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Biographical Sketches of Panel and Subcommittee Members TANYA D. AGURS-COLLINS, Ph.D., R.D., is an assistant professor in the Department of Community Health and Family Practice and a nutritional epidemiologist in the Division of Epidemiology and Biostatistics at the Howard University Cancer Center in Washington, D.C. Dr. Agurs-Collins’ primary research interests include the role of nutrition in cancer and diabetes, nutrition and aging, and disease prevention in minority popula- tions. She has worked at the D.C. Office on Aging as a nutrition consult- ant, at the U.S. Department of Agriculture’s Human Nutrition Education Division, the American Dietetic Association, and the District of Columbia Department of Human Services’ WIC program. Dr. Agurs-Collins was the president of the District of Columbia Metropolitan Area Dietetic Associa- tion in 1998–1999. She is a member of the Mayoral-appointed Board of Dietetics and Nutrition of the District of Columbia Government, where she developed licensing rules, regulations, and the state nutrition exami- nation. Dr. Agurs-Collins was the 1999–2000 recipient of the American Association for Cancer Research, Historically Black Colleges and Universities Faculty Award in Cancer Research and the 1999–2000 Outstanding Dieti- tian of the Year Award, District of Columbia Metropolitan Area Dietetic Association. She earned her Ph.D. in nutrition from the Pennsylvania State University. G. HARVEY ANDERSON, Ph.D., is a professor of nutritional sciences, physiology, and medical sciences at the University of Toronto. At the University, he is also codirector of the Program in Food Safety, Nutritional and Regulatory Affairs. His research centers on food selection and intake regulation, diet and behavior, metabolism and pharmacologic effects of 1259

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1260 DIETARY REFERENCE INTAKES amino acids, infant nutrition, and dietary patterns and chronic disease. Dr. Anderson received his Ph.D. in nutritional sciences from the University of Illinois. SUSAN I. BARR, Ph.D., is a professor of nutrition at the University of British Columbia. Her research interests focus on the associations among nutrition, physical activity, and bone health in women and she has authored over 75 publications. Dr. Barr served as vice president of the Canadian Dietetic Association (now Dietitians of Canada) and is a fellow of both the Dietitians of Canada and the American College of Sports Medicine. She is currently a member of the Scientific Advisory Board of the Osteoporosis Society of Canada and the Medical Advisory Board of the Milk Processors Education Program. Dr. Barr received a Ph.D. in human nutrition from the University of Minnesota and is a registered dietitian in Canada. GEORGE C. BECKING, Ph.D., is an associate with Phoenix OHC, Inc. in Kingston, Canada, specializing in toxicology and risk assessment related to human health effects of chemicals. Previously, he was a scientist with the World Health Organization (WHO), working in the International Programme on Chemical Safety, where his responsibilities included the evaluation of human health risks from metals including copper and zinc. He also was a research scientist and scientific manager at Health Canada, where he worked in the areas of biochemistry, pharmacology, nutrition toxicology, and toxicology of food-borne and environmental contaminants. He has published over 60 papers and book chapters in the fields of bio- chemistry, toxicology, and risk assessment methodology. Dr. Becking earned his Ph.D. in biochemistry from Queen’s University in Kingston, Ontario. GEORGE A. BROOKS, Ph.D., is a professor of integrative biology at the University of California at Berkeley and specializes in the areas of exercise physiology and metabolism. His research is intended to elaborate the path- ways and controls of lactic acid formation and removal during and after exercise and to study the integration of carbohydrates, lipids, and amino and fatty acids into the carbon flux sustaining exercise. To study these problems in detail, isotope tracer, biochemical, and molecular techniques have been developed and are used extensively. Additionally, the effects of acute and chronic bouts of exercise, gender, hypoxia, and perturbations in oxygen transport on energy fluxes and associated cellular organelles, membranes, and enzyme systems are under investigation. Dr. Brooks is responsible for articulating the “Crossover Concept” describing the bal- ance of carbohydrate and lipid used during physical exercise, as well as for discovery of the “Cell-Cell” and “Intracellular Lactate Shuttles” that describe the pivotal role of lactate in intermediary metabolism.

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1261 B IOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES NANCY F. BUTTE, Ph.D., M.P.H., is a professor of pediatrics at the U.S. Department of Agriculture/Agricultural Research Center Children’s Nutri- tion Research Center, Department of Pediatrics, Baylor College of Medi- cine, Houston, Texas. Her memberships include the American Society of Clinical Nutrition (Budgetary Committee, 1998–present), the International Society for Research on Human Milk and Lactation (Executive Committee, 1996–present and Secretary/Treasurer, 1990–1992), the Society for Inter- national Nutrition Research (Executive Committee, 1996–present), and the International Dietary Energy Consultancy Group Steering Committee (1994–present). Her areas of expertise are energy requirements of infants, children, and women during pregnancy and lactation. Dr. Butte received her Ph.D. in nutrition and her M.P.H. in public health nutrition at the University of California at Berkeley. BENJAMIN CABALLERO, M.D., Ph.D., is a professor and director of the Center for Human Nutrition and Division of Human Nutrition, Depart- ment of International Health, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, and a professor of pediatrics at the Johns Hopkins School of Medi- cine. He is currently president of the Society for International Nutrition Research and a member of the American Society of Nutritional Sciences, the American Society for Clinical Nutrition, the North American Society for the Study of Obesity, and the North American Society of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition. He is a member of the editorial board of the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition and the editor of the Encyclopedia of Human Nutrition. Dr. Caballero’s expertise is childhood obesity and amino acid and protein metabolism. He received his M.D. from the University of Buenos Aires, Argentina, and his Ph.D. (in neuroendocrine regulation and metabolism) from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. ALICIA L. CARRIQUIRY, Ph.D., is an associate professor in the Depart- ment of Statistics at Iowa State University. Since 1990, Dr. Carriquiry has been a consultant for the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) Human Nutrition Information Service. She has also consulted to the U.S. Environ- mental Protection Agency and the National Pork Producers Council and is an affiliate for the Law and Economics Consulting Group. At present, Dr. Carriquiry is investigating the statistical issues associated with the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III) and she has recently completed reports on improving USDA’s food intake surveys and methods to estimate adjusted intake, and biochemical measure- ment distributions for NHANES III. Dr. Carriquiry is the current president of the International Society for Bayesian Analysis and is an elected member of the International Statistical Institute. She is editor of Statistical Science

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1262 DIETARY REFERENCE INTAKES and serves on the Executive Committee of the Board of Directors of the National Institute of Statistical Science and of the Institute of Mathematical Statistics. She was elected fellow of the American Statistical Association in 1999. Dr. Carriquiry’s research interests include nutrition and dietary assess- ment, Bayesian methods and applications, mixed models and variance com- ponent estimation, environmental statistics, stochastic volatility, and linear and nonlinear filtering. She received her Ph.D. in statistics and animal science from Iowa State. ANN M. COULSTON, M.S., R.D., F.A.D.A., is an established expert in clinical nutrition and research. Currently, she is a partner at Hattner- Coulston Nutrition Associates, LLC, where she serves as a nutrition con- sultant to public relation firms and the food and nutrition industry. She is also a nutrition consultant at Stanford University School of Medicine. She is a past president of the American Dietetic Association and of the California Dietetic Association. She has more than a 20-year history of clinical research at Stanford University where her research centered on the nutritional needs of adults and the elderly. Her special research interest is in the nutritional management of diabetes and dyslipidemias, particularly in the role of dietary carbohydrates. Ms. Coulston has been recognized by the American Dietetic Association (ADA) Foundation for Excellence in the practice of clinical nutrition and research and has also received the ADA’s Medallion Award for leadership and the Distinguished Service and Out- standing Member Award of the California Dietetic Association. BARBARA L. DEVANEY, Ph.D., is an economist and senior fellow at Mathematica Policy Research in Princeton, New Jersey. Her substantive expertise is in the areas of food assistance and nutrition policy and child health policy and programs. She has conducted several studies of the school nutrition programs, the Food Stamp Program, and the Special Supplemental Nutrition program for Women, Infants and Children. Dr. Devaney also serves on the advisory board for the Maternal and Child Health Nutrition Leadership Training Program and was a visiting professor at the University of California at Los Angeles, where she taught classes on food and nutrition assistance policy. GEORGE C. FAHEY JR., Ph.D., is a professor of animal sciences and nutritional sciences at the University of Illinois and assistant dean in the Office of Research, Agricultural Experiment Station. Dr. Fahey earned his Ph.D. at West Virginia University. His current research interests are the effects of different fiber sources on nutrient digestibility, and gastrointestinal tract health in humans and companion animals.

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1263 B IOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES ELAINE FAUSTMAN, Ph.D., is a professor of environmental health, toxi- cology program director at the Institute for Risk Analysis and Risk Com- munication, and director of the Center for Child Environmental Health Risks at the University of Washington. The long-range objective of Dr. Faustman’s research is to identify biochemical mechanisms of develop- mental toxicity and to develop new methods for the evaluation of health risks from environmental agents. Her research in risk assessment includes an effort to combine results derived from laboratory experiments to develop mechanistically-based toxikinetic and toxicodynamic models of developmental toxicity. Dr. Faustman received her Ph.D. in toxicology and pharmacology from Michigan State University. JEAN-PIERRE FLATT, Ph.D., is a professor emeritus in the Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology at the University of Massachusetts Medical Center. His research expertise relates to the regulation of energy and macronutrient balances, and on the roles of dietary fat, carbohydrate balance, and exercise on body weight regulation and obesity. Dr. Flatt serves on the Nestlé Foundation for the Study of Nutritional Problems in the World. He earned his Ph.D. at the University of Lausanne, Switzer- land, and his postdoctoral training was at Harvard Medical School. SUSAN K. FRIED, Ph.D., is a professor in the Department of Nutritional Sciences at Rutgers University. Dr. Fried joined the faculty at Rockefeller University as an assistant professor in the Laboratory of Human Metabo- lism and Behavior in 1986, before moving to Rutgers in 1990. She has been the director of the Graduate Program in Nutritional Sciences at Rutgers since 1996. Dr. Fried’s research concerns the regulation of adipose tissue metabolism, with a focus on the mechanisms underlying depot dif- ferences in human adipocyte metabolism. Her research program utilizes in vitro and in vivo methods to undercover the nutritional and hormonal mechanisms regulating the production of leptin and other cytokines by human adipose tissue from lean and obese subjects. Dr. Fried currently serves on the editorial boards of the Journal of Nutrition, Obesity Research, and the Biochemical Journal. She has served on a number of national scien- tific advisory panels and is currently a member of the Nutrition Study Section of the National Institutes of Health. Dr. Fried is a member of the American Society for Nutritional Sciences, the American Society for Clinical Nutrition, the American Physiological Society, and the North American Association for the Study of Obesity. She earned an A.B. in biology at Barnard College and a Ph.D. in nutritional biochemistry at Columbia Uni- versity. She was a post-doctoral fellow in endocrinology and metabolism at Emory University and in lipid biochemistry at the Medical College of Pennsylvania.

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1264 DIETARY REFERENCE INTAKES PETER J. GARLICK, Ph.D., is a professor in the Department of Surgery and director of the Core Laboratory of the General Clinical Research Center at the State University of New York at Stony Brook. He served 13 years in the Department of Nutrition of the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, followed by 10 years at the Rowett Research Insti- tute in Aberdeen, Scotland. His research has concentrated on the nutri- tional control of protein and amino acid metabolism in health and disease, especially on studies in humans employing stable isotope tracers, leading to 140 original scientific articles. Dr. Garlick is a foreign adjunct professor of the Karolinska Institute, Sweden, and has served on several editorial boards. He earned his Ph.D. at London University, England. SCOTT M. GRUNDY, M.D., Ph.D., is director of the Center for Human Nutrition and chairman of the Department of Clinical Nutrition at the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas. Dr. Grundy’s major research area is in cholesterol and lipoprotein metabolism. He has published over 200 original papers as well as numerous solicited articles and book chapters. Dr. Grundy served as editor-in-chief of the Journal of Lipid Research for five years and is on the editorial boards of the American Journal of Physiology: Endocrinology and Metabolism, Arteriosclerosis, and Circu- lation. He serves on numerous national and international committees and serves as chairman of the Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treat- ment Panel II for the National Institutes of Health. Dr. Grundy’s numerous awards and honors include The Award of Merit from the American Heart Association, an honorary degree in medicine from the University of Helsinki, Finland, the Roger J. Williams Award in preventive nutrition, and the Bristol Myers Squibb/Mead Johnson Award for Distinguished Achievement in Nutrition Research. He was elected to the Institute of Medicine in 1995. Dr. Grundy received his M.D. from Baylor University Medical School and his Ph.D. from Rockefeller University. SUZANNE HENDRICH, Ph.D., is a professor of food science and human nutrition and associate dean in the College of Family and Consumer Sciences at Iowa State University. Her research is focused on the bio- availability and health effects of soy isoflavones and other naturally occurring, potentially health-protective food components and foodborne toxicants, such as fumonisins. Dr. Hendrich received her Ph.D. in nutrition from the University of California at Berkeley and was a postdoctoral trainee at the University of Wisconsin before moving to Iowa State. JANET HUNT, Ph.D., R.D., is a research nutritionist and scientist at the U.S. Department of Agriculture/Agricultural Research Service (USDA/ARS)

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1265 B IOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES Human Nutrition Research Center in Grand Forks, ND, and an adjunct professor of nutrition and dietetics at the University of North Dakota. Her responsibilities at USDA/ARS include leading a Mineral Utilization Research Management Unit, conducting research on human trace ele- ments requirements and bioavailability, and overseeing dietary and whole body counting services to support human nutrition research. Dr. Hunt has extensively published on the topics of zinc absorption and iron status. She serves on the editorial board for the Journal of the American Dietetic Associa- tion and authored the association’s Position Statement on Vitamin and Mineral Supplements. She is also a member of the American Society for Clinical Nutrition and the American Society for Nutritional Sciences. She received her Ph.D. in nutrition from the University of Minnesota. SHEILA M. INNIS, Ph.D., is a professor in the Department of Pediatrics at the University of British Columbia. Memberships include the Canadian Society for Nutritional Sciences and the Canadian Federation of Biological Societies (counsellor, 1983–1986; regional correspondent for British Columbia, 1982–1987; vice-president, 1987–1988; president, 1988–1989), the International Society for the Study of Fatty Acids and Lipids (Scientific Advisory Committee), the American Institute of Nutrition, and the American Pediatric Society. Her awards include the University of British Columbia Postdoctoral Research Prize, American Institute of Nutrition Travel Award, Borden Award, and Faculty of Medicine Distinguished Medical Lecturer. Dr. Innis’ research expertise is n-3 and n-6 fatty acid transport and formula fat composition. DAVID J.A. JENKINS, M.D., Ph.D., D.Sc., is a Canada Research Chair in Nutritional Metabolism and a professor in both the Departments of Medi- cine and of Nutritional Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto; a staff physician in the Division of Endocrinology and Metabo- lism; and director of the Clinical Nutrition and Risk Factor Modification Center at St. Michael’s Hospital. Dr. Jenkins has served on committees in Canada and the United States that have formulated nutritional guidelines for the treatment of diabetes. Awards include the Borden Award of the Canadian Society of Nutritional Sciences, the Goldsmith Award for Clinical Research of the American College of Nutrition, the Vahouny Medal for distinction in research in dietary fiber, and the McHenry Award of the Canadian Society of Nutritional Sciences. His research area is the use of diet in the prevention and treatment of hyperlipidemia and diabetes. He was educated at Oxford University, where he obtained his M.D. and Ph.D. RACHEL K. JOHNSON, Ph.D., M.P.H., R.D., is Acting Dean of the College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Professor of Nutrition, and a University

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1266 DIETARY REFERENCE INTAKES Scholar at the University of Vermont. Memberships include the Dietary Guidelines Scientific Advisory Committee (1998–2000), the U.S. Food and Drug Administration Food Advisory Committee/Additives and Ingredients Subcommittee (2001-present), American Dietetic Association Board of Directors (2002-2004), and the American Society for Nutritional Sciences. Dr. Johnson testified before the United States Senate Agriculture, Nutri- tion, and Forestry Committee Hearing on Senate Bill S.1614, “The Better Nutrition and Health for Children Act of l993.” Dr. Johnson’s research expertise is national nutrition policy, pediatric nutrition, dietary intake methodology, and energy metabolism. She has published numerous scholarly papers on these and other topics. Dr. Johnson earned a Ph.D. in nutrition from the Pennsylvania State University and an M.P.H. from the University of Hawaii. She completed a dietetic internship at the Indiana University Medical Center. RONALD M. KRAUSS, M.D., is Senior Scientist in the Life Sciences Divi- sion of Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, and Adjunct Professor in the Department of Nutritional Sciences, University of California at Berkeley. He received his undergraduate and medical degrees from Harvard Univer- sity with honors and served his internship and residency on the Harvard Medical Service of Boston City Hospital. He then joined the staff of the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute in Bethesda, Maryland, first as a Clinical Associate and then as a Senior Investigator in the Molecular Dis- ease Branch. Dr. Krauss is board-certified in internal medicine, endocri- nology and metabolism, and is a member of the American Society for Clinical Investigation, the American Federation for Clinical Research, and the American Society of Clinical Nutrition. He has received a number of awards including the American Heart Association Scientific Councils Dis- tinguished Achievement Award. Dr. Krauss has been a Senior Advisor to the National Cholesterol Education Program, and is actively involved with the American Heart Association (AHA), having served as Chairman of the Nutrition Committee. He is founder and Chair of the AHA Council on Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Metabolism. His research involves studies on genetic, dietary, and hormonal effects on plasma lipoproteins and coro- nary disease risk. PENNY KRIS-ETHERTON, Ph.D., R.D., is a distinguished professor of nutrition in the Department of Nutrition and ADA Plan V Program Direc- tor at Pennsylvania State University. Memberships include the American Dietetic Association (ADA representative to WOMENHEART and to the American Heart Association Nutrition Committee), the American Society for Nutritional Sciences, the American Society of Clinical Nutrition, and the Society for Nutrition Education. She is a recipient of the Lederle Award

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1267 B IOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES for Human Nutrition Research of the American Society for Nutritional Sciences and ADA’s Foundation Award for Excellence in Research. Dr. Kris-Etherton’s expertise is in the areas of diet and coronary heart disease risk factors, nutritional regulation of lipoprotein, and cholesterol metabolism. She earned her Ph.D. at the University of Minnesota. ALICE H. LICHTENSTEIN, D.Sc., is a senior scientist and director of the Cardiovascular Nutrition Research Laboratory at the Jean Mayer U.S. Department of Agriculture Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging at Tufts University and the Stanley N. Gershoff professor of nutrition science and policy at the Gerald J. & Dorothy R. Friedman School of Nutrition Science & Policy at Tufts University. Dr. Lichtenstein earned her D.Sc. at Harvard University and received her postdoctoral training at the Cardio- vascular Institute at Boston University School of Medicine. Dr. Lichtenstein has served on many committees of the American Society of Nutritional Sciences and the American Heart Association, where she currently serves as vice-chair of the Nutrition Committee. She is on the editorial boards of Atherosclerosis and Journal of Lipid Research and on the editorial advisory boards of Nutrition in Clinical Care and the Tufts University Health & Nutrition. She recently served on the 2000 Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee. Her research interesting include the areas of plasma lipoprotein response to dietary modification with respect to fatty acids, protein, phytoestrogens, and plant sterols, and the effect of diet on lipoprotein kinetic behavior. She is specifically interested in the response of older, moderately hyper- cholesterolemic individual to dietary modification with the intent to decrease risk of developing cardiovascular disease. JOANNE R. LUPTON, Ph.D., is a regent’s professor and holds the William W. Allen Endowed Chair in Human Nutrition at Texas A&M University. Dr. Lupton has served on the Nutrition Study Section at the National Institutes of Health and is associate editor of the Journal of Nutrition and Nutrition and Cancer. She has won several teaching awards, including the U.S. Department of Agriculture (Southern Region) award, and was the recipient of the Vice Chancellor’s Award for Research at Texas A&M. Dr. Lupton is also the Associate Program Leader for Nutrition and Exercise Physiology for the National Space Biomedical Research Institute. Her expertise is the effect of dietary fibers on colonic lumenal contents, colonic cell proliferation, signal transduction, and colon carcinogenesis. JUDITH MARLETT, Ph.D., R.D., is a professor in the College of Agricul- tural and Life Sciences, University of Wisconsin, Madison. Her principal research interests are the role of dietary fiber in human nutrition and in the human gastrointestinal tract and nutrient bioavailability.

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1268 DIETARY REFERENCE INTAKES SANDFORD A. MILLER, Ph.D., is a senior fellow at the Center for Food and Nutrition Policy, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University. He previously was the dean of the Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences and a professor in the Departments of Biochemistry and Medicine at The University of Texas Health Sciences Center at San Antonio. He is the former director of the Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition at the Food and Drug Administration. Prior to that, he was a professor of nutri- tional biochemistry at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Dr. Miller has served on many national and international government and profes- sional society advisory committees, including the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology Expert Committee on GRAS Substances, the National Advisory Environmental Health Sciences Council of the National Institutes of Health, the Joint World Health Organization/Food and Agri- culture Organization (WHO/FAO) Expert Advisory Panel on Food Safety (chairman), and the steering committees of several WHO/FAO panels. He also served as chair of the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Consultation on the Application of Risk Analysis to Food Standards Issues. He is author or coauthor of more than 200 original scientific publications. Dr. Miller received his B.S. in chemistry from the City College of New York and his M.S. and Ph.D. from Rutgers University in physiology and biochemistry. IAN C. MUNRO, Ph.D., is a leading authority on toxicology and has over 30 years of experience in dealing with complex regulatory issues related to product safety. He has in excess of 150 scientific publications in the fields of toxicology and risk assessment. Dr. Munro formerly held senior posi- tions at Health and Welfare Canada as director of the Bureau of Chemical Safety and director general of the Food Directorate, Health Protection Branch. He was responsible for research and standard setting activities related to microbial and chemical hazards in food and the nutritional quality of the Canadian food supply. He has contributed significantly to the development of risk assessment procedures in the field of public health, both nationally and internationally, through membership on various committees dealing with the regulatory aspects of risk assessment and risk management of public health hazards. Dr. Munro is a fellow of the Royal College of Pathologists, London. He is a graduate of McGill University in biochemistry and nutrition and holds a Ph.D. from Queen’s University in pharmacology and toxicology. SUZANNE MURPHY, Ph.D., R.D., is a researcher at the Cancer Research Center of Hawaii at the University of Hawaii, Honolulu. Previously, she was an adjunct associate professor in the Department of Nutritional Sciences at the University of California at Berkeley and director of the

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1269 B IOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES California Expanded Food and Nutrition Program at the University of California at Davis. Dr. Murphy’s research interests include dietary assess- ment methodology, development of food composition databases, and nutritional epidemiology. She served as a member of the National Nutri- tion Monitoring Advisory Council and the 2000 Dietary Guidelines Advi- sory Committee, and is currently on editorial boards for the Journal of Food Composition and Analysis and Nutrition Today. Dr. Murphy is a member of numerous professional organizations including the American Dietetic Association, the American Society for Nutritional Sciences, the American Public Health Association, the American Society for Clinical Nutrition, and the Society for Nutrition Education. She has over 50 publications on dietary assessment methodology and has lectured nationally and inter- nationally on this subject. She received her B.S. in mathematics from Temple University and her Ph.D. in nutrition from the University of California at Berkeley. FRANK Q. NUTTALL, M.D., Ph.D., is a professor of internal medicine at the University of Minnesota School of Medicine and chief of the Metabolism/ Endocrine and Nutrition Section of the Veterans Affairs Medical Center in Minneapolis, a position he has held since 1970. Dr. Nuttall is a member of the American Diabetes Association, the Endocrine Society, and the Ameri- can Society of Biological Chemists and is a fellow of the American College of Physicians and the American College of Nutrition. His research interests include diabetes mellitus, control of glycogen metabolism, and glycogen synthase and phosphorylase systems. He received his M.D. from the University of Utah and his Ph.D. in biochemistry from the University of Minnesota. HARRIS PASTIDES, Ph.D., is dean of the University of South Carolina’s School of Public Health and a professor in the Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics. Previously, he was chair and a professor of the Depart- ment of Biostatistics and Epidemiology at the School of Public Health and Health Sciences at the University of Massachusetts at Amherst. Dr. Pastides is a consultant to the World Health Organization’s Program in Environ- mental Health and is a fellow of the American College of Epidemiology. He was a Fulbright Senior Research Fellow and visiting professor at the University of Athens Medical School in Greece from 1987 to 1988. Dr. Pastides has been a principal investigator or coinvestigator on over 30 externally-funded research grants, results of which have been published in numerous peer-reviewed journals. Dr. Pastides earned his M.P.H. and Ph.D. from Yale University. PAUL PENCHARZ, M.D., is a professor of pediatrics and nutritional sci- ences at the University of Toronto. Dr. Pencharz is also a senior scientist at

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1270 DIETARY REFERENCE INTAKES the Research Institute Hospital for Sick Children in Toronto as well as a member of the Division of Gastroenterology and Nutrition at the Hospital for Sick Children. He is the recipient of several prestigious awards such as the Borden Award in Nutrition of the Canadian Society for Nutritional Sciences, the Sandoz Award of the Clinical Research Society of Toronto, the Agnes Higgins Award of the March of Dimes, the Osborne Mendel Award of the American Society for Nutrition Sciences, and the Nutrition Award of the American Academy of Pediatrics. Dr. Pencharz has served on the grant review boards for the Medical Research Council, the National Institutes of Health, the U.S. Department of Agriculture, and the Canadian Diabetes Association. His research expertise is protein, amino acid, and energy metabolism in neonates and young adults, especially in patients suffering from cystic fibrosis. F. XAVIER PI-SUNYER, M.D., M.P.H., is director of the Obesity Research Center and chief of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Nutrition at St. Luke’s– Roosevelt Hospital Center, and a professor of medicine at the College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University. His research interests are in the hormonal control of carbohydrate metabolism, diabetes mellitus, obesity, and food intake regulation. Dr. Pi-Sunyer is a past president of the American Diabetes Association, the American Society for Clinical Nutri- tion, and the North American Association for the Study of Obesity. He has served on the National Institute of Digestive Disorders and Kidney Diseases’ Task Force for the Prevention and Treatment of Obesity and has been a member of numerous National Institutes of Health (NIH) study sections and review groups. He was chairman of the National Heart and Lung Institute Task Force that produced the NIH clinical guidelines on the Identification, Evaluation, and Treatment of Obesity. Dr. Pi-Sunyer is editor-in- chief of Obesity Research and associate editor of the International Journal of Obesity. He holds a B.A. in chemistry from Oberlin College, an M.D. from Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, and an M.P.H. from Harvard University. WILLIAM M. RAND, Ph.D., is a professor (biostatistics) in the Depart- ment of Family Medicine and Community Health, Tufts University School of Medicine and also is a professor at the Tufts Schools of Veterinary Medicine and of Dental Medicine. Prior to his appointment at Tufts he was in the Nutrition and Food Science Department at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). While at MIT he helped develop, and served as the first director of, INFOODS (International Network of Food Data systems) as well as directing the United Nations University research efforts in the area of protein requirements. He was a member of the 1981 FAO/WHO/UNU Consultation of Energy and Protein Requirements, and

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1271 B IOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES is a member of the current FAO/WHO/UNU Consultation on Protein and Amino Acid Requirements. Dr. Rand’s general expertise is in statistical modeling and application of statistics to biomedical problems. He received his Ph.D. in biostatistics from the University of California at Los Angeles. PETER J. REEDS (deceased), Ph.D., was a professor of pediatrics at Baylor College of Medicine and chief of the Nutrient Metabolism Program at the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA)/Agricultural Research Service Children’s Nutrition Research Center. He was the recipient of several honors and awards and has served on many journal editorial boards. Dr. Reeds served as a permanent member of the Nutrition Study Section, National Institutes of Health and the International Review Panel, United Kingdom Agricultural and Food Research Council. In addition, he served as chair- man of the Human Nutrient Requirements for Optimal Health Panel, National Research Initiative, USDA. Dr. Reeds’ research expertise was protein metabolism and amino acid requirements, specifically the regula- tion of growth and protein deposition by diet and other environmental variables such as stress and infection. ERIC B. RIMM, Sc.D., is an associate professor of epidemiology and nutri- tion at the Harvard School of Public Health. Dr. Rimm is project director of a National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute- and National Cancer Institute-funded prospective study of diet and chronic disease among men, as well as the principal investigator of a National Institute on Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse study. Memberships include the Executive Committee of the Epidemiology and Prevention Council of the American Heart Asso- ciation and the Society for Epidemiologic Research. He has authored over 150 papers with a main research focus on the associations between diet and other lifestyle characteristics and the risk of obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. SUSAN B. ROBERTS, Ph.D., is chief of the Energy Metabolism Labora- tory of the Jean Mayer U.S. Department of Agriculture Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging at Tufts University. She is also a professor of nutrition in the School of Nutrition Science and Policy at Tufts and a professor of psychiatry and a scientific staff member in the Department of Pediatrics at Tufts University Medical School. Her research focus is infant and adult obesity, infant nutrient requirements, breastfeeding, and nutri- tion and aging. She chairs national meetings on dietary prevention of obesity and sits on international committees for evaluation of nutritional requirements. Dr. Roberts has recently published a book that provides dietary guidance for children and serves as an advisor to the Center for

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1272 DIETARY REFERENCE INTAKES Science in the Public Interest on nutrition-related issues. She received her Ph.D. from the University of Cambridge. JOSEPH V. RODRICKS, Ph.D., is one of the founding principals of the ENVIRON Corporation, with internationally recognized expertise in assess- ing the risks to human health of exposure to toxic substances. He is certified as a diplomate of the American Board of Toxicology. Before working as a consultant, he spent fifteen years at the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). In his final three years at FDA, he was Deputy Associate Commis- sioner for Science, with special responsibility for risk assessment. He has more than 100 scientific publications on food safety and risk assessment and has lectured nationally and internationally on these subjects. Dr. Rodricks is the author of Calculated Risks, a nontechnical introduction to toxicology and risk assessment. He received his B.S. from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and his Ph.D. in biochemistry from the University of Maryland. JOANNE L. SLAVIN, Ph.D., is a professor in the Department of Food and Nutrition Sciences at University of Minnesota. She earned her B.S., M.S., and Ph.D. in nutrition from the University of Wisconsin-Madison. Her laboratory is actively involved in research on dietary fiber, phytoestrogens from flax and soy, and whole grains. Dr. Slavin has published more than 100 reviewed research articles and has given hundreds of nutrition semi- nars for professional and lay audiences. She is a science communicator for the Institute of Food Technologists and a member of numerous scientific societies, including the America Dietetic Association, the American Soci- ety for Nutritional Sciences, and the American Association for Cancer Research. She is a frequent source for the media on topics ranging from functional foods to sports nutrition. Her research interests are human nutrition, dietary fiber, nutrient bioavailability, sports nutrition, carbo- hydrate metabolism, and the role of diet in cancer prevention. JON A. STORY, Ph.D., is a professor of nutritional physiology in the Department of Foods and Nutrition and associate dean of the Graduate School at Purdue University. He has served on the editorial board of the Journal of Nutrition, as program manager of the U.S. Department of Agri- culture (USDA) Competitive Grants Program in Human Nutrition, as chairman of a FASEB Summer Conference on dietary fiber, and on the USDA Human Nutrition Board of Scientific Counselors. His research interests are dietary fiber and cholesterol and bile acid metabolism. VALERIE TARASUK, Ph.D., is an associate professor of the Faculty of Medicine at the University of Toronto’s Departments of Nutritional Sciences and Public Health Sciences. Her primary research interests are in

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1273 B IOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES domestic food insecurity and hunger and dietary assessment. Her special- ties within these areas are in social and economic determinates of health and nutrition, population-level indicators of risk, evaluation of public poli- cies in response to food insecurity, and the statistical analysis of dietary intake data at the individual and population levels. Dr. Tarasuk has served on several committees and advisory groups including the Nutrition Expert Advisory Group of the Canadian Community Health Survey, the External Advisory Panel for Food Directorate Review of Policies on the Addition of Vitamins and Minerals to Foods, the Expert Scientific Workshop to Evalu- ate the Integrated National Food and Nutrition Survey, the Advisory Baseline Study Group for the Canada Prenatal Nutrition Program, and the Nutrition Expert Group for the National Population Health Survey. She chaired the Data Review Panel for the Saskatchewan Nutrition Survey. She earned her Ph.D. in nutritional sciences with minors in epidemiology and biostatistics at the University of Toronto. JOHN A. THOMAS, Ph.D., is an emeritus professor in the Department of Pharmacology, University of Texas Health Science Center, and served as the Center’s vice president from 1988 to 1998. Previously, he was Vice President for Corporate Research at Baxter-International and associate dean of the School of Medicine at West Virginia University. He has held professorships in the departments of pharmacology and toxicology in sev- eral medical schools including Iowa, Virginia, and West Virginia. He has authored over 12 textbooks and research monographs and has published over 350 scientific articles in the areas of endocrine pharmacology and reproductive toxicology. He is the recipient of several national awards including the Merit Award from the Society of Toxicology, Certificate of Scientific Services from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and Distinguished Lecturer in Medical Sciences from the American Medical Association. Dr. Thomas serves as a specialty editor for Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology and is on the editorial board of Food and Chemical Toxicology. He is an elected foreign member of the Russian Academy of Medical Sciences. Dr. Thomas earned his M.A. and Ph.D. from the University of Iowa. CHRISTINE L. WILLIAMS, M.D., M.P.H., is director of the Children’s Cardiovascular Health Center and professor of clinical pediatrics at Columbia University, College of Physicians and Surgeons. She received her M.D. from the University of Pittsburgh, her M.P.H. from Harvard Uni- versity, and completed residences at the Johns Hopkins University and the Medical College of Pennsylvania. She is the current chair of the American Heart Association’s Committee on Atherosclerosis, Hypertension and Obesity in Youth. Dr. Williams is a specialist in child nutrition and preventive

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1274 DIETARY REFERENCE INTAKES cardiology, and her research interests include the effects of fiber con- sumption in the pediatric population. GARY M. WILLIAMS, M.D., is a professor of pathology, Department of Pathology, director of Environmental Pathology and Toxicology, and head of the Program on Medicine, Food and Chemical Safety at New York Medi- cal College, Valhalla. He received the Arnold J. Lehman Award from the Society of Toxicology in 1982, the Ambassador in Toxicology Award from the Mid-Atlantic Chapter of the Society of Toxicology in 2001, and the Enhancement of Animal Welfare Award from the Society of Toxicology in 2002. Dr. Williams has served on numerous editorial boards and currently is a member of the boards of Archives of Toxicology, European Journal of Cancer Prevention, and Drug and Chemical Toxicology. He has also served on numerous working groups and committees of the National Research Council, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, International Agency for Research on Cancer, and World Health Organization. His research focuses in mecha- nisms of chemical genotoxicity and carcinogenicity. He is author or co- author of over 465 scientific publications. Dr. Williams received his B.A. from Washington and Jefferson College and his M.D. from the University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine and trained as an intern and resident in pathology at Massachusetts General Hospital.