, 92, 259 propensity, 2, 5, 6, 8, 9, 10, 14, 41, 42, 55, 71, 80-81, 83, 85, 92, 96, 115, 116, 150, 151, 173-175, 190-217, 267, 273-274, 289, 291-292 racial/ethic factors, 71, 82-83 skills, 2, 12, 29, 253 standards, 4, 9, 13, 25-26, 28, 71, 72, 73, 74-75, 78, 79, 80, 84, 95, 258, 273 time factors, duration, 10, 23, 100-101, 103, 104, 106, 128, 135 Ethnicity, see Race/ethnicity; specific groups F Familial factors, 180, 181-185, 223, 295 see also Marriage and marital status; Parental factors fertility, 41, 42, 52, 57, 60-61, 255, 256 international stationing of enlistees, 101 medical and dental benefits, 107, 132 proximity to, 101-102, 153-154, 203, 269 recruiter training, 241 retention across generations, 30-31, 60-62, 65, 66, 68-69, 186, 215, 223, 230, 255-256 separation from service after first term, attitudes, 37 Fertility, 41, 42, 52, 57, 60-61, 255, 256 pregnancy, 12, 35, 36-37, 41 Food benefits, 103, 132, 260 Force size, 2, 11-17 (passim), 20-23, 251-252 determination of, 15, 23 enlistment standards and, 74 projections, 2, 11, 17, 39 Force structure, 13, 15, 16, 19, 20, 251 determination of, 15, 20 gender factors, 23 race/ethnicity, 23 rotational base, 19 specialized forces, 19 Friends, see Peer influences Fringe benefits see also Educational benefits food benefits, 103, 132, 260 housing, 101, 103, 106, 107, 132, 260 medical benefits, 107, 132, 133, 134 recreational facilities, 107, 295 tax benefits, 103 vacations, 6, 134, 162, 163, 263, 265, 269 Funding, 16-17, 140 see also Budgetary factors attitudes toward military spending, 178 vocational education, 137

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Attitudes, Aptitudes, and Aspirations of American Youth: Implications for Military Recruitment G Gallup’s National Survey of Working America, 161 Gender factors, 4, 5, 64, 65, 71 see also Marriage and marital status aptitude, 81, 91 attitudes, 5, 115, 116, 152-154, 158-159, 161-179, 185, 190, 198-200, 201, 204-212, 215-216, 290 working conditions, 173-175, 188 attrition, 12, 35-37 civilian vs military employment, 119, 120 discrimination, 126, 174-175 educational attainment, 3, 5, 44-46, 49-50, 68, 86, 120, 121, 199-200 aspirations, 158-159, 215-216 employment, 49-50, 120, 121, 159, 160, 161-167, 182-183, 185-186, 215-216 enlistment applicant qualifications, 81-82 enlistment standards, 71, 73 equal opportunity, 126, 174-175, 203, 204, 212, 269 fertility, 41, 42, 52, 57, 60-61, 255, 256 first-term attrition, 12, 35, 36-37 force structure, 23 homosexuality, 35, 36, 73 immigrant mothers, 57 maternal influence on decision making, 3, 6, 57, 185-189 (passim), 255, 267 population size, 51 pregnancy, 12, 35, 36-37, 41 propensity to enlist/reenlist, 115, 116, 169-177, 190, 198-200, 201, 204-212, 220 race/ethnicity, 65, 66 working conditions, perceptions of, 173-175, 188 youth influencers, 185-187 spousal influence, 37, 101, 186 General Equivalency Diploma (GED), 25, 72, 74, 76-78, 80, 126, 257 General Social Survey, 188 Geographic factors, 64, 65, 66 attitudes toward closeness to parents, 101-102, 153-154, 203, 269 attitudes toward travel, 153, 203, 205-207, 208, 212, 214, 229, 269 civilian vs military employment, 118 housing allowances, 103 international stationing of enlistees, 101 propensity to enlist, 200 recruiting strategies, 235, 236-237, 239-240, 243, 248 H Health belief model, 192-193 Hispanics, 254-255 aptitude, 91 civilian vs military employment, 119, 121 educational attainment, general, 51, 86-87, 121, 140, 141, 256 enlistment applicant qualifications, 81-83 enlistment rates, 4, 65 force structure, 23 population projections, 3, 55-56, 68 Historical perspectives, 5, 11, 142, 258, 302-303 advertising, 221-223, 226-227, 261 aptitude, 26, 28, 74, 78-81, 87-92, 258 attitudes of youth, 150-179 (passim), 180-181, 265; see also Longitudinal studies attrition, 15, 31-34, 254 business cycles, 31, 43, 111, 115, 117, 141, 159 civic duty, volunteerism, and patriotism, 154-157 educational attainment, 76-78, 216, 256 applicants/enlistees, 4-5, 25-26, 49-51, 76-78, 85-87, 95, 110-111, 216, 256 aspirations, 158-161 general youth population, 43-51, 52, 53, 85-87, 95 education, cost of, 140 elasticity, economic factors, 111-112, 260-261 employment aspirations, 159-163, 166 employment, general, 49-51, 52, 53, 123 force size, 17, 20-22, 27, 251-252 immigration, 55, 57 parental involvement in military, 61-62 physical and moral requirements, 92-95, 258

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Attitudes, Aptitudes, and Aspirations of American Youth: Implications for Military Recruitment propensity to enlist, 116, 168-177, 190, 214-215, 218, 220-221, 226-227, 249 recruiting costs, 114, 221 recruiting techniques, 218, 220, 238, 242 recruitment goals, 23-25, 27, 31, 226, 250 supply/demand for recruits, 1, 9, 11, 13, 258, 261 youth influencers, 180-182, 186, 189 youth qualifications, 15, 76-95 Homeland security, see Terrorism Homosexuality, 35, 36, 73 Housing, 101, 103, 106, 107, 132, 260 Humanitarian missions, 11, 17, 102 I Immigrants, 41, 42, 52, 54-55, 57 see also Hispanics; Mexican Americans historical perspectives, 55, 57 population projections, 3, 53-54, 57, 58, 255 Incentive programs, 99, 102, 105, 111-117, 132, 290 see also Educational benefits civilian vs military employment, 128-129, 272 committee study methodology, 2 delayed entry program, 98, 99, 100, 236, 237, 238 enlistment bonuses, 98, 99, 111, 112-113, 114, 115, 129, 132, 235, 261, 274 recruiter, 8, 99, 239, 242, 249, 273 special and incentive pays, 105, 106, 132 Income, 139, 140-143 see also Compensation attitudes toward importance of, 152, 153, 162, 163, 165, 183, 209-212 Influencers, see Youth influencers Internet, 246-247, 290 civilian vs military compensation, 129, 130 educational benefits offered online, 147 Monitoring the Future (MTF), 150 Occupational Information Network, 121 recruiting strategies, 219, 228, 236, 237, 238, 241, 243, 246-247, 248 youth influencers, 180 J Job Corps, 10 Job opportunities, see Employment Joint Chiefs of Staff, 16, 19 Joint Services activities military, 19 recruitment advertising, 221 K Kosovo, 290 L Legislation Montgomery GI Bill, 107, 111, 117, 145 Tech Prep Education Act, 137 Longitudinal studies Alfred P. Sloan Study, 151 General Social Survey, 188 Monitoring the Future (MTF), 150-153 (passim), 156, 158-159, 161-177, 181, 190(n.1), 191, 199-202, 220, 265, 292, 303-304 National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP), 85, 87-92 National Center for Education Statistics (NCES), 152 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY79), 64, 66, 303 National Survey of Working America, 159 Youth Attitude Tracking Study (YATS), 115, 116, 150-151, 161, 164, 165, 190, 191, 199, 200, 202-217, 220, 230-231, 265, 269, 287-298, 303 Youth Development Study, 151, 157, 161, 164, 165, 184-185, 303 M Manpower requirements, 2-3, 11, 15-40, 70 see also Attrition; Force size; Force structure; Retention Marine Corps advertising, 229, 233-234, 261 attrition, 33, 34, 36-37 compensation, attitudes about, 131 costs of recruiting, 113, 114

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Attitudes, Aptitudes, and Aspirations of American Youth: Implications for Military Recruitment educational attainment of applicants, 78 educational benefits, 107 gender factors, enlistment standards, 71 physical requirements of recruits, 17, 71 recruiting goals, by service, 24, 219 recruiting stages, 224 retention requirements, 17, 33 separation after first term, 37 size of force, by Service, table, 21, 22 skill requirements, general, 28-29 Marine Corps Exit Survey, 37 Marine Corps Retention Survey, 37 Marriage and marital status, 290 spousal influence, 37, 101, 186 youth developmental psychology, 149 Mass media, 180, 223, 243, 290, 300-308 see also Advertising; Internet mail, 219 newspapers, 19, 236, 244-245, 301 radio, 180, 236, 244 television, 113, 180, 228-229, 236 Medical benefits, 107, 132, 133, 134 Medical requirements, see Physical and medical requirements Men, see Gender factors Mexican Americans, 3 Mail promotions, 219 Military interventions, see Humanitarian missions; Wars and armed conflicts Millennials Rising, 300, 305 Minority groups, see Race/ethnicity; specific groups Monitoring the Future (MTF), 150-153 (passim), 156, 158-159, 161-177, 181, 190(n.1), 191, 199-202, 220, 265, 292, 303-304 Montgomery GI Bill, 107, 111, 117, 143, 145 Moral requirements, 2, 4, 12, 13, 70, 71, 73, 84-85, 92-95, 251, 258, 259 criminal behavior, 4, 13, 70, 73, 84, 92, 93, 94 enlistment process, 98 historical perspectives, 92-95, 258 recruiter training, 241 scale of military recruiting, 219 N National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP), 85, 87-92 National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) , 152 National Guard, 39 propensity to reenlist, 199-200 recruiting practices, 235 size of force, 2, 22 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, (NLSY79) 64, 66, 303 National Military Strategy (NMS), 15, 16, 18 National Security Strategy (NSS), 15-16, 18 National Survey of Working America, 159 A Nation at Risk, 90 Navy advertising, 228, 229, 234 attrition, 33, 34, 36 compensation, attitudes about, 131 costs of recruiting resources, 113, 114 deployments, 102 educational attainment of enlistees, 110 educational benefits, 107, 144-145 enlistment process, 100 recruiting number goals, by service, 24, 219 recruiting stages, 224 retention requirements, 17 separation after first term, 37 size of force, by Service, table, 21, 22 skill requirements, general, 28 technical requirements of recruits, 12, 17 technological substitutes for personnel, 20, 23, 28 Navy College Fund, 145 Newspapers, 19, 236, 244-245, 301 O Obesity, 35, 36, 84, 93, 94, 95, 258, 259 Occupational Information Network (O*NET), 120-121, 125 Office of Homeland Security, 18 P Parental factors, 149, 181-184, 186-188, 189, 266, 267, 269, 274 attitudes of youth toward proximity of, 101-102, 153-154, 203, 269

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Attitudes, Aptitudes, and Aspirations of American Youth: Implications for Military Recruitment educational attainment, 3, 4-5, 57-60, 66, 68, 139, 182-183, 255, 256, 290 enlistment standards, 73 foreign-born, 57 military service of parents, 30-31, 60-62, 65, 66, 68-69, 186, 215, 223, 230, 255-256 occupational status/aspirations for children, 60, 61, 62, 82, 182-188 propensity to enlist, 209-212, 213-214, 223 Patriotism, 6, 8, 12, 37, 115-116, 134, 135-136, 150-153, 154-157, 171-173, 203-207, 212-214, 216, 263, 265, 269 advertising and, 221-222, 229, 231, 232, 233, 271 historical perspectives, 154-157 political participation, 154-155, 182 Peacekeeping missions, 11, 17, 102 Peer influences, 184, 185, 186, 187, 223, 237, 241, 266, 267 Pensions, see Retirement benefits Physical and medical requirements, 2, 13, 17, 70, 92, 93-95, 96, 251, 259 asthma, 93, 94, 96, 259 attrition, 12, 35, 36 mental illness, 35, 36, 37 civilian vs military job market, 126-127 enlistment standards, 13, 17, 70, 71, 72, 73, 84, 92, 259 gender factors, enlistment standards, 71 historical perspectives, 92-95, 258 obesity, 35, 36, 84, 93, 94, 95, 258, 259 pregnancy, 12, 35, 36-37 propensity to enlist, 205-207 recruiting strategies, 235 scale of military recruiting, 219 training, 73 Population size, 1, 3, 12, 13, 51-55, 67-68, 70, 273-274 age factors, 51, 55, 254 fertility, 41, 42, 52, 57, 60-61, 255, 256 immigrants, 3, 53-54, 57, 58, 255 race/ethnicity, 3, 51-52, 55-56, 68 Projections, 96 aptitudes, 2, 4, 15, 28, 91, 258-259 civilian employment, 118, 123-124, 135 demographic factors, 3, 12, 13, 51, 53, 54, 59, 62-69, 254-255, 258-259 educational attainment, 4, 258-259 force size, 2, 11, 17, 39 immigration, 3, 53-54, 57, 58, 255 parental educational attainment, 59, 66 parental involvement in military, 62, 255-256 race/ethnicity, population, 3, 51-52, 68 size of military, 2, 11, 17, 39 Promotion in rank, compensation and, 103, 104-105, 128 Propensity to enlist, 2, 5, 6, 8, 9, 10, 14, 41, 42, 55, 71, 80-81, 83, 85, 92, 96, 115, 116, 150, 151, 154, 190-217, 267, 273-274, 289, 291-292 see also Attitudes and values; Recruitment practices advertising and, 216-217, 220, 226-227, 229, 231, 232-234, 249, 268, 269-271, 274 age factors, 171, 172 black persons, 200 demographic factors, general, 190, 195, 200-201, 270 educational benefits as enticement, 203 education and training, 204, 209-212 employment factors, 195-196, 203, 209-212 extrinsic incentives, 204, 208-217 gender factors, 115, 116, 169-177, 190, 198-200, 201, 204-212, 220 geographic factors, 200 health belief model, 192-193 historical perspectives, 116, 168-177, 190, 214-215, 218, 220-221, 226-227, 249 models of, 97-98, 191-200, 267-269 National Guard, 199-200 parental factors, 209-212, 213-214, 223 physical and medical requirements, 205-207 race/ethnicity, 200 recruitment practices and, 198, 200-217, 220-223, 269-270 social cognitive theory, 191-192 technology, exposure to, 203, 209-212, 215-216 theory of reasoned action, 192, 199-200 working conditions, 173-175, 201, 203, 204 Psychological factors see also Attitudes and values; Moral requirements; Social factors; Youth influencers

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Attitudes, Aptitudes, and Aspirations of American Youth: Implications for Military Recruitment adolescent/youth development, 149-151, 180-181, 265-266 attrition due to mental illness, 35, 36, 37 Psychosocial factors, see Attitudes and values; Familial factors; Parental factors; Social factors Q Quadrennial Defense Review (QDR), 11, 18, 21, 22-23, 25, 31, 39, 40 Quality of Life Domain Survey, 37 Quality of life, general, 12, 37, 30-31, 100-102 see also Working conditions R Race/ethnicity, 4, 55-57, 64, 254-255 see also Immigrants; specific groups civilian vs military employment, 119, 120, 121 discrimination, 126, 174-175 educational attainment, 5, 50, 51, 86-87, 120, 121, 139-141, 216, 256 enlistment applicant qualifications, 81-83 enlistment standards, 71, 82-83 gender factors, 65, 66 population projections, 3, 51-52, 55-56, 68 propensity to enlist, 200 Radio, 180, 236, 244 RAND Corporation, 73, 220, 289 Recreational activities, 107, 295 vacations, 6, 134, 162, 163, 263, 265, 269 Recruitment practices, 6-7, 14, 15, 97-100, 148, 187, 216-217, 218-249, 250, 254, 260-261, 264, 269-273, 274 see also Advertising; Incentive programs; Retention; Youth influencers Air Force, 228, 229, 234, 238 committee study methodology, 2-3, 10, 250 competition among Services, 98, 220 corporate/civilian market comparisons, 14, 222-223, 225-226, 227, 229-230, 242-249, 262, 271-273 cost factors, 111, 112-113, 114, 221, 222, 246, 247, 261 counselors, 235 criminal behavior and, 235 delayed entry program, 98, 99, 100, 236, 237, 238 educational benefits, 235, 245 employment aspects, 235, 236, 237, 239 geographic factors, 235, 236-237, 239-240, 243, 248 goals, by service, table, 24, 219 goals of individual recruiters, 235, 238-239 historical perspectives, 114, 121, 218, 220, 238, 242 Internet strategies, 219, 228, 236, 237, 238, 241, 243, 246-247, 248 joint service approaches, 221 leads, 219, 223-224, 228, 234, 235, 236-238, 244 model of, 223-225 National Guard, 235 recruiter attitudes, 223, 240-241, 242 recruiter incentives, 8, 99, 239, 242, 249, 273 recruiter selection and training, 8, 11, 240-241, 249, 272-273, 275 patriotism, appeals to, 216 propensity to enlist and, 198, 200-217, 220-223, 269-270 scale of, 7, 218-219, 242-243 school programs, 219, 235, 236, 237, 290 special and incentive pays to recruits, 105, 106 telephone, 219, 236, 237, 245 wars, recruitment during, 245 Regional factors, see Geographic factors Reserve forces, 2, 39 National Guard, 39, 199-200, 235 size of force, by Service, table, 21 active duty, use of, 30 Retention, 2, 15, 29-40, 253-254, 261 see also Attrition Air Force, 17, 33 compensation and, 104-105 duration of enlistment, 10, 23, 100-101, 103, 104, 106, 128, 135 educational benefits and, 145-146 Marine Corps, 17, 33 propensity to reenlist, 198-200, 253-254 skill level maintenance, 30 special and incentive pays, 105, 106 technology, exposure to, 17, 30, 33, 39 voluntary separation, 2-3, 12, 17

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Attitudes, Aptitudes, and Aspirations of American Youth: Implications for Military Recruitment Retirement benefits, 106, 132, 134, 260 combined military-civilian careers, 135 veterans benefits, 107 S Sailor 21: A Research Vision to Attract, Retain, and Utilize the 21st Century Sailor, 28 Sample Survey of Military Personnel, 37 Satellites, protection of, 20 School recruiting programs, 219, 235, 236, 237, 290 Sex differences, see Gender factors Sexual orientation, see Homosexuality Skill levels, 11, 12, 26, 27-29 see also Aptitude and aptitude requirements; Education and training attitudes toward attaining, 162, 163 committee study methodology, 2, 9 Marine Corps, 28-29 mix of skills, 2, 12, 15 problem solving and decision making, 28, 162, 163, 164 propensity to enlist, 193-194 specialized forces, 19, 31, 33, 39, 100-102, 108, 127, 129, 135, 253 technology, exposure to, 2, 12, 253 Social cognitive theory, 191-192 Social factors, 6, 13, 64, 151, 179, 180-181, 195-196, 213 see also Demographic factors; Familial factors; Parental factors; Patriotism; Youth influencers civic duty and volunteerism, 6, 8, 12, 37, 134, 149-150, 152-153, 154-157, 221-222 peer influences, 184, 185, 186, 187, 223, 237, 241, 266, 267 Society of Human Resource Management, 134 Socioeconomic status, 3, 139, 239 see also Educational attainment; Income Specialized personnel, 19, 31, 33, 39, 100-102, 108, 127, 129, 135, 253 Standards see also Moral requirements; Tests and testing aptitude, 4, 71, 72, 74-75, 79, 95, 258, 273 attrition and, 35-36 civilian vs military job market, 124-127, 128, 262 Defense Guidance benchmarks, 72-73, 75, 78, 79, 85 educational attainment, 4, 9, 13, 25-26, 28, 70-74 (passim), 78, 80, 253, 257, 258, 273 enlistment, overall, 4, 9, 13, 70-76, 84-85, 95-96, 108, 235, 251, 252-253, 257-259, 262 black persons and, 82-83 cost factors, 73, 74, 75 demographic factors, general, 71, 72, 73, 84 educational attainment, 4, 9, 13, 25-26, 28, 70-74 (passim), 78, 80, 257, 273 gender factors, 71, 73 physical and medical requirements, 13, 17, 70, 71, 72, 73, 84, 92, 259 propensity to enlist and, 193, 194 racial/ethnic factors, 71, 82-83 see also Moral requirements recruiter training, 241 Substance abuse, 4, 10, 35, 36, 85, 92-93, 196, 259 Survey of Active Duty Personnel, 131, 134 T Tax benefits, 103 Technical education, see Vocational and technical education Technology, 19-20, 29 see also Computer technology advertising, 229 civilian vs military personnel, occupations, 27, 203, 209-212, 215-216 enlistee skills, 2, 12, 253 propensity to enlist, external incentives, 203, 209-212, 215-216 retention of skilled personnel, 17, 30, 33, 39 satellites, protection of, 20 Tech Prep Education Act, 137 Telephone Alfred P. Sloan Study, 151, 153 recruiting practices, 219, 236, 237, 245

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Attitudes, Aptitudes, and Aspirations of American Youth: Implications for Military Recruitment Youth Attitude Tracking Study (YATS), 115, 116, 150-151, 161, 164, 165, 190, 191, 199, 200, 202-217, 220, 230-231, 265, 269, 287-298, 303 Television, 180, 228-229, 236 costs of recruiting resources, 113 Terrorism, 2, 9, 11, 17-18, 19, 252 force structure, 19 Tests and testing, 4 Armed Forces Qualification Test (AFQT), 4, 9, 13, 25-26, 70, 72, 75-76, 87, 88, 91, 92, 95, 99, 109, 110, 143, 147, 251, 252, 257, 258, 259 Armed Services Vocational Aptitude Battery (ASVAB), 73, 76, 80, 84, 91, 98, 99, 125, 225, 235, 237 civilian vs military job market, 125-126 National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) SATs, 305 Theory of reasoned action, 192, 199-200 Time factors see also Attrition; Retention attrition, 31-34, 254 compensation, years of service and, 103, 104 delayed entry program, 98, 99, 100, 236, 237, 238 enlistment duration, 10, 23, 100-101, 103, 104, 106, 128, 135 goals of recruiters, 235 recruiter incentives, 239 retirement benefits, 106 rotation intervals during enlistment, 101 training of recruits, 100 vacation duration, 6, 134, 162, 163, 164, 189 Training, see Education and training V Vacations, 6, 134, 162, 163, 263, 265, 269 Values, see Attitudes and values Veterans as youth influencers, 186, 187 Veterans benefits, 107, 143 Veterans Education Assistance Program, 143 Vietnam, 43, 182 Vocational and technical education, 127, 136, 137-138, 159-160 Tech Prep Education Act, 137 Voluntary separation, 2-3, 12, 17 W Wages and salaries, see Compensation Wars and armed conflicts, 11, 16, 18, 20, 60 see also Terrorism attitudes toward, 178-179, 182, 189, 290 Bosnia, 30, 35 Cold War, aftermath, 11, 17, 18, 251-252 economic interests, 178-179 Gulf War, 219 Kosovo, 290 peacekeeping missions, 11, 17, 102 recruitment during, 245 Vietnam, 43, 182 Women, see Gender factors Working conditions, 100-102 civilian vs military job market, 127-128, 135-136, 166 gender factors in perception, 173-175, 188 propensity to enlist, 173-175, 201, 203, 204 special and incentive pays based on, 105, 106, 132 World Wide Web, see Internet Y Youth and Careers Study, 185 Youth Attitude Tracking Study (YATS), 115, 116, 150-151, 161, 164, 165, 190, 191, 199, 200, 202-217, 220, 230-231, 265, 269, 287-298, 303 Youth Development Study, 151, 157, 161, 164, 165, 184-185, 303 Youth influencers, 10, 14, 151, 179-189, 251, 266-267, 290 see also Familial factors; Mass media; Parental factors counselors, 6, 120, 136, 149, 185, 186, 187, 189 gender factors, general, 185-187 spousal influence, 37, 101, 186 historical perspectives, 180-182, 186, 189 Internet, 180 peers, 184, 185, 186, 187, 223, 237, 241, 266, 267 veterans, 186, 187

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