research and development for the Searle Pharmaceutical Company, and for the past 14 years he has served as a consultant in drug development. Before joining Searle he was Distinguished Professor of Medicine and Pharmacology and director of the Clinical Pharmacology Toxicology Center at the University of Kansas Medical Center, a position he held for 16 years. He has published more than 175 articles in scientific and medical journals. Dr. Azarnoff is a member of the Institute of Medicine and a fellow of the American Association of Pharmaceutical Scientists, the New York Academy of Sciences, and the American College of Physicians and is chair-elect of the Pharmaceutical Section of the American Association for the Advancement of Science. He maintains a teaching appointment at the schools of medicine of the University of Kansas and Stanford University. Dr. Azarnoff has been on the editorial boards of several journals and on committees of the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, World Health Organization, American Medical Association, National Academy of Sciences, Institute of Medicine, and National Institutes of Health, advising them on drugs and drug development.

Tom L. Beauchamp, Ph.D., is professor of philosophy and senior research scholar at the Kennedy Institute of Ethics. He was born in Austin, Texas. He received graduate degrees from Yale University and the Johns Hopkins University, where he received a Ph.D. in 1970. He then joined the faculty of the Philosophy Department at Georgetown University and in the mid-1970s accepted a joint appointment at the Kennedy Institute of Ethics. In 1976, he joined the staff of the National Commission for the Protection of Human Subjects of Biomedical and Behavioral Research, where he drafted the bulk of The Belmont Report (1978). Dr. Beauchamp’s research interests are in Hume and the history of modern philosophy and practical ethics, especially biomedical ethics and business ethics. Publications include the following coauthored works: Hume and the Problem of Causation (Oxford University Press, 1981), Principles of Biomedical Ethics (Oxford University Press, 1979; 4th ed., 1994), A History and Theory of Informed Consent (Oxford University Press, 1986), and Philosophical Ethics (McGraw-Hill, 1982; 2nd ed., 1991). Publications also include a number of edited and coedited anthologies and more than 100 scholarly articles in journals and books. Dr. Beauchamp is the General Editor—with David Fate Norton and M. A. Stewart—of The Critical Edition of the Works of David Hume, Clarendon Press, Oxford University Press. He is also the editor of an electronic edition called HUMETEXT (coeditor, David Fate Norton), a complete electronic edition of Hume’s philosophical, political, and literary works.

Timothy Stoltzfus Jost, J.D., holds the Robert L. Willett Family Professorship at the Washington and Lee University School of Law. Prior to coming

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