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Index A defined, 3, 22, 26 derivation of, 28, 31, 32, 47 Absorption of nutrients. See Bioavailability; extrapolation between other age groups, Intestinal absorption; individual 26-27, 31-32, 34, 46, 47, 283 nutrients indicators used to set, 28 Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution methods used to set, 44-46, 47, 280-283, Ranges (AMDRs). See also individual 385-390, 456-457, 460-461, 464, 465, nutrients and life-stage groups 466-470, 471-472, 619-621, 662-665 defined, 14-15, 28, 39, 772, 941 prevalence of intakes above, 789 evidence considered for, 15-16, 769 RDA compared, 6, 26-27 rationale for, 14, 28, 784 uncertainty in, 26, 44 uses, 29, 941, 945, 946, 948-949 uses, 26, 936, 939-940, 944-945, 946, 948 Adaptation, nutritional Adiposity, 125, 130, 189, 200, 220, 379, 832. amino acid metabolism, 618, 619 See also Body fat content basal metabolism, 201 Adolescents, ages 9 through 18 years. See to carbohydrate-free diet, 277-278, 293 also Puberty/pubertal development defined, 149, 973 added sugars, 1206-1209, 1216-1219 in energy balance, 149-151, 201, 220, ages 9 through 13 years, 35, 386, 463- 223-224, 452 464, 470, 624-627, 631, 665, 673-674, glucose metabolism, 277-278 769, 1126-1129, 1138-1143, 1172- growth impairment as, 151, 220, 437 1173, 1178-1181, 1206-1207, 1216- to high-fat diets, 452 1217, 1232-1233, 1238-1239 pregnancy and lactation, 34, 47, 197, ages 14 through 18 years, 35, 193, 201- 290, 291, 650 202, 292, 293, 386, 389-390, 463-464, to protein metabolism, 47, 276, 279, 465-466, 470, 471-472, 674-675, 729, 605, 611, 650, 657, 694 769, 1128-1129, 1143-1145, 1181- to starvation, 277-279, 605 1183, 1208-1209, 1218-1219, 1232- weight as, 150 1233, 1238-1239 Adequate Intakes (AIs). See also individual AIs, 26-27, 33, 385-386, 388-389, 463-464, macronutrients and life-stage groups 470, 471-472, 632-633 criteria used to derive, 7-8, 10-11, 44-46 AMDRs, 769, 816, 844, 945 1275

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1276 INDEX amino acids, 664-670, 673-675, 702-703 saturated fatty acids, 474, 835, 1232- aortic fatty streaks, 815 1233, 1238-1239 aspartame, 702-703 special considerations, 216-219 BMR, 178-179 sugar intakes, 312, 323, 1206-1209, 1216- body composition and size, 142, 178, 1219 181, 626-629 TEE, 176, 178, 181, 1126-1129, 1138- bone mineralization, density, and mass, 1145, 1172-1173, 1178-1183, 1200, 66, 180 1202 brain development, 288-289 trans fatty acids, 456 carbohydrate, 284-285, 292, 1232-1233, vitamin and mineral intakes, 1232-1233, 1238-1239 1238-1239 EARs, 33, 46-47, 284, 292, 293, 632, 664- weight, 216-219, 650, 652, 653, 655 669, 673-675 Adults, ages 19 years and older. See also EERs, 175, 176-182, 193, 201-202, 216- Age/aging; Lactation; Pregnancy 219 added sugars, 295, 788-789, 1210-1215, energy intakes, 473, 474, 1206-1209, 1220-1225 1216-1219, 1232-1233, 1238-1239 ages 19 through 50 years, 35, 46, 184, extrapolation of data from adult values, 186-189, 205-213, 286, 288, 292, 293, 26-27 296, 323, 371, 388, 389, 447, 450-452, factorial methods, 628, 631 464, 471-472, 548, 614, 633-645, 648, fat (total dietary), 459, 945, 1232-1233, 695, 887, 983-984, 701, 703, 720, 727, 1238-1239 729, 730, 1146-1159, 1164-1167, fatty acids, 456, 1232-1233, 1238-1239 1184-1187, 1190-1195, 1210-1211, fiber, 385-386, 388-389, 391, 394, 1232- 1220-1223, 1234-1235, 1240-1241 1233, 1238-1239 ages 51 years and older, 33-34, 66, 138, glucose metabolism, 288-289 143-144, 289, 296, 303, 358, 371, 388, growth and development, 33, 142, 175, 396, 398, 447, 450-452, 464, 548-549, 177, 181, 182, 459, 654 602, 603, 608, 634, 660, 661, 697, lactation, 293, 389-390, 465-466, 471-472, 704, 711, 723, 725, 734, 736-737, 841, 659 887, 922, 1150-1153, 1158-1163, maintenance requirement, 667 1186-1191, 1194-1199, 1214-1215, nitrogen balance studies, 624-627, 632, 1224-1225, 1236-1237, 1242-1243 664-666 AIs, 26, 33-34, 387-388, 464-466, 470-472 nutrient intakes with added sugars, allergies, 692 1206-1209, 1216-1219 AMDRs, 285, 769, 809, 826, 844, 941 obese or overweight, 181, 216-219, 312, amino acids, 594, 599, 607, 613, 614, 459, 1172-1173, 1178-1183, 1200, 668, 669, 670-680, 686-688, 690-691, 1202 692, 703, 720, 726 physical activity, 176-181, 182, 880, 883, bioavailability of nutrients, 34 902-907, 911-912, 924, 1126-1129, BMI, 35, 36, 121, 124-130, 131, 310, 1138-1145, 1172-1173, 1178-1183 1078-1087, 1098-1103 polyunsaturated fatty acids, 463-464, 465- body composition data, 1078-1103 466, 469-470, 471-472 body fat content, 111, 124-125, 126, 128- pregnancy, 48, 193, 201-202, 292, 389, 130, 131, 1078-1101 465, 471-472, 650-652, 654-655 bone mineral density, 66 protein, 624-629, 631, 632-633, 665, 670, brain utilization of glucose, 285-289 769 carbohydrates, 265, 277, 285-289, 294- RDAs, 285, 292, 293, 631-632, 655, 670, 295, 769, 809, 1234-1237, 1240-1243 673-675 catabolic stress, 594 reference weights and heights, 35, 136- CHD risk, 303, 366, 387-388, 777-784, 137, 176, 178, 659, 670, 983 797-798

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1277 I NDEX cholesterol, 548-549 special considerations, 202-213, 220 dental caries, 296 sugar intakes, 323, 789, 792, 1210-1213, diabetes (type 2), 268, 388, 784-785 1220-1225 dietary intakes, 294-295, 602, 695, 697, TEE, 161-164, 183, 203, 1146-1165, 1184- 1234-1237, 1240-1243 1199, 1200-1201 EARs, 33, 34, 46-47, 285-289, 292, 293, vitamin and mineral intakes, 1234-1237, 633, 643-644, 646-649, 668, 670-679 1240-1243 EERs, 121, 124-130, 183-189 weight and height, 143, 183, 184, 220, energy expenditure, 108, 116, 122-123, 1078-1081, 1088-1091 131, 138, 140-141, 143-144 weight maintenance, 773-777 energy intakes, 474, 647, 1234-1237, Adverse effects. See also individual nutrients 1240-1243 defined, 84, 973 energy metabolism, 33, 54, 108, 116, 289 insufficient evidence of, 102-103, 970- extrapolation of data to infants and 971 children, 25, 26-27, 34, 46, 47, 284 nutrient–nutrient interactions, 85, 95 fat (dietary), 459-460, 769, 809, 1234- Aerobics Center Longitudinal Study, 912 1237, 1240-1243 African Americans fiber, 354, 358, 366, 387-389, 396, 398, breast cancer, 379 788, 809, 1234-1237, 1240-1243 energy expenditure, 145-146, 179 glucose metabolism, 285-289, 388, 784- fiber, 379 785 pubertal development, 33 high fat, low carbohydrate diets, 792-810 Age/aging. See also Adolescents; Adults; hyperinsulinemia, 784-785 Children; Infants; Life-stage groups low fat, high carbohydrate diets, 772-792 BMR, 131, 143 malnutrition, 608 carbohydrate–lipid oxidation balance, methodological considerations, 47-48 922 monounsaturated fatty acids, 432 energy expenditure, 117, 143-144, 157, nitrogen balance studies, 275, 287, 618, 158, 159-161, 181, 183 633-643, 661 and energy requirements, 183, 647 nutrient intakes with sugars, 1210-1215, fat absorption, 447, 450-452 1220-1225 glucose metabolism, 289 obese and overweight, 122-123, 792-797, insulin resistance, 62 1184-1199, 1201 physical activity, 143-144, 922, 924 peak bone mass, 33 and protein reserve, 595, 602, 640-641, physical activity, 66, 138, 143-144, 183- 642 184, 186-189, 883, 895-903, 911-912, reporting of dietary intakes, 117 1184-1199 RMR, 143 polyunsaturated fatty acids, 433, 435, sensitivity to nutrient toxicity, 92 464, 470-472, 478 and sugar intakes, 323 protein, 287-288, 595, 602, 605, 608, TEF, 134, 143, 165, 171, 179 611-612, 633-649, 660, 661, 668, 686- weight gain, 143, 167 688, 690-691, 692, 695, 769, 841 Alanine (dispensable), 276, 591, 593, 594, RDAs, 33, 47, 265, 289-290, 292, 293, 596, 597, 604, 605, 606, 696-697, 736, 603, 644-645, 649, 667-669, 679-680 992-993 reference heights and weights, 35, 124, Alaska Natives, 275, 284, 693 125, 126, 128-130, 983-984 Albumin, 304-305, 430, 602, 609, 610 renal function, 34 Alcohol reserve capacity and functioning, 33-34 dietary intakes, 49, 110, 1064-1065 saturated fatty acids, 474, 835, 1234- energy contribution, 109, 771, 1064-1065 1237, 1240-1243 and fatty acid oxidation, 109, 453

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1278 INDEX by life stage and gender group, 1064- and brain chemistry, 704-705, 707, 709, 1065 710, 711, 714, 721, 731, 732, 734, 735 oxidation rate, 108-109 branched-chain, 604, 616, 660, 704-711; TEF, 109-110 See also Isoleucine, Leucine, Valine Alcoholics and alcoholism, 110, 704 and cancer, 54, 698-699, 700, 708, 710, Aldosterone, 543 711, 713, 719, 722, 732, 843 Allergic reactions, 295, 396, 397, 399 and carbohydrates, 275, 276, 701, 731, α-Ketoglutarate, 604, 605 732-733 α-Linoleic acid. See also Polyunsaturated carbon metabolism, 605-607 fatty acids, n-3 catabolism, 278, 594, 603-608, 616, 617, AIs, 8-9, 11, 423, 466-472, 834, 944-945 704, 712 AMDRs, 15-16, 770, 834-835 and CHD risk, 726 and CHD, 427, 770, 827, 828, 829 chemistry, 590, 592-593 deficiency, 9, 423, 427, 439-440, 443-445, Chinese restaurant syndrome, 714, 715- 470, 472 716 dietary intakes, 478, 834 composition of proteins, 279, 621, 666, food sources, 478, 771, 834 682, 685-686 function, 423, 427, 435, 445, 466 deficiency, 662 interaction with linoleic acid, 447, 453- deposition rate, 672-675 455, 472, 825 dermal effects, 733-734, 735 and learning behavior, 439, 445 developmental studies, 708-710, 724, 732 metabolism, 434-435, 445-446, 468, 472 diabetes and, 704 parenteral nutrition and, 444 dietary intakes, 692, 696, 697, 700, 701, protective effects, 427, 770 704, 711, 712, 720, 721, 723, 725, sources, 427, 447 727, 729, 730, 731, 734, 736, 992- supplementation, 444 1027 and vision, 439, 440, 468 digestibility, 621 Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer direct amino acid oxidation method, Prevention Study, 483 615-617, 618, 619, 670-671, 676-678 Altitude, and energy expenditure, 149 dose–response assessment, 697, 699-700, Amino acids. See also Protein; individual 703, 711, 712, 717, 719, 720, 723, 725, 726, 728, 729, 730, 731, 733-734, amino acids absorption, 621 736 adaptations in metabolism, 618, 619 EARs, 589, 619, 664-679, 680-681, 688 adverse effects of, 696, 697-698, 701-703, excretion, 604 705-708, 711-712, 713-717, 720, 721- factorial estimate, 614, 666-669 723, 724-726, 727, 729, 730-733, 734- food sources, 48, 712-713, 714 735 free, 596-597, 599, 602, 603, 620, 692, AIs, 662-663 721 alcoholism and, 704 function, 9, 38, 589, 590, 696, 697, 701, animal studies, 671, 696, 697-698, 701- 704-705, 712, 720-721, 725, 729, 731, 702, 703, 705, 707-708, 711-712, 713- 734, 736 714, 720, 721-722, 724, 725-726, 727, and gastrointestinal disturbances, 698, 729, 730-732, 734-735 700, 714, 720, 722, 724, 726, 733 and appetite or eating behavior, 707, genotoxicity, 720 709, 710, 713, 730, 731-732 gluconeogenesis from, 276, 278, 288- and asthma, 716-717 289, 604, 606 and behavior, 697, 701, 713, 714, 721, and growth, 598, 607, 665, 666, 669, 697, 727, 729 701, 707, 710, 713, 719, 720, 721, bioavailability, 685 724, 725, 728 and body fat, 713

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1279 I NDEX hazard identification, 696-699, 700, 701- nutritional and metabolic classification, 703, 704-710, 711-717, 718-719, 720, 593-594 721-723, 724-726, 727, 729, 730-733, and obesity, 701, 704, 732 734-735 opthalmologic effects, 711, 714, 720, and herpes infections, 724 722, 729, 734, 735, 736 high-protein diets and, 712 parenteral nutrition and, 699, 705, 714, homeostasis, 595-598 718, 719, 722-723 hormonal effects, 715 and physical exercise, 702, 705-706 human studies, 608-699, 702-703, 705- planning and assessing intakes, 961-963 706, 712, 714-715, 720, 722-723, 724- plasma amino acid response method, 725, 726, 727, 729, 730, 731-733, 735 614-615, 670-671 imbalances in, 707, 708-709, 710, 726 precursors of nonprotein products, 608 and immune function, 697-698, 699 protective effects, 726 indicator amino acid oxidation method, quality of protein source, 661, 662, 684- 617-619, 670-671, 676, 677, 678 690, 721 indicators for estimating requirements, RDAs, 47, 672-675, 679-680, 681, 682 613-619 reproductive effects, 701, 712, 713, 715 individual variability in requirements, research recommendations, 737-738 614, 665-666, 679 risk characterization, 737 insulin sensitivity, 696, 701, 705, 710 scoring, 14, 589, 662, 685, 686-691 intake assessment, 736-737 selection of indicators for estimating interactions with other nutrients, 721- requirements, 613-619 723, 725, 726, 731 and somnolence, 698, 700, 722, 733 by life stage and gender group, 662-682, special considerations, 728 992-1027 and starvation, 693, 704 limiting, 602, 611, 614, 669, 685, 689, supplementation, 695-735 690, 691 synthesis, 275, 701, 712, 717, 723, 729, and lipid profiles, 721, 724 734 liver function and, 704, 705, 721 and taste and smell acuity, 722 losses, 601, 614 teratogenic effects, 708, 728 low-protein diets, 697, 707, 709, 721, trauma and, 596, 605 731-732 24-hour amino acid balance method, maintenance, 666, 667-669, 672-675 616-617, 670-671, 676, 677 and malnutrition, 704 ULs, 695-737 maple syrup urine disease, 704, 706 variance in requirements, 688 metabolic disorders, 697, 700, 704, 705, and weight, 697, 698, 700, 707, 709, 713, 706, 710, 714, 727, 728, 735 721, 724, 730, 731-732, 734 metabolic pathways, 597-598, 600, 617, Amino sugars, 684 660, 697, 701, 704, 705, 717, 719, Ammonia, 56, 375, 377, 603, 604, 605, 684, 724, 726, 728-729, 731 697, 714, 717-718, 719 neurological effects, 696, 699, 701-702, Amylopectin, 267-268, 269, 272 703, 704-705, 706, 711, 714, 715, 717, Amylose, 267, 272 718, 719, 727, 728, 733 Animal studies nitrogen balance studies, 612, 613-614, advantages, 94-95, 97 618, 662, 664-666, 670-671, 676, 677, amino acids, 671, 696, 697-698, 701-702, 678, 688 707-708, 711-712, 713-714, 720, 721- nitrogen metabolism, 278, 603-605, 718, 722, 724, 725-726, 727, 729, 730-732, 720 734-735 nitrogen utilization through nonprotein carbohydrate, 40, 275 pathways, 607-608 cholesterol, 548, 562 colon cancer, 377

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1280 INDEX dose-response assessment, 96, 98, 100 carbohydrate, 956-957 extrapolation of data from, 40, 87, 95, cut-point method, 943 97, 98, 100, 101, 492, 562, 1245-1246 EAR and, 938-939, 943-944 fat, 40 energy, 48, 225, 954-956 fiber, 351, 361, 377 fat, 959 hazard identification, 94-95, 96, 696, fiber, 957-958 697-698, 701-702, 707-708, 711-712, of groups, 16-18, 941-945 713-714, 721-722, 724, 725-726, 727, of individuals, 937-941 729, 730-732, 734-735 polyunsaturated fatty acids, 959-960 nitrogen balance studies, 671 probability approach, 942-943, 944 polyunsaturated fatty acids, 444-445, 492 protein, 960-961 pregnant animals, 709, 726 RDA and, 938-939, 944 protein, 40 UL and, 940, 945 relevance of, 39, 40, 94, 96, 703, 705, Asthma, 396, 399, 716-717 711, 727 Atherogenic dyslipidemia, 777 uncertainties in, 100, 1245-1246 Atherogenic lipid profile, 802 Apolipoprotein A-I, 61 Atherogenic lipoprotein phenotype, 777, 782 Apolipoprotein B100, 503 Atherosclerosis, 59, 485-486, 546, 548, 549, Apolipoprotein CH, 429 560, 562, 563, 823-824, 826, 836-837, Apolipoprotein E, 544 840 Apoproteins, 429 Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study, Apoptosis, 55, 833, 837-838 563 Appetite, 383, 707, 709, 710, 713, 730, 731- Athletes, 115. See also Physical activity 732, 795 amino acid supplements, 702, 706 Arabinose, 345 endurance training, 660 Arachidonic acid, 425, 426, 433-434, 435, energy balance, 221-223, 452 438, 439, 440, 442, 443, 444, 446-447, high-carbohydrate diet, 452 453-454, 455-456, 465, 469, 472, 476, high-fat diet, 452 478, 824, 838 lipoprotein profile, 61 Arginase, 605 low fat, high carbohydrate diet, 773 Arginine (dispensable), 591, 593, 594, 597, protein, 660-661 605, 608, 697-700, 709, 712, 717, 724, resistance training, 660 736, 994-995 runners, 61, 773 Arginine glutamate, 714 skeletal health, 66 Arginionsuccinic acid synthetase, 697, 700 Autoimmune diseases, 487 Arizona Wheat-bran Fiber Trial, 374 Arteriosclerosis, 130, 842 B Asians, obese, 352 Asparagine (dispensable), 591, 593, 594, 700 Balance studies. See also Nitrogen balance Aspartame, 695, 702-703, 727 studies Aspartic acid/aspartate (dispensable), 591, cholesterol, 543-544 592, 593, 594, 597, 604, 605, 608, defined, 40 695, 709, 736, 996-997 limitations of, 40-41, 617, 676 Association of Official Analytical Chemists methionine, 677 International, 340, 344 24-hour amino acid method, 616-617 Assessment of nutrient intakes zinc bioavailability, 394 added sugars, 957 Basal energy expenditure (BEE) AI and, 939-940, 944-945 defined, 112 AMDR and, 941, 945 DLW data, 1104-1202 amino acids, 960-963 fat-free mass and, 128, 186 biochemical approach, 944 gender differences, 141, 217

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1281 I NDEX and MET rate, 888 defined, 93, 973 obese and overweight individuals, 217 factors affecting, 29-30, 93-94, 271, 281 prediction, 114, 171, 178-179, 186, 205, fat intake and, 424, 785, 788-792 217 fiber consumption and, 29, 94, 348, 351- Schofield equations, 171, 178-179, 186 352, 369, 382, 391, 394-395, 397-398, and weight, 116, 141, 150, 183, 184, 186, 838 206-213, 888 in human milk, 431, 447, 621, 944 Basal metabolic rate (BMR), 25 in infant formula, 26, 31, 45, 431, 940, adaptations, 201 944, 946 adolescents, 178-179 nutrient–nutrient interactions and, 93, aging and, 131, 143 271, 281, 424 altitude and, 149 and risk assessment, 93-94, 98 body composition and size and, 131, 141 from supplements, 29, 93, 94 and carbohydrates, 196 Biomarkers of disease, 41 children, 141, 171, 1114-1121 Bladder cancer, 708, 710 climate and, 148 Bleeding time, 492-493 defined, 112 Blood pressure. See also Hypertension and energy expenditure, 112-114, 115, amino acids and, 735 131, 141, 164-165, 171, 178-179, 185, fiber and, 60 188-190, 195 physical activity and, 60 and energy requirement, 164-165, 171, polyunsaturated fatty acids and, 59, 829 178-179, 185, 188-190, 195-196 trans fatty acids and, 504 ethnic differences, 146 weight and, 204 FFM and, 139 Body composition and size. See also Body fat gender differences, 141 content; Fat-free mass; Fat mass; infants, 164-165, 1106-1114 Obesity and overweight lactation, 195-196 adolescents, 142, 178, 181 measurement, 165, 171, 185, 188 adults, 1078-1103 menstrual cycle and, 140, 141 and BMR, 131, 141 pregnancy, 185, 188-191, 291 CLA and, 836-837 protein balance and, 598 and energy expenditure, 65, 112, 117, sedentary individuals, 115 131-135, 138, 139, 141 Basal requirement, 24 gender differences, 128, 142, 1078-1103 Beans. See Legumes genetic factors, 144, 146 Behavior. See also Eating behavior NHANES III data, 124, 125, 130, 982, amino acid intake and, 697, 701, 713, 1078-1103 714, 721, 727, 729 pregnancy and, 188, 191-192 breastfed infants, 621 protein deposition, 626-629, 644 learning, 439, 445, 446, 447, 697, 713, 729 and reporting of dietary intakes, 117 polyunsaturated fatty acids and, 439, research recommendations, 225, 240 445, 446, 447 and sensitivity to nutrients, 92 sugar intake and, 295-296, 323 and TEE, 132 Bengal gram, 366-367 undernutrition and, 220 β3-Adrenergic receptor gene, 145 Body fat content. See also Body Mass Index; β-Glucans (dietary or functional fiber), 345, Fat mass 355-356 adults, 111, 124-125, 126, 128-130, 131, β-Hydroxybutyrate, 285, 430 1078-1101 Bioavailability of nutrients amino acid intake and, 713 age/aging and, 447, 450-452 bioimpedance data, 124 amino acids, 685 BMI and, 121, 124-125, 126, 128-130, balance studies and, 394 1080-1087, 1098-1101

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1282 INDEX and cancer, 379 and triceps skinfold, 1080-1081, 1086- gender differences, 1078-1101 1087, 1100-1101 height and, 125, 128-130, 1078-1081, waist circumference used with, 124-125, 1088-1089 127, 1080-1081, 1084-1085, 1098- infants, 142, 621 1099, 1102-1103 obesity, 126 and weight, 1080-1081 physical activity and, 57, 61, 139, 180, Body weight. See Weight 181 Bogalusa Heart Study, 307, 310, 314-315, protein intake and, 843 792-793, 815 reserves, 111, 220 Bone mineral density, 66, 180, 276, 928 and triceps skinfold, 125, 128, 1080- Brain 1081, 1086-1087, 1092-1093, 1100- amino acids, 704-705, 707, 709, 710, 711, 1101 714, 721, 724, 731, 732, 734, 735 and waist circumference, 1084-1085, carbohydrate utilization, 38, 265, 273, 1094-1099 276, 277, 278, 279, 280, 284, 285-289, and weight, 1090-1091 430 Body Mass Index (BMI) chemistry, 704-705, 707, 709, 710, 711, adults, 35, 36, 121, 124-130, 131, 310, 714, 721, 731, 732, 734, 735 1078-1087, 1098-1103 cholesterol synthesis by infants, 545, 548 and body fat content, 121, 124-125, 126, glucose metabolism, 38, 265, 273, 276, 128-130, 1080-1087, 1098-1101 277, 279-280, 285-289 and cancer, 238-239 macronutrients needed by, 771 and CHD, 124, 232-233 pituitary adenomas, 396 children, 35, 36, 65, 130-131, 216, 814, polyunsaturated fatty acid deficiency 1114-1121 and, 444-445, 466, 468 and chronic disease, 224, 226-239, Bran, 350, 353, 355, 356, 359, 367, 368, 371, 303 372, 378, 394, 395, 838 cutoffs, 121, 126 Breast cancer defined, 121 arginine and, 698-699, 700 and diabetes type 2, 124, 226-229 BMI and, 238-239 fat intake and, 814 case-control studies, 54, 378 fiber consumption and, 352, 379, 383, cholesterol intake and, 568, 574-575 384 conjugated linoleic acid and, 837, 838 gender differences, 125-129, 1078-1087, cross-cultural studies, 54, 377-378 1098-1103 epidemiological studies, 54 glycemic index and, 313 fat intake and, 54, 55, 486, 512-513, 808, healthy, 121, 124, 126 843 and height, 1080-1081 fiber intake and, 56, 377-380 as indicator of energy requirement, 121, intervention studies, 378-379 124-131 monounsaturated fatty acid intake and, infants, 1106-1114 819 methodological issues, 121, 124-125 physical activity and, 57 and mortality, 484 polyunsaturated fatty acids and, 825, 833 obesity, 126, 204, 216, 310, 313 prospective studies, 378 PAL and, 220, 223, 814, 911 protein intake and, 843-844 previous median vs. new median, 35 sugar intake and, 319-320 protein intake and, 843 Breastfeeding. See also Human milk; Infants; reference heights and weights and, 35, Lactation 36, 124, 125, 126, 127-130 and energy expenditure, 165 saturated fatty acid intake and, 484 recommendations, 31, 45, 171, 281, 662 sugar intake and, 65, 310, 313, 316-319 Butyrate, 56, 348, 349, 361, 371, 375

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1283 I NDEX C adverse effects of overconsumption, 295- 323 Calcium, 281, 391, 394, 431, 592, 789, 790- aging and, 289 793, 811, 812, 813, 835, 838, 840, AIs, 32, 280-283, 944 841, 1204-1211, 1214-1221, 1224- AMDRs, 15, 285, 769, 785, 809, 816 1225, 1228-1243 amino acids and, 275, 276, 701, 731, Canada 732-733 dietary intake data, 295, 473, 479, 481, animal derived, 342; See also Fiber 692, 1066-1075 and BMR, 196 fiber definitions and guidelines, 340, 349 brain utilization, 38, 265, 273, 276, 277, Food Guide to Healthy Eating, 771 278, 279, 280, 284, 285-289, 430 human milk intake and composition, Canada, 295, 1068-1069 172-173 and cancer, 55, 319-321 physical activity recommendations, 883 and CHD, 59, 303, 797, 798-799, 800-801 Canadian National Institute of Nutrition, 979 classification, 265-266 Canadian Paediatric Society, 31, 32, 45, 46 clinical effects of inadequate intakes, Canadian Society of Exercise Physiology, 883 275-276 Cancer. See also individual histological sites compared to other nutrient intakes, amino acids and, 54, 698-699, 700, 708, 1226-1243 710, 711, 713, 719, 722, 732, 843 and dental caries, 296-297 BMI and, 238-239 and diabetes type 2, 63, 302, 303, 306- body fat and, 379 307, 785 carbohydrate intake and, 55, 319-321 dietary intakes, 46, 65, 265, 294-295, 770- cholesterol and, 54, 568, 570-579 771, 943, 944, 1032-1035, 1068-1069, CLA and, 427 1226-1243 energy intake and, 54 digestion, 272 evidence about dietary factors, 53 EARs, 4, 6, 277-280, 284, 285-289, 290- fat intake and, 54-55, 375, 376, 484, 486, 293 512-513, 808 energy contribution, 280, 281, 294-295, fiber intake and, 54, 55-56, 319, 321, 339, 770-771, 813, 1034-1035, 1226-1243 373-380, 396, 398 epidemiological studies, 783, 785, 800- glycemic index of foods and, 310-311, 801 319, 321 fatty acid synthesis, 275, 277, 433 high fat, low carbohydrate diets and, 808 food sources, 265, 280-281, 294, 771 hormone-related, 56 function, 4, 38, 265 monounsaturated fatty acids and, 55, and growth, 280-281, 922-923 486, 819 hazard identification, 295-321 physical activity and, 56-57 high-carbohydrate diets, 295, 297, 438, polyunsaturated fatty acids and, 54, 824- 769, 772-792, 795 825, 833-834 in human milk, 281-283, 292 protective effect of nutrients, 54, 55, 819, intake assessment, 323 833-834 intervention studies, 785, 786-787 protein intake and, 54, 843-844 intestinal absorption, 60, 272-273, 281, sugars and, 54, 55, 319-320, 321, 323 323, 369 Caproic acid, 425 by life stage and gender group, 6, 280- Caprylic acid, 425 293, 988-991, 1032-1033, 1068-1069 Carbohydrate, dietary. See also Glucose; and lipid oxidation, 917-923 Glycemic index; High fat, low and lipid profile, 275, 277, 278-279, 297- carbohydrate diets; Low fat, high 303, 781, 782-784 carbohydrate diets; Starch; Sugar; low carbohydrate diets, 293, 430, 784, individual life-stage groups 792-810 adaptation to starvation, 277-278, 293

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1284 INDEX malabsorption, 397 Children, ages 1 through 8 years. See also and mental health, 276 Life-stage groups; Toddlers metabolism, 38, 64, 190, 196, 273-275, added sugars, 294, 812-813, 816, 1204- 424 1205 and micronutrient inadequacies or AIs, 26-27, 32, 34, 385-386, 463, 469-470 excesses, 812, 816, 1226-1243 allergies, 692 and obesity, 65, 275, 307, 310-319, 769 AMDRs, 769, 816, 826, 844, 941, 945 and physical activity, 64, 318-319, 452, amino acids, 25, 589, 614, 619, 664-670, 917-923 672-673, 686, 687, 689, 702-703, 720 planning intakes, 956-957, 964 aortic fatty streaks, 815 RDAs, 4, 6, 47, 265, 285, 289-290, 292, aspartame, 702-703 293 BMI, 35, 36, 65, 130-131, 216, 310, 814, research recommendations, 323-324 1114-1127, 1128-1139 special considerations, 283, 293 BMR, 141, 171, 1114-1121 TEF, 110, 114 bone mass, 66 total, 63, 956-957 brain development, 284, 286-287, 288- Carbohydrate-free diet, 277-278, 281, 287- 289, 608-609 288, 289, 293, 701 carbohydrates, 65, 265, 284-285, 294, Carbon metabolism, 605-607 295, 769, 813, 1226-1231 Carboxymethylcellulose gum, 367, 382 chronic disease risk in adulthood, 130, Carboxypeptidases, 599 814-815 Cardiac arrhythmias, 59, 60, 427, 829, 927 congenital defects of amino acids, 619, Cardiovascular disease. See also 697 Atherosclerosis; Coronary artery constipation, 370-371, 385-386 disease; Coronary heart disease dental caries, 296 cholesterol intake, 546, 548, 549, 560, derivation of DRIs, 32 562 diarrhea, 438 lipid profile and, 302, 562-569 EARs, 25, 32, 34, 46-47, 284, 631, 664- monounsaturated fatty acids and, 485- 669, 672-673 486 EERs, 107, 130-131, 168-170, 171, 174- physical exercise and, 60-61, 927 177, 216-219 Carnitine, 430, 607, 608, 723, 724 energy expenditure, 116, 134-135, 138, Carnosine, 721 141, 146, 148, 161-164, 174, 1114-1127 Carotenoids, 424, 785, 792-793 energy intakes, 54, 65, 170, 386, 473, Catecholamines, 608, 735 474, 814, 1226-1231 Caucasians epilepsy, 284 carbohydrate-free diet, 275 extrapolation of data from adults to, 25, energy expenditure, 145-146 26-27, 34, 47, 284 pubertal development, 33 factorial method, 628, 631, 666-669 Cell growth and proliferation, 55 fat (dietary), 437, 438, 441, 459, 769, Cell surface adhesion proteins, 490 810, 814-816, 945, 1226-1227, 1230- Cellulose (dietary or functional fiber), 344- 1231 345, 348, 350, 351, 356, 358, 359, fatty acids, 456, 1228-1231 367, 371, 372, 382, 390, 394 fiber, 370-371, 385-386, 1226-1227, 1230- Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1231 130, 216 glucose metabolism, 286-287, 288-289 Cereals and cereal fiber, 55-56, 359, 363, growth, 32, 47, 134, 142, 151, 167-168, 364, 369, 370, 373, 377, 378, 380-381, 174, 175, 221, 222, 437, 441, 456, 387, 388, 394, 399, 788 459, 609, 611, 810-811, 839-840, 922- Chicago Western Electric Study, 562, 826- 923 827, 828 high fat, low carbohydrate diets, 814-816

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1285 I NDEX hyperactivity, 295 Chinese restaurant syndrome, 715-716 hypercholesterolemia, 811 Chitin and chitosan (functional fiber), 345, lipid profiles, 811, 814-815 351-352, 384, 395-396 low fat, high carbohydrate diets, 438, Chloride, 725 810-814 Cholesterol (dietary) malnutrition, 167, 608-609, 839 absorption, 4, 60, 359, 369, 543-544, 561 methodological considerations, 25, 47-48 animal studies, 548, 562 micronutrient intakes with adverse effects of, 549, 558-573 macronutrients, 220, 811-814, 816, balance studies, 543-544 1204-1205, 1228-1231 and cancer, 54, 568, 570-579 nitrogen balance studies, 624-627, 664- and cardiovascular disease, 546, 548, 666 549, 560, 562 of obese parents, 133 and CHD, 58, 542, 548, 562-569, 572, obesity or overweight, 65, 130, 134, 140, 573, 836 153, 216-219, 307, 310, 312-313, 459, and diabetes type 2, 563 811, 814, 923, 1168-1179, 1200, 1202 dietary intake, 549, 550-559, 563, 960, PAL, 166, 1122-1127, 1128-1139, 1168- 1058-1059 1179 dose–response assessment, 568-573 phenylketonuria, 619 epidemiological studies, 562-569 physical activity, 66, 138, 140, 146, 171, food sources, 48, 544, 545, 546-549, 836 174, 880, 883, 902-907, 911-912, 924 function, 4, 542, 543 polyunsaturated fatty acids, 438, 444, hazard identification, 549-568 463, 469-470 high cholesterol diets, 545, 836 protein, 25, 284, 608-609, 611, 624-629, by life stage and gender group, 546-549, 631, 667-669, 686, 687, 689, 692, 769, 1058-1059 811, 839-840 and lipid profile, 544-545, 548-562, 563, RDAs, 25, 34, 47, 265, 285, 631-632, 670, 568-569, 573 672-673 and lipoprotein metabolism, 544-545, saturated fatty acids, 474, 816, 835, 1226- 548-562, 563, 568-569, 573 1227, 1230-1231 low cholesterol diets, 546, 561, 835 special considerations, 216-219 metabolism, 4, 429, 544-546, 562 stunting, 151, 217, 220, 221, 222, 811, oxidation products, 545-546 840 reducing intakes, 836 sugar intakes, 307-310, 813-814, 1204- research recommendations, 574-575, 1205 578 TEE, 134-135, 148, 161-164, 166, 174, risk characterization, 573-574 217, 1114-1127, 1128-1139, 1168- Cholesterol (plasma/serum total), 572. See 1179, 1200, 1202 also HDL cholesterol; LDL TEF, 134, 171 cholesterol toddlers (1 to 3 years), 32, 35, 130, 132- amino acids and, 721, 724 135, 166, 167-170, 284, 285, 386, 463, and cardiovascular disease, 546, 548, 470, 626-628, 631, 632, 664, 672, 686, 549, 560, 562 687, 689, 769, 816, 1106-1123, 1128- and CHD, 58, 542, 548, 562-569, 572, 1129, 1226-1231 573, 836 trans fatty acids, 456 cholesterol intakes and, 550-561 UL derivation for, 34 fat intake and, 58, 544, 550-559, 560, 809 underweight, 130, 811 fiber intake and, 4, 59-60, 339, 351, 352, urea synthesis defects, 699 354, 355, 356, 357, 358-359, 360, 361, wasting, 840 365-368 weight control, 216-219 genetic factors, 58, 544, 545, 546, 561-562 weights and heights, reference, 34, 35, glycemic index and, 302 130, 132-137, 176, 178, 983

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1308 INDEX recommended, 4, 56, 880, 882-883, 910, amino acid supplements and, 702, 705- 911-912, 913, 926, 928-929 706 reported, 184 athletes, 115, 138, 139, 180, 918, 924, 925 research recommendations, 225, 829 and body composition, 922, 923, 924 residual effects of, 112, 139 carbohydrate balance and, 64, 318-319, and skeletal health, 66, 180, 928 452, 917-923, 924-925 sleeping, 118 and carbohydrate/electrolyte beverages, special considerations, 660-661 924-925 spontaneous nonexercise activity, 139- and cardiovascular events, 927 140, 146 defined, 881 TEF and, 884, 886, 895 and dehydration, 926-927 trends in, 881-882 duration, 918, 920-921 walking, 115, 116, 140, 158, 161, 183- endurance (aerobic), 61, 138, 140, 143, 184, 190, 881, 889-894, 895, 903, 906- 318, 452, 660, 882, 916, 917, 918, 909, 912, 913, 927 923, 924 and weight control, 209, 452, 888, 908 energy expenditure for, 884, 924 Physical activity level (PAL) excess post-exercise oxygen active lifestyle, 158, 162-163, 895-899, consumption, 112, 139 900-903 female athlete triad, 928 age/aging and, 143 gender differences, 921, 928 BEE and, 887, 888, 895 and growth and development, 180, 922- BMI and, 220, 223, 814, 911 923 and BMR, 115, 902 and hyperthermia, 910, 926-927 body weight and, 116, 184, 889, 891-895 and hypothermia, 927 calculation, 887-889 intensity, 918-920, 921, 922, 925 categories, 157-161, 162-163, 164, 183 and lipid oxidation, 917-923 and chronic disease risk reduction, 914- overuse injuries, 926 917 physical education in schools, 923, 924 defined, 116, 174, 887 pregnancy and, 907, 908-911 DLW studies, 895 recovery from illness and, 922 evaluation of, 118, 180, 895-909 resistance exercise, 223, 661, 925, 928 exercise program, 209 running, 115, 138, 184, 223, 892, 893, gender differences, 903, 904-905 894, 926 and glycemic index of foods, 318 treadmill, 184, 913 impact of activities on, 884-912 and weight, 61, 115-116, 213-215, 452, intensity of physical activity and, 138, 773 184, 887-889, 904-905 Physical fitness low-active lifestyle, 158, 162-163, 183, defined, 179-180, 881 895-899 endurance (aerobic) training and, 923 measurement, 174 intensity of exercise and, 140 reference activity, 889 objectives, 883 RMR and, 917 pregnancy and, 907-908 sedentary, 115, 118-119, 140, 183, 200, resistance exercise and, 925, 928 895-899 and spontaneous physical activity, 139 TEE and, 157-161, 162-163, 164, 884, supplementation of water and nutrients, 887, 906-909 925-926 very active lifestyle, 115, 138, 158-159, Physicians’ Health Study, 827, 828 162-163, 895-899 Phytochemicals, 369, 379, 391, 394, 395, 788 Physical exercise Pima Indians, 134, 146, 804-807 adaptations in program, 928 Pituitary adenomas, 396 age and, 922, 924 Planet Health, 318-319

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1309 I NDEX Planning nutrient intakes epidemiological studies, 826-828, 832 AI and, 946, 948 evidence considered for estimating AMDR and, 946, 948-949 requirements, 443-447 carbohydrate, 956-957, 964 excretion, 435 EAR and, 947-948 food sources, 478, 771 energy, 949-956, 963, 964 function, 8, 443, 444-445, 446, 466, 468, fat, 959 469 fiber, 957-958, 964 and glucose metabolism, 833 of groups, 947-949, 952-954 and growth, 444-447, 468, 469, 471 of individuals, 946, 949-952 hazard identification, 487-493 integrated example, 963-964, 965 high-intake diets, 834 polyunsaturated fatty acids, 959-960, 964 and immune function, 443, 487-492, 834 protein and amino acids, 946, 961, 964 and insulin sensitivity, 832-833 RDA and, 946 interaction of n-6 and, 453-454 saturated fatty acids, trans fatty acids, intervention studies (nonclinical), 828, and cholesterol, 960 830-831, 832-833 UL and, 946, 947-948 and learning behavior, 445, 446, 447 Plant sterols, 544 by life stage and gender group, 11, 466- Plasma amino acid response method, 614- 473, 1048-1049 615, 670-671 and lipid profile, 826, 828, 830-831 Poland and United States Collaborative low intake diets, 826-834 Study on Cardiovascular metabolism, 434-435, 439, 445-447, 453- Epidemiology, 484 456, 466 Polydextrose (dietary or functional fiber) n-6:n-3 ratio, 8, 434, 439, 446-447, 454- adverse effects, 398 455, 472, 834 characteristics, 341, 346-347 and neural development and function, laxation, 357 443, 444-445, 446, 466, 468, 469 and lipid concentrations, 357 and obesity, 832 uses, 36 oxidative damage, 493, 832 Polyp Prevention Trial, 374 parenteral nutrition and, 443, 454-455, Polysaccharides, 265, 341, 342, 343, 344, 469 350, 377 protective effects of, 55, 826-834 Polyunsaturated fatty acids, n-3. See also α- randomized controlled clinical trials, Linoleic acid; other individual fatty 446, 828-829 research recommendations, 509, 514 acids absorption, 434 special considerations, 469, 471-472, 494 adverse effects of, 63, 487-494 and stroke risk, 59, 492-493, 827-828, AMDRs, 834-835 829, 834 animal studies, 444-445, 492 supplements, 455, 471-472, 487-491, 492- and bleeding time, 492-493 493, 494, 828, 829, 832, 833 and blood pressure, 829 and total fat, 58 and body fat, 832 trans fatty acid impact, 455-456 and cancer, 54, 55, 833-834 vegetarian diets, 466 and carbohydrate utilization, 832 and vision, 443, 444, 445, 446 and cardiovascular disease, 59, 455 Polyunsaturated fatty acids, n-6. See also and CHD, 59, 62-63, 455, 492, 826-827, Linoleic acid; other specific fatty acids 828-829 absorption, 433 deficiency, 439-440, 443-447, 454-455, adverse effects of overconsumption, 486, 469, 834 825 and diabetes, 494, 832-833 adverse effects of underconsumption, dietary intakes, 478, 959-960, 944, 1048- 821-822 1057

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1310 INDEX AIs, 461, 944-945 carbohydrates, 188 AMDRs, 486, 825-826 cervical ripening, 472 and cancer risk, 54, 824-825 CHD risk, 389 and CHD, 59, 434, 798-799, 820-821 derivation of DRIs for, 34, 47-48 deficiency, 8, 438-439, 442, 454-455, 460, DLW studies, 193, 196-197, 290 463, 464, 785 EARs, 34, 47, 290-292, 650-655, 680 and diabetes risk, 821 EERs, 107, 116-117, 185, 188-194, 437 dietary intakes, 442, 478, 944, 959-960 energy metabolism, 47, 185, 188-189, energy contribution, 478, 821 193, 194-195, 197, 290 epidemiological studies, 820-821 fat (dietary), 290, 437 evidence considered for estimating fiber, 353, 388 requirements, 442-443 food supplementation trials, 654 excretion, 434 glucose metabolism, 189-190, 290-291 food sources, 476, 822 growth of maternal and fetal tissues, 92, function, 426-427 190-192, 194-195 and glucose metabolism, 821 insulin resistance, 189, 291 high-intake diets, 823-825 multiparous, 656 and immune function, 439 nitrogen balance studies, 650-653, 654- and inflammatory disorders, 824 655 interaction of n-3 and, 453-454 obesity and overweight, 191 intervention studies, 821 obligatory fetal transfer, 47 by life stage and gender group, 10, 460- physical activity, 190, 197, 907-911, 1164- 466 1165 and lipid peroxidation, 823-824 polyunsaturated fatty acids, 465, 471-472 and lipid profile, 59, 798-799, 820-821, potassium balance, 650-653 822-824 protein, 839 low fat diets and, 785 RDA, 292, 656, 680-681 low intake diets, 820-823 special considerations, 656 metabolism, 8, 433-434, 442, 443, 453- supplements, 654, 656, 726 456, 476 TEE, 116, 193, 197, 290, 1164-1165 n-6:n-3 ratio, 8, 434, 439, 442, 446-447, thermic effect of food, 190 454-455, 472, 834 ULs, 92 parenteral nutrition and, 438, 442, 444, weight, 47-48, 188, 190, 191, 192, 196, 454-455, 460, 464 650, 652, 653, 655, 709, 726, 732, primary, 426 908, 910 requirement, 38 Prolactin, 189, 715 research recommendations, 508-509 Proline (dispensable), 592, 593, 607, 697, special considerations, 461, 463 712, 717, 728-729, 736, 1016-1017 trans fatty acid impact, 455-456 Prospective studies, breast cancer and Potassium, 650-653, 725, 838 dietary fiber, 378 Prealbumin, 609, 610 Prostaglandins, 434, 838 Pregnancy. See also Lactation Prostate cancer, 54, 55, 56, 57, 321, 379, adaptation to, 34, 47, 197, 290, 291, 650 486, 568, 578-579, 808, 819, 825, 833- adolescents, 48, 193, 201-202, 292, 389, 834, 837, 844 465, 471-472, 650-652, 654, 655 Protease, 602 AIs, 34, 47, 388, 465, 471-472 Protective effects α-linoleic acid, 427, 770 amino acids, 680-681, 709, 724, 726, 732, 735 amino acids, 726 animal studies, 709, 726 cancer prevention, 54, 55, 819, 833-834 BMR, 185, 188-191, 291 CLA, 428, 836-838 body composition, 188, 191-192 diabetes type 2, 380-381

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1311 I NDEX fiber, 55-56, 59, 63, 322, 339, 348, 363, food supplementation trials, 654 367-368, 369, 372, 374, 375, 376-380 function, 9, 38, 589, 590 Protein. See also Amino acids; Nitrogen gastrointestinal effects, 694 absorption, 114, 599-600, 609 gender difference, 640-641, 643, 644 adaptations to metabolism of, 47, 293, and gluconeogenesis, 278, 284, 287-288, 596, 605, 611, 650, 657, 694 293 adverse effects of, 692-694 and glycemic index of foods, 269 age/aging and, 595, 602, 640-641, 642 and growth, 280-281, 608-609, 654, 683, AIs, 619-621 811, 839-840 allergies, 692 hazard identification, 692-694 AMDR, 15, 769, 844 high-protein diets, 692-694, 712, 841-844 amino acid content, 279, 621, 666, 682, and immune function, 609, 621, 839 685-686 incomplete, 691 and amino acid homeostasis, 595-598 insulin response, 279 assessment of nutritional status, 609-610 intake assessment, 695, 960-961 and birth weight, 840 intestinal losses, 600-601 and blood pressure, 60, 843 and kidney stones, 694, 841-842 and BMR, 598 by life stage and gender group, 12-13, body composition and, 626-629, 644, 843 603, 619-662, 1060-1063, 1074-1075 body reserve, 595-596, 602, 609 and lipid profile, 60, 840, 843 and cancer, 54, 843-844 low-protein diets, 648, 667, 697, 707, catabolism, 278, 284 709, 721, 731-732, 839-840 and CHD, 60 maintenance (homeostasis), 595-597, chemistry, 590-592 598-599, 601-602, 625-627, 630, 632, chronic disease risk, 694 657, 660, 668, 683, 684 climate and, 640-641, 642 metabolism, 597-598, 609, 650, 657, 724 clinical effects of inadequate intake, 608- methods used to estimate requirements, 609 635, 637-639 complete, 691 micronutrient availability, 840, 841 and coronary artery disease, 694, 842-843 nitrogen balance, 9, 279, 287, 611-613, deficiency, 601-602, 608-610, 620, 662, 624-625, 632, 633-644, 650, 654-655, 840 684, 691, 693, 1250-1253 degradation, 602 nitrogen/protein ratio, 684-685 deposition rates, 626-629, 665, 666, 669, and obesity, 694, 843 837 and osteoporosis, 694, 841 dietary intakes, 589, 596, 602-603, 624, oxidation, 109 662, 692, 1060-1063, 1074-1075 physical activity and, 660-661 digestion and digestability, 9, 589, 592, planning diets, 946, 961, 964 599-600, 621, 662, 682-684, 688-690 quality, 14, 60, 589, 608, 611, 621, 643, dose–response assessment, 694 661-662, 682-691, 697, 721, 811, 840 EARs, 12-13, 624-629, 631, 637, 643-644, RDAs, 9, 12-13, 25, 47, 278, 589, 612-613, 646-649, 650-654 629-630, 631-633, 644-645, 649, 656, efficiency of utilization, 666 659, 844, 946 energy contribution, 109, 589, 605, 647, and renal function, 609, 694, 842 648, 771, 1062-1063, 1074-1075 research recommendations, 737 factorial method, 624, 628, 629, 633, risk characterization, 695 657, 658 selection of indicators for estimating FAO/WHO recommendations, 648 requirements, 610-613 fat intake and, 60, 271, 693 special considerations, 621, 656, 660-662 food sources, 48, 280-281, 620, 622-623, sugar intakes and, 790-791 640-641, 643, 691, 771 supplementation, 654, 656, 692, 694, 840

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1312 INDEX synthesis, 114, 601-602, 603, 708-709 not established, 107 thermic effect of, 110, 114 replacement with DRIs, 1, 936-937 total, 619-662 uses, 24, 25, 26, 936, 938-939, 944, 946 turnover, 598, 601, 602-603, 611, 650, Recommended Nutrient Intakes (RNIs), 31, 655, 705 936-937 ULs, 692-695 Reference weights and heights urea production, 594, 601, 603, 604-605, and BMI, 35, 36, 124, 125, 126, 127-130 611, 620, 650, 657, 671, 684, 693-694 derivation of earlier values, 982-984 vegetarians, 661-662, 840 and energy requirements, 183 and weight, 644, 647, 650, 652, 653, 654, new, 35, 36, 982 655 use of, 34, 47, 659 Protein digestibility corrected amino acid Renal cancer, 844 score (PDCAAS), 688-690 Renal failure, 842 Protein–energy malnutrition, 608-610, 704, Renal function, 92 839, 840 Reproductive effects, 701, 712, 713, 715 Protein-free diet, 278, 635, 648, 667, 683 Requirement, defined, 21-22, 39 Psyllium (functional fiber), 347, 348, 356, Research recommendations. See also 357-360, 365, 366, 371, 374-375, 388, individual nutrients 398-399, 693-694 adverse effects, 970-971 Puberty/pubertal development amino acids, 737-738 age at onset, 33, 983 approach to setting, 968 developmental changes, 177 body composition and size, 225, 240 growth spurt, 142 carbohydrates, 323-324 racial/ethnic differences, 33 cholesterol, 574-575, 578 Purine nucleotide cycle, 604, 605 chronic disease relationships to intakes, Pyrimidine nucleotides, 620 970 Pyruvate, 604, 605 data and database issues, 969-971 energy, 225, 240, 323-324 fat (total), 324, 505, 514 R fiber, 399-400 major information gaps and, 18, 44, 969- Race/ethnicity. See also African Americans; 971 Caucasians methodology, 969-970 and BMR, 146 monounsaturated fatty acids, 505 and energy expenditure, 145-146 physical activity, 225, 829 and pubertal development polyunsaturated fatty acids, 508-509, 514 and reporting of dietary intakes, 117 priorities, 18, 971 Raffinose, 265, 342 protein, 737 Randomized clinical trials, 42-43, 828-829 requirements, 969 Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) saturated fatty acids, 505 AIs compared, 6, 26-27 trans fatty acids, 514 coefficient of variation, 24-25, 47, 285, Resistant dextrins (dietary or functional 289, 292, 293, 630, 632-633, 645, 656, fiber), 341, 347, 360 670, 679, 682 Resistant starch (dietary or functional criteria used to derive, 6 fiber), 268, 342, 344, 347, 348, 360- defined, 3, 22, 23, 24, 285, 289-290, 292, 361, 366, 371, 376-377, 378, 382, 384, 293, 629 390, 399 derivation, 285, 629-630, 633, 644-645, Respiratory quotient (RQ), 109, 119-120, 649, 656, 679, 682 189, 196, 279, 291, 832 EAR and, 23, 24 Resting energy expenditure (REE), 112, method used to set, 24-25, 34, 47, 981- 114, 128, 133, 141, 212 982

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1313 I NDEX Resting metabolic rate (RMR) energy contribution, 474, 835, 1072- aging and, 143 1073, 1226-1227 body composition and size and, 131, evidence considered for estimating 135, 138, 144 requirements, 441, 460 energy expenditure, 112, 131, 132, 141, excretion, 432 148, 165 food sources, 424, 425, 474, 475-476, FFM and, 113, 139 771, 835, 836 gender differences, 141 function, 4, 422, 425, 432, 460, 484-485 lactation and, 195 and glucose tolerance, 484, 485 menstrual cycle and, 141 hazard identification, 481-485 weight and, 113, 133, 135 high-intake diets, 836 Retinol, 792-793 and insulin sensitivity, 62, 484-485, 806 Retinol binding protein, 609, 610 by life stage and gender group, 1042- Rheumatoid arthritis, 487, 722, 824 1043, 1072-1073 Riboflavin, 790-791, 835, 840, 1228-1243 and lipid profile, 422, 432, 481-484, 560, Risk assessment models. See also UL 561, 809, 835 modeling low intake diets, 835 application to nutrients, 27, 91-94 metabolism, 4, 432 basic concepts, 86-87 and micronutrient intakes, 835 bioavailability considerations, 93-94, 98 and mortality incidence, 484 defined, 86, 976 in nonvegetarian diets, 1076 environmental chemicals vs. nutrients, 91 and obesity, 484 EPA guidelines, 1246 properties, 424 and food safety, 86-90, 104 reducing intakes, 836 limitations, 100 research recommendations, 505 nutrient–nutrient interactions, 93 and total fat, 58, 424 process, 87-89, 97-98 in vegetarian diets, 835, 1076 sensitivity of individuals, 89, 92-93, 97-98, Schizophrenia, 720 100, 101 Scottish Heart Health Study, 316-317, 318- thresholds, 89-90 319, 790-793 uncertainties, 86, 87, 91-92, 100, 1244- Selenium, 444 1249 Sensitive subpopulations. See also Special Risk characterization, 86, 89, 90, 976 considerations Risk management, 87, 89, 104, 976 identification of, 97-98 Septicemia, 609, 705 Serine (dispensable), 591, 593, 594, 597, S 604, 608, 711, 719, 729-730, 736, 1018-1019 Satiety, 65, 313, 348, 382-384, 388, 794, 795, Serotonin, 608, 706, 731, 732, 916 796, 843 Seven Countries Study, 562, 817, 826, 827 Saturated fatty acids. See also individual fatty Seventh Day Adventists, 363, 835 acids Skeletal health, physical activity and, 66 absorption, 431-432 Skin cancer, 837 adverse effects of overconsumption, 481- Sleeping metabolic rate (SMR), 112, 118, 485 140, 147, 165, 195 and BMI, 484 Snack foods, 118, 732-733 and cancer, 484 Socioeconomic status, and reporting of and CHD risk, 422, 481-484, 797, 798, dietary intakes, 117 799 Sodium, 725 and diabetes (type 2) risk, 484-485 Soft drinks, 312-313, 789 dietary intake, 474, 960, 1042-1043, Soldiers, 148, 223 1072-1073, 1076-1077, 1226-1227

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1314 INDEX Somnolence, 698, 700, 722, 733 Sucrase, 272, 592 Sorbitol, 266 Sucrose, 109, 266, 272, 274, 283, 294, 295, Special considerations. See also individual 297, 298-301, 302, 303, 311, 319, 345 Sugar, 323 nutrients and life-stage groups athletes, 221-223, 660-661 added, 16, 65, 118, 266-267, 294, 295, chronic diseases, 494 303, 312, 314-315, 318-319, 323, 770, disabled individuals, 30, 660 788-789, 790-793, 810, 812-813, 816, dose–response assessment, 100, 101 957, 988-991, 1203-1225 drug interactions, 494 adverse effects of, 295, 319-321 identification of, 92, 102 alcohols, 266, 341, 342 infant formula, 45, 283, 457, 461, 463, behavioral effects, 295-296, 323 469, 621 and BMI, 65, 310, 313, 316-319 irritable bowel syndrome, 395 and cancer risk, 55, 319-320, 321, 323 linoleic acid:α-linoleic acid ratio, 472 and CHD risk, 303, 800-801 low carbohydrate diets, 293 definition, 266-267 muscle wasting diseases, 660 and dental caries, 61-62, 296-297, 323 negative energy balance, 213-215 and diabetes type 2, 303 overweight and obesity, 202-213, 216-219 dietary intakes, 118, 266, 294-295, 323, phenylketonuria, 728 988-991, 1206-1209, 1216-1219 physical activity, 660-661 digestion, 272 twin pregnancy, 656 energy intake from, 65, 118, 273, 307, undernutrition, 220, 221 310, 313, 314-315, 770 vegetarians, 661-662 epidemiological studies, 800-801 weight maintenance, 202-204, 216-219 extrinsic, 266, 297, 812 weight reduction, 209, 212, 213-215, food sources, 266-267, 294, 312-313 219 glycemic index, 323 weight restoration, 220-221 in high fat, low carbohydrate diets, 810 Special Turku Coronary Risk Factor and insulin sensitivity, 303 Intervention Project, 811 intake assessment, 323 Specific Dynamic Action. See Thermic effect intestinal absorption, 273 of food intrinsic, 265 Stachyose, 265, 342 lipogenicity, 59, 297-302, 323 Starch. See also Resistant starch in low fat, high carbohydrate diets, 788- and cancer risk, 321 789, 790-793 definition, 267-268 maximal intake levels, 16, 810, 816 and dental caries, 296 and micronutrient intake levels, 788-789, digestion and digestibility, 269, 272 790-793, 809, 812, 1203-1225 energy yields, 109 and obesity, 307, 310-313, 314-319, 323 food sources, 265-266, 294 substitutes, 346, 695, 702-703, 727 glycemic index, 323 total, 313, 314-315, 316-317, 789, 792, insulin sensitivity, 303 809, 813-814 lipogenesis, 59, 298-301, 302 uses, 266 slow release vs. fast release, 382 Sugar beet fiber, 383, 394, 838 Starvation, 276, 277-279, 284, 430, 437, 595, Supplements, dietary. See also individual 605, 609, 693, 704 nutrients Stearic acid, 58, 425, 431, 432, 483-484 bioavailability considerations, 29, 93, 94 Sterol-coenzyme A desaturase, 837 chronic consumption, 719, 727 Sterol regulatory element-binding protein, clinical trials, 27-28, 85 545, 562 data sources on intakes, 941 Stroke, 59, 230-231, 492-493, 827-828 fiber, 345 Stunting, 221, 701 impurities in, 733

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1315 I NDEX intake assessment, 88-89, 104 offsetting benefits reduction, 103 physical exercise and, 925-926 supplement use and, 27, 85, 88-89, 91-92 ULs and, 27, 85, 91-92, 104 uses, 27, 84, 85, 936, 940, 945, 947-948 Total energy expenditure (TEE). See also Energy expenditure T approach used to determine, 151-164, 202-203 Tarahumara Indians, 546, 561 body composition and size and, 132 Taste and smell acuity, 722 coefficients and standard errors, 1200- Taurine, 608 1202 Teratogens, 708, 728 components of, 112-116 Testosterone, 543 data analysis and assumptions for Thermic effect of food (TEF). See also equations, 154-157 individual nutrients defined, 116 age/aging and, 134, 143, 165, 171, 179 DLW data, 116, 117, 119-121, 122-123, alcohol, 109-110 138-139, 141, 151-157, 166, 174, 193, defined, 109-110, 114 198-199, 201, 291, 1104-1202 and energy expenditure, 114, 115, 116, EEPA, 115-116, 117, 133, 138-140, 143- 150, 165, 171 144, 145-146, 147-148 and energy requirements, 165, 171, 190, EER derivation, 149-150, 166, 168-169, 196-197 174, 176, 181, 183, 186, 193-195, 201, fat, 114 202-203, 208 infants, 165 equations for normal-weight children, lactation and, 196-197 161-164, 1200 obesity and overweight and, 133-134, 143 factorial approach, 116, 118-119 pregnancy and, 190 gender differences, 166, 174, 202-203, protein, 110, 114 204, 206-213, 217, 218-219 Thermoregulation, 114, 116, 165-166 menstrual cycle and, 141 Thiamin, 790-791, 1228-1243 for obese and overweight individuals, Threonine (indispensable), 589, 591, 593, 133, 153, 156-157, 202-204, 209-213, 597, 601, 604, 615, 618, 661, 663-665, 1168-1182, 1184-1199, 1201-1202 666, 668, 671-682, 683, 686, 687, 689, PAL categories, 116, 157-161, 162-163, 692, 723, 730-731, 736, 1020-1021 164, 1122-1199 Threonine dehydrogenase, 678 regression on variables, 159-161, 164, Thrombosis, 427 214 Thromboxanes, 434, 454, 826 reported energy intake and, 117-118 Thyroid hormones, 608 RMR and, 132, 148 Thyroid stimulating hormone, 715 TEF and, 116 Toddlers, ages 1 through 3 years. See underfeeding studies, 213-215 Children uses, 951 Tolerable Upper Intake Levels (ULs). See whole-body calorimetry measurements, also UL modeling 120, 122-123, 140 applicable population, 84, 89 Toxicity criteria and proposed values, 12-13 age and sensitivity to, 92 defined, 3, 22, 23, 27-28, 84, 99 mechanisms of action, 97 derivation of, 27, 85-86, 90, 96, 98, 101, Trans fatty acids 102 absorption, 436 extrapolation on body-weight basis, 34, adverse effects of, 436, 455-456, 494-505 47, 85, 86, 101 and blood pressure, 504, 506-509 fortification of foods and, 27, 85 and cancer, 512-515 not established for macronutrients, 101- and cardiovascular disease, 503 104, 107, 224, 694, 770, 940, 946

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1316 INDEX and cerebrovascular disease, 503 monounsaturated fatty acid intake and, and CHD risk, 58, 423, 504, 510-513 817-818 controlled feeding trials, 496-499 physical exercise and, 60 dietary intakes, 436, 479, 835, 960 polyunsaturated fatty acids and, 59, 820, energy contribution, 479, 480 821, 822-823, 826, 828, 830-831 epidemiological studies, 510-515 protein intake and, 60, 843 evidence considered for estimating sugar intake and, 297-301 requirements, 447, 473 synthesis, 431, 432, 439 excretion, 437 very low density lipoprotein, 430, 431, 439 and fetal and infant growth, 436, 455 Tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, 274 food sources, 48, 427-428, 436, 455, 479, Triceps skinfold measurements, 125, 128, 480, 495, 836 1080-1081, 1086-1087, 1092-1093, free-living trials, 500-503 1100-1101 function, 427-428 Trisaccharides, 272 hazard identification, 494-504 Trypsin, 599 and hemostatic factors, 504, 506-509 Tryptophan (indispensable), 589, 591, 593, high-intake diets, 836 608, 616, 663-665, 666, 668, 672-675, and LDL oxidation, 504, 506-509 677, 678, 679-682, 686, 687, 689, 692, and lipid profile, 58, 423, 494-503, 504 704, 705, 706, 707, 709, 710, 726, low-intake diets, 835 731-734, 736, 1022-1023 and Lp(a), 496-503, 510-511 24-Hour amino acid balance method, 616- measuring intakes, 436 617, 670-671, 676, 677 metabolism, 436-437 2000 Dietary Guidelines for Americans, 124, 267 and polyunsaturated fatty acid Typhoid vaccine, 488-489, 491 metabolism metabolism, 455-456 Tyrosine (conditionally indispensable), 589, properties, 424, 427 591, 593, 594, 597, 608, 617, 619, reducing intakes, 836 663-665, 666, 668, 671-682, 686, 687, research recommendations, 514 689, 703, 704, 707, 709, 710, 726, transport, 436 727, 734-736, 1024-1025 Transamination, 604, 704, 712 Tyrosinemia II, 735 Transferrin, 609, 610 Trauma, 596, 605 U Trehalose, 266 Triacylglycerol or triacylglyceride. See also Ubiquitin-protease system, 602 Fat, total; Lipids and lipid UCP1 gene, 145 metabolism UK National Diet and Nutrition Survey of amino acid intake and, 724 Children, 314-315, 790-791 carbohydrate intakes and, 59, 275, 783 UL modeling. See also Dose–response and CHD risk, 57-58, 59, 437 assessment; Risk assessment models fat intake and, 777-781 critical endpoint, 93, 98, 99, 101, 102 fiber intake and, 60, 351, 354, 356, 357, data selection, 98 359, 360, 361, 367-368, 369 hazard identification, 94-98 food sources, 473 mathematical models, 85-86 gluconeogenesis, 275, 278 nutrient intake assessment, 104 glycemic index and, 302, 322 risk characterization, 86, 89, 90, 104-105 glycerol content, 278, 279 uncertainty assessment, 89, 98, 100-101 hydrolysis of, 429 Ulcerative colitis, 348, 371 lipoprotein metabolism and, 61, 278 Uncertainties low fat, high carbohydrate diets and, in AIs, 26, 44 777-781 amino acid scoring patterns, 688 lypolysis, 431 approaches for dealing with, 1244-1249

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1317 I NDEX V assessment, 89, 98, 100-101 case-by-case judgments, 1246-1247, 1248- Vaccenic acid, 426, 428 1249 Valine (indispensable), 589, 591, 593, 597, in data, 86, 99, 1246 663-665, 666, 668, 672-675, 677, 678, default options, 1246, 1248-1249 679-682, 686, 687, 689, 704-711, 726, dose–response assessment, 98, 100-101 736, 1026-1027 in exposure routes, 98 Vegetables. See Fruits and vegetables extrapolation from one age group to Vegetarians, 372, 466, 661-662, 835, 975, another, 101 1077 range of estimates applied to, 1246, Very low density lipoprotein (VLDL), 61, 1248-1249 430, 439, 545 in risk assessment, 86, 87, 91-92, 100- remnant, 431, 544 101, 102-103, 1244-1249 Vision, 439, 440, 468, 711, 714, 720, 722, Uncertainty factors 729 defined, 90, 977 Vitamin A, 424, 609, 785, 788, 789, 790-793, for energy intake, 224 811, 812, 813, 1204-1211, 1214-1221, inferences from experimental animal 1224-1225 studies, 100, 1245-1246 Vitamin B6, 771, 785, 788, 789, 790-793, LOAEL instead of NOAEL, 100-101 1228-1243 selection of, 87, 99, 100 Vitamin B12, 771, 785, 789, 790-791, 813, sensitivity of individuals, 100 835, 1228-1243 sources of uncertainty in, 100-101 Vitamin C, 771, 788, 789, 790-791, 808, 813, subchronic NOAEL to predict chronic 816, 1228-1243 NOAEL, 101 Vitamin D, 424, 790-791, 811, 812, 840, 841 use, 90, 91 Vitamin E, 424, 444, 493, 785, 789, 790-793, Undernutrition, 130, 220 811, 812, 813, 829, 1204-1211, 1214- Underweight, 121, 130, 190, 811 1221, 1224-1225 United Kingdom Department of Health, 266 Vitamin K, 424, 788 United Nations University, 621, 634 VLDL cholesterol, 843 United States fiber definitions, 340 human milk intake and composition, W 172-173 physical activity recommendations, 882- Waist circumference, 124-125, 127, 1080- 883 1081, 1084-1085, 1094-1099, 1102- Urea, 114, 594, 601, 603, 604-605, 611, 620, 1103 650, 657, 671, 684, 693-694, 699, 712 Water Uric acid, 603, 604 and laxation, 370, 398 Urinary C-peptide, 322, 353, 361 physical exercise and, 925-926 U.S. Department of Agriculture, 49, 124, Weight. See also Obesity and overweight; 266, 294, 344, 346, 391, 479, 771, 882 Reference weights and heights; U.S. Department of Health and Human Underweight; individual life-stage Services groups dietary intake survey data, 49 adaptation, 150 Office of Disease Prevention and Health adjustment of DRIs based on, 34 Promotion, 1 adults, 143, 183, 184, 220, 1078-1081, 2000 Dietary Guidelines, 124, 882-883 1088-1091 U.S. Department of Health, Education, and age/aging and, 143, 167 Welfare, 882 amino acids and, 697, 698, 700, 707, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 709, 713, 721, 724, 730, 731-732, 734 1246

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1318 INDEX BEE and, 116, 141, 150, 183, 184, 186, Whites. See Caucasians 206-213, 888 Whole-body calorimetry, 120, 122-123 BMI and, 1080-1081 Women. See also Gender differences; body fat and, 1090-1091 Lactation; Pregnancy and chronic disease, 224, 226-229 bone mineral density, 841, 928 and diabetes type 2, 802 calcium, 789, 841 energy balance and, 65, 150, 212, 214, carbohydrate intakes compared to other 220 nutrients, 1238-1243 and energy expenditure, 116, 132, 135, CHD, 363, 364 141, 150, 157, 159-161, 183, 184, 186, colon cancer, 373 206-213, 215, 216-219, 889, 891-895, diabetes type 2, 380, 381 951 energy expenditure, 140 energy intake and, 121, 223-224, 793- fiber, 363, 364, 373, 380, 381 794, 951-952 glycemic load, 303 and energy requirements, 112, 183, 184, menopause, 141, 143, 921 220 metabolic rate, 140, 141 epidemiological studies, 382-383 nutrient intakes with added sugars, fat intake and, 441, 452, 773-776, 809 1218-1225 fiber intake and, 65, 339, 351-352, 370, oral contraceptives, 921 382-384 physical activity, 138, 140, 894, 913, 921, gain, 47-48, 110, 121, 143, 144, 167, 186, 928 223-224, 226-229, 452, 650, 652, 653, premenopausal, 140, 141 654, 655, 697, 698, 709, 730-732, 734, protein intakes, 695, 841 802, 951-952 reference weights and heights, 126 gender differences, 1078-1081, 1088- weight control, 352, 773 1091 Women’s Health Initiative Observational genetic factors, 144, 452 Study, 913 hypocaloric vs. isocaloric diets, 772 World Cancer Research Fund, 321 intervention studies, 311, 383-384 World Health Organization, 84, 110, 121, loss, 61, 65, 121, 199-200, 204, 209, 212, 621, 634, 648, 684, 913 215, 217, 219, 225, 311, 313, 351-352, 370, 383, 721, 843, 951 X low fat, high carbohydrate diets, 311, 773-777 Xylose, 345 maintenance, 149, 202-209, 216-219, 382-383, 441, 773-777, 951-952 measurement confounding, 202-204 Y metabolic rate and, 112, 113, 135, 138 overeating and, 121, 151 Youth Risk Behavior Study, 923 physical exercise and, 61, 115-116, 213- 215, 452, 773 Z pregnancy, 47-48, 188, 190, 191, 192, 196, 650, 652, 653, 655, 709 Zinc, 221, 391, 394, 397-398, 705, 721-723, protein (nitrogen) and, 598, 612, 843 771, 785, 789, 790-793, 812, 813-814, rapid loss, 217 840, 1204-1209, 1212-1219, 1222- recommended, 117 1225, 1228-1243 regain after loss, 135 Zutphen Elderly Study, 381, 483, 826, 827 restoration, 220-221 stabilization, 138 and TEE, 159-161 velocity, 142