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An Assessment of the National Institute of Standards and Technology Measurement and Standards Laboratories: Fiscal Year 2002 2 Electronics and Electrical Engineering Laboratory
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An Assessment of the National Institute of Standards and Technology Measurement and Standards Laboratories: Fiscal Year 2002 PANEL MEMBERS Lori S. Nye, Silicon Genesis, Inc., Chair Constance J. Chang-Hasnain, University of California, Berkeley, Vice Chair Thomas E. Anderson, Airtron, Division of Litton Systems, Inc. Jerome J. Cuomo, North Carolina State University Peter J. Delfyett, University of Central Florida Russell D. Dupuis, University of Texas at Austin Thomas J. Gramila, Ohio State University Katherine L. Hall, PhotonEx Corporation David C. Larbalestier, University of Wisconsin-Madison Tingye Li, AT&T Research (retired) Tso-Ping Ma, Yale University Robert C. McDonald, Intel Corporation (retired) Bruce Melson, GE Aircraft Engines Terry P. Orlando, Massachusetts Institute of Technology Ghery S. Pettit, Intel Corporation Robert Rottmayer, Seagate Research Douglas K. Rytting, Agilent Technologies, Inc. Dennis E. Speliotis, ADE Technologies, Inc. Dale J. Van Harlingen, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign Ronald Waxman, University of Virginia (retired) John A. Wehrmeyer, Eastman Kodak Company (retired) H. Lee Willis, ABB, Inc. Donald L. Wollesen, Advanced Micro Devices, Inc. (retired) Submitted for the panel by its Chair, Lori S. Nye, and its Vice Chair, Constance J. Chang-Hasnain, this assessment of the fiscal year 2002 activities of the Electronics and Electrical Engineering Laboratory is based on site visits by individual panel members, a formal meeting of the panel on February 21-22, 2002, in Boulder, Colorado, and documents provided by the laboratory.1 1 National Institute of Standards and Technology, Electronics and Electrical Engineering Laboratory, Summary of 2001 Project Status Reports (10/1/2000–9/30/2001), National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Md., January 29, 2002. Programs, Activities, and Accomplishments books for each division are available online at <http://www.eeel.nist.gov/lab_office/documents.html>.
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An Assessment of the National Institute of Standards and Technology Measurement and Standards Laboratories: Fiscal Year 2002 LABORATORY-LEVEL REVIEW Technical Merit According to laboratory documentation, the mission of the NIST Electronics and Electrical Engineering Laboratory (EEEL) is to strengthen the U.S. economy and improve the quality of life by providing measurement science and technology and by advancing standards, primarily for the electronics and electrical industries. This statement, which was expanded in 2000 to include the words “improve the quality of life” and to explicitly mention “measurement science and technology” and “standards,” is an appropriate mission for EEEL. It is supported by a strategic plan,2 which was revised during the past year. For the previous assessment (fiscal year [FY] 2001), EEEL had produced a strategic plan containing a statement of vision and mission and a concise list of values. During the past year, EEEL expanded this plan to explicitly delineate the laboratory’s role and the factors that enable it to meet its mission. These factors include EEEL’s focus on making unique contributions; on having an impact on productivity and competitiveness; and on serving substantial industries, through which NIST technologies can have a significant economic effect. The strategic plan also explicitly acknowledges the core NIST competency in measurements and emphasizes support for measurement accuracy, accessibility, and applicability as part of EEEL’s role. The plan also states that, independent of organizational structure, the laboratory’s work is grouped in four major programs: Foundation for All Electrical Measurements, Electronics Industry, Electrical Industries, and Criminal Justice and Public Safety. Each program has a broad goal and a series of specific technical objectives, which are supported by the division programs and individual projects. EEEL’s revised strategic plan is consistent with its mission and is an appropriate plan for the laboratory level. The next steps will be making and strengthening the connections between the EEEL plan and the NIST-level strategic plan and between the EEEL plan and the EEEL division plans and projects. While the laboratory is responsible for determining overall directions and priorities (consistent with NIST-level goals), the divisions will be responsible for the tactical plans needed to meet these objectives. Strong, long-range divisional plans based on technology trends and a vision of the future goals and capabilities of EEEL will be very useful for supporting and guiding budgetary planning and decision making. This guidance will help the laboratory assemble the personnel, facilities, and equipment necessary to meet the future needs of customers. The divisions are all working on strategic plans and have made varying degrees of progress. A particular highlight is the work done so far in the Electricity Division, which reorganized in order to focus more effectively on key research areas. By next year’s assessment, the panel hopes that strong strategic and tactical plans will have been developed in all of the divisions, and it expects to see clear connections and coordination between the laboratory plan and these divisional plans. The panel also hopes to be able to see the impact of these laboratory and divisional plans at the project level. Ultimately, each project should be able to identify its linkage to the overall EEEL strategic plan, which in turn links to the overall NIST strategic plan. One factor that may contribute to a strengthened connection between projects and the laboratory plan is EEEL’s recent development of a series of evaluation criteria that laboratory management plans 2 U.S. Department of Commerce, Technology Administration, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Electronics and Electrical Engineering Laboratory Strategic Plan 2002, NISTIR 6844, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Md., February 2002.
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An Assessment of the National Institute of Standards and Technology Measurement and Standards Laboratories: Fiscal Year 2002 to use for project selection, project assessment, and resource allocation. As of February 2002, a set of draft criteria (in the three categories: fit to mission, impact, and probability of success) had been defined. The laboratory plans to begin applying these criteria to selected projects with the primary goal of testing the criteria and a secondary goal of evaluating the projects. The panel applauds the laboratory’s efforts to develop a more objective and quantitative approach to choosing projects. The panel also supports the laboratory’s plan to evolve the criteria after testing their effectiveness on actual projects. The development of sound general project evaluation criteria is one important element of effective project management. Another element is that of defining key milestones with quantitative benchmarks for individual projects, as discussed in last year’s report.3 The panel saw efforts being made in this direction by some divisions, but more work still needs to be done. Determining benchmarks is easier for projects directed at meeting needs that have been explicitly (and quantitatively) laid out in industry road maps, but the value of defining clear, measurable project goals and a path to achieve them is also beneficial for projects that are not linked to predefined road maps. In addition to providing a measurement of project progress for internal evaluation, sound quantitative milestones can also be a useful outreach tool. Through the definition and dissemination of benchmarks that demonstrate progress toward and achievement of results of interest to a project’s customers, the value and relevance of NIST’s work can be clearly and quickly explained. The Electronics and Electrical Engineering Laboratory is organized in six divisions and two offices: Electricity Division, Semiconductor Electronics Division (SED), Electromagnetic Technology Division, Radio-Frequency Technology Division, Optoelectronics Division, Magnetic Technology Division, Office of Microelectronics Programs (OMP), and Office of Law Enforcement Standards (OLES) (see Figure 2.1). These units are reviewed in turn under “Divisional Reviews” below in this chapter; the OMP is included in the section on the SED. The technical quality of the work under way in EEEL continues to be high. The panel was impressed by many of the projects it saw during the assessment. In the Electricity Division, work to exploit reductions in the size and complexity of Josephson junction arrays continues, with the goal of enabling this superior technology to be used in a portable device for the calibration of voltage standards. In the SED, work on scanning probe microscopy has helped staff identify a possible path for keeping up with the requirements of the International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors (ITRS) in the area of two- and three-dimensional dopant profiling. In the Radio-Frequency Technology Division, the work on noise standards and measurements has resulted in the development of noise parameters for multiport amplifiers, particularly differential amplifiers, which will be critical for the increased use of differential amplifiers in cellular phones and other applications. In the Electromagnetic Technology Division, staff have demonstrated the ability to count single photons with transition-edge bolometers. In the Optoelectronics Division, the continued development of new, robust, high-reliability wavelength standards will promote economically viable installation of wavelength-division multiplexing (WDM) communication. In the Magnetic Technology Division, the development of techniques for the in situ measurements of ferromagnetic films using microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) magnetometers has the potential to provide new and more accurate control of film processing for the data storage industry. In the OLES, NIST staff are working closely with 3 National Research Council, An Assessment of the National Institute of Standards and Technology Measurement and Standards Laboratories: Fiscal Year 2001, National Academy Press, Washington, D.C., 2001.
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An Assessment of the National Institute of Standards and Technology Measurement and Standards Laboratories: Fiscal Year 2002 FIGURE 2.1 Organizational structure of the Electronics and Electrical Engineering Laboratory. Listed under each division are the division’s groups. the Interagency Board for Equipment Standardization and the Interoperability Working Group on standards needed by first responders in the areas of communication, detection, protection, and decontamination. The later sections of this chapter discuss in more detail the work under way in each division. Any suggestions from the panel on maximizing the effectiveness of the individual projects are included in the respective sections. The importance of cross-divisional and cross-laboratory collaboration continues to be appropriately recognized in EEEL. The OLES effectively utilizes relationships with other units throughout and outside of NIST to carry out a very diverse research program. In addition, SED is taking the lead on a NIST-wide competence project in the area of single-molecule measurement and manipulation. While the SED can provide key expertise in the MEMS area, the project requires a wide array of capabilities and the coordination of participants from two divisions in EEEL (Semiconductor Electronics and Magnetic Technology), two divisions in the Chemical Science and Technology Laboratory, and two divisions in the Physics Laboratory. This is an impressive example of leveraging the variety of skills available at NIST to achieve the goals of a single competency project. In the Optoelectronics Division, the panel was impressed with the leveraging of division expertise and resources through cross-divisional activities, especially in the areas of electro-optic-sampling, supercontinuum and nonlinear properties research, and quantum dot (QD) and single-photon turnstiles. In the Electromagnetic Technology Division, a programmable direct current (DC) Josephson voltage standard was transferred to the Electricity Division to be calibrated against existing standards and used in the Electronic Kilogram Project.
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An Assessment of the National Institute of Standards and Technology Measurement and Standards Laboratories: Fiscal Year 2002 Program Relevance and Effectiveness EEEL serves a wide array of customers, primarily in the electronics and electrical industries, such as electrical utilities, microelectronics companies, telecommunications and wireless industries, and optoelectronics manufacturers. Examples of the types of projects under way include work on alternating current-direct current (AC-DC) difference standards and measurement techniques to support the makers of electronic test equipment for a wide variety of industries, testing and reliability characterization of dielectric structures for the semiconductor industry, and development and dissemination of standards for the magnetic data storage industry. The laboratory also supports other communities, including other government agencies, law enforcement, and other NIST laboratories. Examples include the work on metrology for radar cross-section systems for the U.S. Department of Defense (DOD); the active role OLES is playing in homeland security and counterterrorism programs for federal, state, and local agencies; and the transfer of the x-ray microcalorimeter technology to the NIST Chemical Science and Technology Laboratory for use in high-energy-resolution spectroscopy. More detailed discussion of the divisions’ and offices’ relationships with their customers is presented later in the chapter. In the past, the panel has emphasized the importance of maintaining a close relationship with the customers and potential customers of NIST results over the course of a project. The goal of these interactions is to ensure that the project objectives meet customer needs, to provide an opportunity during the project to make any necessary changes in direction, and to ensure that an audience for the final results exists and is ready to utilize NIST’s work. The panel is pleased to see more emphasis within EEEL on interacting directly with customers and on “closing the loop” (i.e., not just taking input from customers during project selection and startup, but also going back to them for comments and suggestions about ongoing or completed projects). The panel commends the laboratory for its progress in this area. However, the panel still does not see that formal checkpoints are being built into projects. These checkpoints would be specific times in the project plans at which input from customers on the project’s goals, objectives, and progress would be sought. These interactions would provide an opportunity to validate the appropriateness of continuing programs and would allow for midcourse corrections that take into account shifts in customer priorities or focus. Many different measures reveal how successful EEEL has been at disseminating its results and reaching out to the many communities that benefit from the laboratory’s work. In 2001, the outputs of EEEL included the following: 268 published papers, 7 conferences or workshops hosted, 262 conference talks, 2,720 calibrations performed, 365 Standard Reference Materials (SRMs) sold, and 232 instances of participation in standards committees and professional organizations (holding 66 posts). The last three measures (calibrations, SRMs, and committee participation) reflect the laboratory’s commitment to “measurement science and technology” and “advancing standards,” as specified in EEEL’s mission, as do the wide array of measurement technology development activities throughout the laboratory. An output measure that was not provided to the panel this year is number of patents. Patents also were not listed in the draft project evaluation criteria mentioned above (although in the deliverables section of these criteria, “technology development” is listed as a possible but rare project outcome). The panel is not taking a position on whether patents should or should not be an EEEL goal or even whether they should or should not be a measured output. However, the panel does suggest that the NIST policy in this area be clarified, as conversations with the laboratory staff revealed a range of understanding of the criteria for deciding when to apply for a patent and the process and support available for doing so. If a clear policy does exist at the NIST level, this confusion would appear to be a communications issue.
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An Assessment of the National Institute of Standards and Technology Measurement and Standards Laboratories: Fiscal Year 2002 TABLE 2.1 Sources of Funding for the Electronics and Electrical Engineering Laboratory (in millions of dollars), FY 1999 to FY 2002 Source of Funding Fiscal Year 1999 (actual) Fiscal Year 2000 (actual) Fiscal Year 2001 (actual) Fiscal Year 2002 (estimated) NIST-STRS, excluding Competence 33.2 32.5 34.8 36.6 Competence 1.9 2.1 2.0 2.2 ATP 1.9 1.4 2.1 2.1 Measurement Services (SRM production) 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 OA/NFG/CRADA 10.9 13.8 19.7 23.9 Other Reimbursable 2.7 2.8 3.2 2.7 Total 50.7 52.7 62.0 67.9 Full-time permanent staff (total)a 270 259 244 246 NOTE: Funding for the NIST Measurement and Standards Laboratories comes from a variety of sources. The laboratories receive appropriations from Congress, known as Scientific and Technical Research and Services (STRS) funding. Competence funding also comes from NIST’s congressional appropriations but is allocated by the NIST director’s office in multiyear grants for projects that advance NIST’s capabilities in new and emerging areas of measurement science. Advanced Technology Program (ATP) funding reflects support from NIST’s ATP for work done at the NIST laboratories in collaboration with or in support of ATP projects. Funding to support production of Standard Reference Materials (SRMs) is tied to the use of such products and is classified as “Measurement Services.” NIST laboratories also receive funding through grants or contracts from other [government] agencies (OA), from nonfederal government (NFG) agencies, and from industry in the form of cooperative research and development agreements (CRADAs). All other laboratory funding, including that for Calibration Services, is grouped under “Other Reimbursable.” a The number of full-time permanent staff is as of January of that fiscal year. Laboratory Resources Funding sources for the Electronics and Electrical Engineering Laboratory are shown in Table 2.1. As of January 2002, staffing for EEEL included 246 full-time permanent positions, of which 209 were for technical professionals. There were also 33 nonpermanent and supplemental personnel, such as postdoctoral research associates and temporary or part-time workers. EEEL has received relatively flat Scientific and Technical Research and Services (STRS) funding over the past several years. The total budget has continued to rise, however, owing to increases in the level of external funding from other agencies (OA) sought by and awarded to the laboratory. Roughly two-thirds of the rise in OA funding predicted between FY 2001 and FY 2002 is within the Office of Law Enforcement Standards, where all funding is external, but other divisions (Radio-Frequency Technology, Electromagnetic Technology, and Magnetic Technology) also expect to see real growth in external support. This outside money can be very useful not only for supporting key programs but also for building close ties with customers in other government agencies, such as the U.S. Air Force. It is important, however, to take care that the work EEEL has done on strategic planning and project evaluation not be undermined by externally funded projects focused outside EEEL’s carefully defined
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An Assessment of the National Institute of Standards and Technology Measurement and Standards Laboratories: Fiscal Year 2002 mission and scope. The EEEL project evaluation criteria may be a useful tool for ensuring that internal and external projects are all contributing to the laboratory’s overall goals. Another small but significant source of funding for EEEL is the revenue from SRM sales (“Measurement Services” in Table 2.1) and calibration services (included in “Other Reimbursable”). The panel recognizes that NIST is constrained by government regulations determining the fees that may be charged for these services. However, the panel notes that the fees currently being charged do not reflect the true cost of these services. If regulatory constraints preclude the adjustment of fees to more realistic levels, then the panel suggests that EEEL consider alternative ways to balance the costs and income associated with these activities. For example, certain services could be discontinued and/or transferred to commercial laboratories, or some processes could be automated to reduce ongoing costs. Similar approaches might be taken in the area of SRM production. The laboratory is clearly aware of the difficult decisions that must be made in order to balance the need to serve NIST’s customers and the need to develop and provide the metrology and standards of tomorrow. In the Electricity Division’s reorganization in 2001, a major focus was on improving support for the division’s measurement services; one element of the division’s plan is the termination of three measurement services at NIST and the transfer of those services’ customers to other national laboratories in the United States and Canada. The panel supports the division’s and laboratory’s efforts to move forward in this area. A consequence of the flat budgets and congressionally mandated salary increases over the past several years is a significant reduction in the total number of staff in EEEL since 1999 (down from 270 to 246). This year, several divisions reorganized their projects and/or groups. The panel notes that for all of these changes, a key factor was redistributing staff and resources to ensure that important projects and activities were supported by the technical expertise and staff time needed to meet project goals in a timely manner. These reorganizations are discussed further in the sections on the individual divisions below. The panel applauds EEEL for recognizing the need to reevaluate the allocation of personnel resources in the current budgetary climate. However, the panel does wish to emphasize the importance of proactive planning for foreseeable changes in personnel. In some divisions, many key researchers are approaching retirement; significant areas of expertise could be lost. The panel would prefer to see more visible demonstrations that EEEL is preparing for the transitions that this change in personnel will require. Planning could address whether the laboratory should continue to work in the areas in which expertise will be lost, and, on the basis of that decision, how expertise will be transferred to existing or new staff members or how work in the affected areas will be smoothly concluded. Specific areas in which succession planning appears to be an immediate need include the Radio-Frequency Technology Division and the superconductor work in the Magnetic Technology Division. The facilities available to EEEL continue to be an issue for the panel. The Boulder facilities in particular are substandard for the important type and quality of work being done in EEEL. Some progress has been made in a few individual cases, as in the renovation of the nanoprobe imaging laboratory in the Magnetic Technology Division and the remodeling of several large laboratories in the Electromagnetic Technology Division. However, the number of problems continues to outweigh any progress. The lack of effective buildingwide climate control limits the effectiveness of improvements in individual laboratories. For the Radio-Frequency Technology Division, this problem in Building 24 has improved marginally, but the current lack of precise environmental controls in the facility will significantly compromise NIST’s ability to perform near-field antenna pattern measurements at the higher frequencies. In addition to physical problems with the facilities, the panel observed that the distribution of staff in the available space is not always optimal; the Magnetic Technology Division, with only 13 permanent staff, is spread out over five separate buildings.
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An Assessment of the National Institute of Standards and Technology Measurement and Standards Laboratories: Fiscal Year 2002 As noted in last year’s report, one significant improvement in Boulder in the past few years was the major renovation and expansion of the clean-room facility. The Boulder divisions, particularly the Electromagnetic Technology Division, are benefiting from access to this state-of-the-art microfabrication facility. Gaithersburg does not have this capability on-site. While several ad hoc solutions (such as having customized chips made at Sandia National Laboratories) have been effective in the short term, these approaches have depended heavily on the ability of individual researchers to form collaborative relationships with scientists who have access to appropriate equipment. The panel believes that EEEL should examine its need for the microassemblies and circuits that are increasingly critical in electrical metrology experiments and standards research, consider all the options for producing these devices, and develop a laboratory- or divisionwide strategy for efficiently satisfying the needs in both the short and long terms. In Gaithersburg, a significant factor in future facilities planning is the Advanced Measurement Laboratory (AML), scheduled to be ready for occupation in 2004. The panel is certainly pleased that this facility is finally being constructed. The next and immediate challenge is planning for the effective utilization of the building. The panel did not see a clear, unified plan at the NIST or EEEL level for AML use. Such a plan should be completed as soon as possible and should address the questions of how decisions will be made about which projects go into the AML and what NIST’s overall needs are regarding the equipment and capabilities in this building. These decisions should take into account the operating costs associated with any facilities in the AML, as well as built-in capital, overhead, and maintenance requirements. Factors worth considering would include how quickly various equipment becomes outdated and whether certain capabilities can be accessed more efficiently via collaborative relationships with other institutions. To be most effective and credible, any plans for the AML should be consistent with and closely coordinated with NIST and EEEL strategic plans. Laboratory Responsiveness Overall, the panel has found EEEL to be very responsive to suggestions, concerns, and questions raised in previous assessment reports. The progress on strategic planning at the laboratory level is one example, although the panel will watch for continued evolution in this area, particularly in the divisions. Examples of the divisions’ commendable responsiveness to the FY 2001 report include the redirection of the compound semiconductor program in the Semiconductor Electronics Division, the stabilization of the management chain (and the resulting improvement in morale and consistency of direction) in the Electricity Division, the revision of the mission statement in the Magnetic Technology Division, the progress made on purity measurements for semiconductor gases in the Optoelectronics Division, and the delivery of standards systems to users at NIST Gaithersburg in the Electromagnetic Technology Division. The panel is pleased with responsiveness to the assessment report observed over the past year, but has some concern about the speed and completeness of some of the responses. In general, the laboratory and divisions do acknowledge the validity of the panel’s input and do discuss the issues related to any areas in which action has not occurred. In some cases, the issue may be that certain problems (such as the panel’s concerns about the overall quality of the Boulder facilities) cannot be remedied at the divisional or laboratory level. However, it did not always appear that the divisions were making an effort to find alternative approaches or were effectively making their cases to higher levels of NIST management. The panel was somewhat concerned about whether this might be a problem, for example, in the case of the engineering and architectural study for a Radio-Frequency Electromagnetic-Field Metrology Laboratory (REML) facility in the Radio-Frequency Technology Division.
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An Assessment of the National Institute of Standards and Technology Measurement and Standards Laboratories: Fiscal Year 2002 MAJOR OBSERVATIONS The panel presents the following major observations: The work under way in the Electronics and Electrical Engineering Laboratory continues to be of the highest technical quality. The impact of the programs on industry and other NIST customers is significant. The panel is pleased with the progress that has been made on strategic planning in the laboratory over the past year. The next step will be strengthening of the links between the laboratory-level plan and the NIST-level plan, as well as between the plans at the laboratory and the division levels. Eventually, linkages to the strategic plan should be seen at the level of individual projects. The laboratory has clearly placed increased emphasis on interactions with NIST customers; the panel applauds this outreach effort and has seen the positive impact that these relationships have on project selection and dissemination. This work could be supplemented by adding more explicit checkpoints to project plans, thereby providing opportunities for customers to validate the appropriateness of continuing programs during the programs’ execution. As can be seen by the difficulty of obtaining funding for new or renovated buildings in Boulder, the construction of the Advanced Measurement Laboratory at NIST Gaithersburg is a very special opportunity for NIST and EEEL. To make full and effective use of this facility, a comprehensive and unified plan for utilization of the AML is needed. This plan should take into account the types of projects that should be performed in the AML, the capabilities and equipment that NIST as a whole will need to develop or purchase for the AML, and the continuing costs of supporting and maintaining the equipment and facility. DIVISIONAL REVIEWS Electricity Division Technical Merit The mission of the Electricity Division is to provide the world’s most technically advanced and fundamentally sound basis for all electrical measurements and associated standards in the United States. The Electricity Division’s programs involve three principle elements: (1) realizing the international system (SI) of electrical units; (2) developing improved measurement methods and calibration services; and (3) supporting the measurements and standard infrastructure needed by U.S. industry to develop new products, ensure quality, and compete economically in the world’s markets. The division is organized in three groups: Instrumentation and Systems, Fundamental Electrical Measurements, and Electronic Information Technologies. The impact of documentary standards has become much more visible in a world of expanding international trade. NIST participation in these activities is of vital importance to U.S. interests. The mission statement does not adequately reflect the division’s documentary standards effort. The level of both technical skill and design creativity for the Electronic Kilogram project is exceptionally high. The watt-balance is an exceedingly difficult apparatus to make and refine. The capabilities of the people working on this effort rise to the need. The project combines the use of a number of existing electrical standards (the volt and the ohm) in order to generate a known force through means of a complex, yet fundamentally deterministic, magnetic system. This is the sort of measurement system
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An Assessment of the National Institute of Standards and Technology Measurement and Standards Laboratories: Fiscal Year 2002 of which NIST can be proud. This project is clearly a leader among various efforts in the world to replace the artifactual kilogram. Historically NIST has been one of the world’s leaders in the determination of the volt, and it remains so today. The leading voltage laboratories of the world today derive their value of the volt through the use of the Josephson junction devices that NIST was instrumental in developing. The staff of the Voltage Metrology project have not been resting on these laurels. Realizing the value of the Josephson-array device, they have continued to refine it and to reduce its size and complexity so that it can be portable. The need for this effort became apparent during recent interlaboratory comparison (ILC) programs for the comparison of the volt. These programs demonstrated that the predominant contributor to the uncertainty was the instability and noise of the zener diode transfer devices. It is expected that using a portable Josephson array in place of the zener diode transfer standards would improve the uncertainty of these ILCs by a factor of 10. In addition to the use of a portable Josephson-array device for ILC work, the Voltage Metrology project is moving toward the use of a programmable array for the voltage calibration services provided to its customers. EEEL enjoys a steady demand for calibration of saturated cell voltage standards from its customers. At one time it was hoped that the evolution of the zener diode reference standards might improve the state of the art and make high-level voltage calibrations much easier. However, over the years the zener-based devices have shown certain unpredictable noise characteristics, which diminish their value as a highly stable voltage standard. The programmable Josephson array is expected to provide more accurate and efficient service. The researchers involved in the Single Electron Tunneling project have demonstrated a considerable level of technical skill and insight into what is probably the most important challenge to the success of this general approach. The project seeks to develop a stable, manufacturable capacitance standard based on single-electron transistors (SETs) and to use this standard to “close the metrology triangle” of current, voltage, and resistance. Researchers recognized that the long-term stability of the intrinsic properties of the SETs themselves is a serious limitation on further development of this general approach to current standards. A significant effort has been undertaken to develop methods to avoid the fundamental materials problems that are at the heart of this instability. An important element of the success achieved to date lies in the ability of the principal investigator to forge collaborations with other efforts inside and outside NIST. Effective collaboration with NIST Boulder, work with a Japanese group, and work with investigators at the University of Maryland have all proven effective. The limited level of staffing for this project makes these collaborations all the more critical. Maintaining the legal units such as the ohm is at the heart of the NIST charter. Realizing and disseminating the value of the ohm is an essential component in the foundation of international trade. NIST continues to be a world leader in the realization of the ohm through state-of-the-art technology such as the quantum Hall (QH) resistance device. The QH devices are currently manufactured by NIST. However, these devices degrade over time, and NIST has had to work diligently to ensure an adequate supply. The level of resistance produced by the QH devices is very small and difficult to use. In addition, the system to realize the ohm through the device is expensive and difficult to use. The Metrology of the Ohm project team has taken on the task of trying to develop a QH device that will be less expensive and easier to use. If successful, this project may make it possible to do QH resistance work in the field. Important work on high-resistance measurement capability is moving forward and will be of great value to the materials industries. In recent years, EEEL has made major improvements of measurements in the range 10 megohms to 100 teraohms. An active-arm bridge, which will cover this resistance range, is under development. A 1-teraohm standard is complete. New Hamon Transfer Standards are being developed to more accurately scale up to this range. In addition, the ability to
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An Assessment of the National Institute of Standards and Technology Measurement and Standards Laboratories: Fiscal Year 2002 ometry, High-Speed Measurements, Interferometry and Polarimetry, Spectral and Nonlinear Properties, Optical Materials Metrology, Nanostructure Fabrication and Metrology, and Semiconductor Growth and Devices. Each project has specific goals and objectives, with cross-project teamwork occurring where appropriate. The division’s program is balanced and delivers important calibration services and standards to industry while initiating new activities in emerging technology areas. The laser radiometry research activities in the Sources and Detectors Group is of critical importance for many areas of the U.S. optoelectronics industry, for semiconductor optical lithography advances, and for other important commercial-sector and DOD programs. The panel was particularly impressed with the division’s laser-optimized cryogenic radiometer, its expanded work on high-accuracy optical fiber power calibration sources, and the development of the SiC-based 157-nm excimer laser calorimeter, all of which are essential for next-generation lithographic systems. The latter work, performed in collaboration with International SEMATECH, builds on the division’s impressive past work for the 193-nm excimer laser power calibration system, which is currently being used in the development and application of 193-nm semiconductor lithography systems. Division research on beam homogenizer development is essential to further progress. The panel encourages further work in this area and the demonstration of the fully functional calorimeter for 157-nm operation. The High-Speed Measurements project is well poised to impact high-speed optoelectronic device development and its use in optical information-based technologies. The project’s research team has pushed the measurement capability of the frequency response of sources and detectors to include both amplitude and phase and is planning to evolve its measurement capability to 110 GHz by the end of FY 2002. The area of high-speed measurements is of critical importance to optical information technologies and applications. The measurement methods developed will undoubtedly impact high-speed receiver design, high-speed transmitter drivers, and optical-fiber system characterization and measurement systems. In the High-Speed Measurements project, electro-optical sampling research is important, has great potential for synergistic advances, and needs to be emphasized. The division’s application of heterodyne techniques for ultrahigh-speed system analysis is an innovative and important development. Research should continue on understanding the relationships between time-domain and frequency-domain measurements through the development of mathematically rigorous “de-embedding” techniques—for example, optical impulse-response measurements. The panel believes that the electro-optic sampling research performed in the Optoelectronics Division is particularly important for next-generation systems and needs to be accelerated if possible. Since high-speed measurements require increasing bandwidths, the encroachment of noise into the measurements is unavoidable. For commercial applications, techniques that can provide ultrawide bandwidths with low accompanying noise become critical. The NIST electro-optical sampling methodology is an excellent technique for high-speed sampling. Increasing the stability of the sampling sources and reducing averaging times—especially for measurement techniques in which the high-speed electrical signals are not initiated by the probing optical source and/or real-time applications—can potentially lead to advances in this optical sampling technique. For example, all-optical sampling oscilloscopes and all-optical bit error rate analyzers will be needed for optical information systems operating at 160 Gb/s. To maintain and push the capabilities of these measurement techniques for emerging applications, new methodologies will need to be developed. For example, current optical information systems are being deployed at 10 Gb/s, with 40-Gb/s systems being designed and planned for deployment in early 2003. In order for NIST to maintain its leadership role, it must look toward the design of systems operating at 160 Gb/s, which will need measurement capabilities in excess of 500 GHz. This added flexibility would undoubtedly increase the versatility of optical sampling, not only for measurements and characterization,
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An Assessment of the National Institute of Standards and Technology Measurement and Standards Laboratories: Fiscal Year 2002 but also for the development of new tools that will be needed within the next 3 to 5 years. The panel believes that NIST can achieve these goals with increased personnel and infrastructure. The quality and direction of the current work in the Optical Fiber and Components Group is world-class, and its accomplishments are critical to the development of optical networks. The panel particularly notes the excellent role that staff members have played in the development of robust, high-reliability wavelength standards that will permit faster expansion of the optoelectronics industry and promote economically viable installation of wavelength-division multiplexing (WDM) communications systems. The Optoelectronics Division excels in the measurement and standards development for polarization-dependent loss (PDL), relative group delay (RGD), and polarization-mode dispersion (PMD) systems. The division has been an innovator and worldwide leader in these important areas. As the performance of commercial optical communications systems increases from 10 Gb/s to 40 Gb/s, these standards activities will increase in importance dramatically. The panel strongly encourages NIST to expand these efforts in support of critical industry needs. The Interferometry and Polarimetry project focuses on developing measurements and standards for supporting the commercialization of WDM high-speed optical fiber transmission systems. Network and service providers face the dilemma of high operating and maintenance costs and declining revenues and profits. Ultralong-haul (>1,500 km) and high-bit-rate (40 Gb/s) optical networks hold promise for reducing the cost of service and facilitating the rapid positioning of new services. The division’s work on chromatic and polarization-mode dispersion, wavelength calibration measurements, polarization-dependent loss, and wavelength shift have been excellent and are key to the successful introduction and deployment of these networks. The panel notes that the PMD standard development is excellent but suggests that it needs to be implemented in collaboration with equipment vendors and that a suitable partner in the commercial sector should be found. The panel encourages further development of work in these areas and has several suggestions for future directions. Physical PMD standards are useful, but a detailed fundamental standard description of results is needed to define and fully characterize PMD. The panel encourages NIST to quantify PMD compensation and to develop industry standards and understanding of this process. Developing a joint working group with the Telecommunications Industries Association (TIA) and TIA industrial members and engaging in outreach to available resources in industry and academia can help develop a picture of the current status of the understanding and measurement of PMD. Based upon the study of PMD issues, the division should consider forming an industrywide forum on PMD to develop a more complete picture of the problem and its impact on various applications. The importance of wavelength standards for optical communications systems cannot be overestimated, and the role of the Optoelectronics Division in providing these important standards is extremely important. The fundamental measurement techniques and standards developed in the Spectral and Nonlinear Properties project are necessary to support the U.S. fiber-optic communications industry. An extremely important area is wavelength calibration transfer standards. The division has produced an SRM for the most commonly used fiber communications band, the C-band of the erbium-doped fiber amplifier. Further funding is necessary to expand these efforts to create an SRM for the L-band and the S-band. In addition to expanding the wavelength range of wavelength calibration services, there may also be a need to increase the wavelength accuracy. A study will be necessary to determine what the ultimate wavelength accuracy goal should be. Two developments potentially motivating higher accuracy measurements are the move to closer wavelength channel spacings (<25 GHz) and the move to systems with multiple filters and wavelength multiplexers and demultiplexers in the line. The carbon monoxide-based standards developed in the Spectral and Nonlinear Properties project
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An Assessment of the National Institute of Standards and Technology Measurement and Standards Laboratories: Fiscal Year 2002 are extremely useful and should result in high demand. The panel strongly supports continued activities in these areas, particularly in the L-band from λ=1565 nm to 1625 nm. Nonlinearities in optical fiber affect the performance of optical communications systems, and a thorough understanding of the nonlinearities will aid companies in producing better system designs. Applying NIST-quality standards to studies of optical nonlinearities is important. In many cases, the impact of fiber nonlinearities depends on the specific details of the fiber design, so it is important for the division to closely couple its nonlinear studies to the fundamentals of fiber design. In particular, nonlinear performance should be described in terms of accurate measurements of fiber power, core diameter, index of refraction, and any other pertinent parameter. There is a need for accurate power measurements for fiber power levels much higher than the currently supported 50 mW. The division’s work on nonlinearities in microstructure fiber seems especially interesting, because it has the potential to discover pertinent fiber parameters for nonlinear frequency generation and to find new ways to characterize the pertinent parameters of these new types of fibers. An important part of the research on nonlinear characterization is the supporting modeling work. Evaluating the accuracy of various modeling techniques, especially as they relate to Raman amplification and noise generation, could be very important. The panel suggests that the division look for opportunities to transfer its results to industry and verify its models by working with commercial modeling companies. The Optoelectronic Manufacturing Group effort has continued to develop significant contacts with customers and stakeholders through direct contact with users, participation in technical conferences, workshops of the Optoelectronics Industry Development Association, and the publication of results. The group has published results in archival journals and given presentations at relevant technical conferences. Developing low-cost, reliable manufacturing techniques, monitoring and measurement techniques, and SRMs remains of great importance for the U.S. optoelectronics industry, especially as many device companies continue to expand their use of outsourcing for semiconductor materials from epitaxial foundries. The work of this group in developing new standards for materials and processes is important and well justified. The panel continues to believe that a focus on in situ approaches to the metrology of epitaxial layers during growth and to the development of standard reference data and materials should be emphasized. Materials purity is of paramount importance to improving many device performance characteristics. As the panel has previously noted, measurements of the purity of source materials (particularly gaseous source materials) is a critical area that has the potential for broad impact in compound semiconductor research and manufacturing. The panel applauds the division’s work with gas vendors to establish commercially viable advanced techniques for the analysis of water in the hydride precursors used in vapor-phase epitaxy and metal-organic chemical vapor deposition growth of III-V materials (e.g., arsine, phosphine, and ammonia). The division’s collaboration with the NIST Chemical Sciences and Technology Laboratory is also very important. The panel continues to encourage emphasis on the development of in situ techniques for real-time analysis of purity. The panel strongly supports the development of alloy composition SRMs and the refining of measurement techniques to determine the alloy composition and thickness of compound semiconductor epitaxial layers. The focus should continue to be on the development of accurate techniques for the determination of alloy compositions and uniformity, especially in the high-Al-composition regime for AlGaAs alloys, and on the effect of AlGaAs alloy composition variations on the oxidation properties of these materials. Measurements of composition uniformity in InGaAsP should also be continued, in close collaboration with industrial partners. The division should focus on performing analyses with accuracies that are not within the capabilities of commercially available equipment. In doing so,
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An Assessment of the National Institute of Standards and Technology Measurement and Standards Laboratories: Fiscal Year 2002 emphasis should be placed on improving the performance and accuracy of commercially available techniques (such as photoluminescence and photoreflectance mapping, and x-ray diffraction mapping) and the development of new techniques (such as microfocus x-ray and micro Raman). The panel is pleased to see the molecular beam epitaxy III-V activity refocused on the growth of InAs quantum dots and the establishment of a future standards development activity on such nanostructures. The work on photon turnstiles and quantum cryptography and studies of single-electron devices using these QD materials are also of great potential interest. It is important that the development of electronic models for single-photon turnstiles and photonic crystals be carried out in a timely fashion in order to provide direction for the work and also to indicate the viability of InAs QDs for this purpose. Collaborations with other NIST organizations have been developed, and further pursuit of such interactions is encouraged. If appropriate materials can be obtained from collaborators or vendors, this route should be pursued. The work on electrical contacts to individual QDs should be carried out in some way that will provide electrical injection into covered QDs (i.e., QDs with an appropriate passivation or cladding layer), since it is likely that surface states will limit the performance of bare QD electronic structures. Program Relevance and Effectiveness As discussed above, the overall relevance of the Optoelectronics Division’s projects is very high. The division’s impact on the U.S. industry has been significant and is of increasing importance. Division programs support many sectors of the optoelectronics industry and the semiconductor industry. The measurements and standards that the division is developing and supporting enable systems that are key to the development of viable, cost-effective, high-speed optical networking and communications. As these systems come closer to deployment, the need for standards and measurements in this area grows. To fully meet these needs would require an expansion of NIST efforts in this area. The panel believes that the division’s important results could be even more widely disseminated. For example, best practices and instructions for key measurement techniques could be placed on the division’s Web site, SRMs could be more heavily marketed at meetings of groups such as the International Society for Optical Engineering and the Conference on Lasers and Electrooptics, and division staff could expand their involvement with professional societies and in organizing conferences. Division Resources Funding sources for the Optoelectronics Division are shown in Table 2.6. As of January 2002, staffing for the division included 39 full-time permanent positions, of which 34 were for technical professionals. There were also 5 nonpermanent and supplemental personnel, such as postdoctoral research associates and temporary or part-time workers. Funding and staffing limitations restrict the scope of the Optoelectronics Division’s projects. The division’s funding has not kept pace with the cost of doing leading-edge research and standards development in this rapidly advancing area. Facility deficiencies also hamper the division’s work, and upgrades are long overdue. Because the division is working with very limited resources, critical functions are likely underdeveloped. A review of priorities is necessary to assure that the most important programs are funded sufficiently. The panel is concerned about increases in the relative fraction of non-STRS funds in the operating budget and about the sustainability of the programs based on such “soft” money. The proposed NIST Office of Optoelectronics Programs also needs to be fully funded. The need for this program is increasingly important and relevant to the U.S. economy.
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An Assessment of the National Institute of Standards and Technology Measurement and Standards Laboratories: Fiscal Year 2002 TABLE 2.6 Sources of Funding for the Optoelectronics Division (in millions of dollars), FY 1999 to FY 2002 Source of Funding Fiscal Year 1999 (actual) Fiscal Year 2000 (actual) Fiscal Year 2001 (actual) Fiscal Year 2002 (estimated) NIST-STRS, excluding Competence 5.6 5.5 5.9 5.5 Competence 0.0 0.2 0.2 0.4 ATP 0.6 0.6 0.9 0.8 Measurement Services (SRM production) 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.3 OA/NFG/CRADA 1.1 1.6 2.0 1.9 Other Reimbursable 0.3 0.3 0.5 0.3 Total 7.7 8.5 9.8 9.2 Full-time permanent staff (total)a 37 37 35 39 NOTE: Sources of funding are as described in the note accompanying Table 2.1. aThe number of full-time permanent staff is as of January of that fiscal year. The panel commends the division on leveraging available human resources through the development of synergistic intradivisional and cross-divisional activities, especially in the areas of electro-optical sampling, supercontinuum and nonlinear properties research, and QD and single-photon turnstiles. Research partnerships have been used very effectively to ameliorate staffing limitations. The panel notes that recent staff hires are relatively early in their careers and consequently, the division’s expertise in some areas may have decreased owing to the loss of some senior personnel to the private sector. Magnetic Technology Division Technical Merit The mission of the Magnetic Technology Division is to strengthen the U.S. economy and improve the quality of life by providing measurement science and technology primarily for the magnetic technology and superconductor industries. The panel was gratified to see the mission statement modified to include the phrase “strengthen the U.S. economy and improve the quality of life,” in response to its comments in last year’s assessment. The panel believes that the mission should also reflect the division’s commitment to advancing standards. The Magnetic Technology Division is organized in two groups: Magnetics and Superconductivity. The division has overcome the major challenge posed by lack of leadership with the appointment of a division chief from within EEEL. The new division chief has provided able and effective leadership, and staff morale continues to improve from a low point when the division was first formed several years ago. The division chief is assisted in day-to-day operations by the staff member who is both group leader for the Magnetics Group and acting group leader for the Superconductivity Group. The division
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An Assessment of the National Institute of Standards and Technology Measurement and Standards Laboratories: Fiscal Year 2002 needs permanent staffing for both group leader positions but is otherwise effectively organized and is exhibiting steady progress in its organizational maturity. The Standards for Superconductor Characterization project has made considerable progress in the past year on issues important to the superconductor industry. Significant testing was completed for high-current conductors procured as part of the U.S. contribution to the Large Hadron Collider at the Centre Européenne pour la Recherche Nucléaire (CERN). An important study of residual resistance ratio testing of industrially produced niobium (Nb) plate for high-power accelerator RF cavities was undertaken. Some defects in the test procedure of an industry test subcontractor were identified and corrected. The need for new standards for both high-current magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) conductors and for marginally stable Nb3Sn conductors has been addressed, and a new working group for critical current testing has been established. A study has been completed on inductive effects in critical current testing, and it explains a common but often ignored feature of critical current tests. Six new International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) standards have been issued, and another six are being worked on. In short, a significant and strong user interaction has taken place throughout the year, and it both demonstrates and strengthens the relevance of the project to its industry and national laboratory user base. The Superconductor Electromagnetic Measurements project utilizes unique electromechanical capabilities, is one of very few such projects worldwide, and has an international reputation. In the past year, important critical current versus strain properties measurements were performed on new-generation, very high current density Nb3Sn wire and on alloy-strengthened Ag-sheathed Bi-2212 wire. The study of cracking mechanisms in Y-Ba-Cu-O-coated conductor prototypes remains a major focus. Nanoprobe Imaging project researchers have made in situ measurements of ferromagnetic films using MEMS magnetometers. Very small moments can be measured with this technique while the film is deposited, resulting in the potential for accurately controlling the thickness and moment of thin magnetic films as they are being deposited. This technique has the theoretical sensitivity to measure the magnetic equivalent of 0.02-nm-thick Fe film. The technology could potentially be very useful to the data storage industry. The division should now perform a controlled test of this method in a factory to compare it with existing control methods. Another project result is the development of a microscopic Scanning Microwave Power Meter using dielectric materials. This is very promising for the measurement of microwave field distributions near micrometer-size microwave transmission lines. Good progress has also been made in acquiring the ability to measure spin decay in magnetic nanodots. These technologies show promise in aiding the communications and data processing industries, which need to measure high-frequency signals on a micrometer scale. In the Magnetic Recording Measurements project, a high-speed version of the nanoscale recording system (NRS) for magnetic tape forensic analysis has been developed. This effort responded to a previous panel recommendation. The new system uses an 8 × 8 array of magnetic recording elements to increase data rate. NIST has provided the instrumentation and consulting to the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) and the National Transportation Safety Board on data recovery from low-density storage media such as analog, audio, and VHS. NRS has also been used for noninvasive probing of fields caused by currents. NRS has been used in failure analysis and on-chip metrology in the semiconductor industry and has application to relay aging and fault detection. The division also improved the technology this year through the development of software to convert the field map data to a current map. Excellent progress has been made in developing an integral superconducting flux-measurement loop for absolute calibration and in developing an inductive magnetic standard with a size of approximately 1 square cm and a magnetic moment of 0.1 to 1 memu. A round-robin evaluation to test these
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An Assessment of the National Institute of Standards and Technology Measurement and Standards Laboratories: Fiscal Year 2002 technologies is scheduled for 2002. In situ surface magnetometry is of great interest for characterizing the surfaces of thin magnetic layers, which are very common in data storage. These capabilities are badly needed by the data storage industry. Progress continued on the theory of surface states, also important work. Researchers in the Magnetodynamics project have completed and published several studies on the understanding of high-speed switching in magnetic materials. The work on surface versus bulk dynamics in NiFe, the study of dynamic anisotropy in permalloy films of various thicknesses, and the modeling of damping physics should be of interest both to researchers and to engineers seeking to design high-speed magnetic devices. The study of dynamic anisotropy has raised some interesting questions on the origin of damping, since it cannot be explained by simple dipole-dipole interaction as was previously believed. Work to understand this phenomenon should continue. This work done thus far has been on large permalloy films. The panel suggests that it would be very useful to extend the work to smaller-patterned films representing more closely what would be used in actual devices such as a thin-film writer. The panel also suggests extending the work to high-coercivity films for media. The research team is active in transferring its work to industry and academia. For example, its Pulsed Inductive Microwave Magnetometer (PIMM) is used by several universities and an industrial firm, and the team is collaborating with industry on high-speed inductive current probes. The researchers have also initiated DARPA-funded research on spins in semiconductors and have ongoing collaborations on spin momentum transfer. This work promises to illuminate some of the basic physics associated with using spins in practical devices. New research on spin waves and damping in nanostructures is also of potentially great use to industry in designing nanostructures such as patterned media. In the Magnetic Thin Films and Devices project, research on switching on spin valves and magnetoresistive random access memory (MRAM) devices is valuable. In MRAM, the switching dynamics and the presence of metastable states are fundamental problems that need to be addressed to determine the commercial viability of MRAM devices. The research on high-frequency magnetic noise in spin valves is valuable because it helps elucidate a potentially important contribution to overall noise of high-density recording systems. This work should be extended using state-of-the-art or near-state-of-the-art heads. The division’s research on the control and engineering of magnetic damping should be useful to engineers working on high-frequency devices; that work received much attention from industry in the past year. Research on the measurement of spin wave oscillations, the electrical detection of electronic spin resonance, the in situ measurement of conductance and magnetoconductance, and the on-wafer measurement of magnetostriction are all promising technologies for use in the storage and electronics industry. Program Relevance and Effectiveness The Magnetic Technology Division’s superconductor work is well aimed at meeting needs of the U.S. superconductor industry and its big project customers in the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) laboratories. This is illustrated by the strong external funding for its mechanical property research and the wide approval given to the standards work that it leads. One of the division’s main goals is the dissemination of standards to industry. This year saw major progress with the development of a superconducting flux standard, which is ready for dissemination to industry in 2002. Standards are also needed for magnetostriction, magnetic imaging, and related areas. Standards based on quantum mechanics would be a suitable long-range focus for the group, as it would enable a substantial increase in accuracy of the fundamental magnetic standards. The division has done excellent work in advanced measurement that is highly relevant to industry,
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An Assessment of the National Institute of Standards and Technology Measurement and Standards Laboratories: Fiscal Year 2002 government, and the general scientific and engineering communities. This includes work on MEMS magnetometers, PIMM collaboration and measurements, control of damping in engineered materials, dynamic anisotropy, inductive current probe, understanding of inductive effects in high-current superconductor testing, and understanding of coated conductor strain effects. Many of these measurements can be done in situ, which enables process monitoring and control. This will be very valuable in factories of the future. Much division work involves close collaboration with other government partners. Areas of interest to other government agencies include the high-speed nanoscale recording system for forensic analysis of tapes, spintronics as a promising new technology, arrays of magnetic recording sensors for detection of vehicles, and molecular manipulation as part of the SM3 competence project. The division has been effective in disseminating the results of its research. It has trained many first-rate postdoctoral research associates who have subsequently been hired by industry and have thus brought new expertise and knowledge to bear in a broader context. The division has also collaborated with universities, government laboratories (including Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Fermilab, and Los Alamos, Argonne, and Oak Ridge National Laboratories), government agencies (e.g., the FBI, DOE, DOD, and DARPA), and industry partners (including Storage Tek, NVE, Motorola, Veeco, Hutchinson, Energen, Hewlett-Packard, Intel, TPL, 3M, American Superconductor, IGC SuperPower, Oxford Superconductor, Supercon, ABB, Pirelli, Rockwell, Detroit Edison, and Southwire). The division has been an active participant in the National Storage Industry Consortium (NSIC) Extremely High Density Recording project, which has brought together the key players in magnetic storage from both industry and academia to advance the precompetitive art in recording. The division hosted the NSIC tape road map workshop in 2001 and worked with the International Disk Drive Equipment and Materials Association (IDEMA) on standards. Division staff members regularly chair conference sessions at Intermag, the Magnetism and Magnetic Materials Conference, and the Applied Superconductivity Conference, and serve on conference committees. Division staff members have published numerous technical articles in quality refereed journals this year, with sizable impact on the technical community. The papers given at the Magnetic Recording Conference and the Magnetism and Magnetic Materials Conference were of particular note. As the IEEE Magnetics Society Distinguished Lecturer for 2001, one division researcher gave 25 lectures around the world on magnetodynamics. The division participates in numerous standards-setting activities. In 2001, division staff members sat on committees for ASTM, IEEE, the National Electronics Manufacturing Initiative (NEMI), and the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC). The division has solicited feedback on its programs through its interactions with IDEMA during the round-robin standards project, the NSIC EHDR program on high-speed switching dynamics, and work with IEC TC90 and the Versailles Project on Advanced Materials and standards committee in superconductivity. Division Resources Funding sources for the Magnetic Technology Division are shown in Table 2.7. As of January 2002, staffing for the division included 13 full-time permanent positions, of which 11 were for technical professionals. There were also 7 nonpermanent and supplemental personnel, such as postdoctoral research associates and temporary or part-time workers. Increasing division staffing by one full-time position a year for 3 years would allow the division to undertake new work in spin imaging, spin imaging standards, and standards based on quantum mechanics. The panel believes that such work will be important to future industrial developments.
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An Assessment of the National Institute of Standards and Technology Measurement and Standards Laboratories: Fiscal Year 2002 TABLE 2.7 Sources of Funding for the Magnetic Technology Division (in millions of dollars), FY 1999 to FY 2002 Source of Funding Fiscal Year 1999a (actual) Fiscal Year 2000 (actual) Fiscal Year 2001 (actual) Fiscal Year 2002 (estimated) NIST-STRS, excluding Competence NA 1.6 2.9 2.9 Competence NA 0.5 0.0 0.1 ATP NA 0.1 0.1 0.1 OA/NFG/CRADA NA 0.7 0.9 1.3 Other Reimbursable NA 0.1 0.1 0.0 Total NA 2.9 4.0 4.4 Full-time permanent staff (total)b NA NA 11 13 NOTES: Sources of funding are as described in the note accompanying Table 2.1. NA = not applicable. a Data are not available for years prior to FY 2000, as the Magnetic Technology Division was formed in September 2000 in a reorganization in which several projects were moved from the Electromagnetic Technology Division to this new division. b The number of full-time permanent staff is as of January of that fiscal year. The panel recommends that further effort be made to consolidate the division’s laboratory space, which is now spread out over five buildings. Some of the space is borrowed from other groups and may have to be vacated. Colocating would greatly enhance collaboration and interaction. The renovation of one laboratory that has gotten under way is applauded by the panel. All of the division’s laboratories require upgrading. Some new equipment is being purchased this year, and the division is making an effort to accelerate the repayment of the capital equipment fund for the existing equipment. Nevertheless, there is room for significant upgrading of the division’s equipment. In particular, a new deposition system for thin films and an upgrade of the electron-beam facility are encouraged. The present E-beam instrument is an older, modified SEM that has neither the resolution nor the overlay capability of a modern E-beam writer. Improving this capability would allow the division to make more complex structures with smaller dimensions. New equipment would also be easier to use and have higher throughput and better yields than the current equipment. The thin-films project is using home-built equipment, which consumes time that would be better spent doing research. In addition, commercial equipment would produce films more comparable with industry standards at higher throughput. The right equipment would enable the division to put films on wafers that industry uses, and thus results of NIST research could be immediately tested on industry lines and with industry test structures and devices. The division’s two project leaders in superconductors are in the later stage of their careers. A succession plan is needed to avoid loss of expertise and to permit a smooth transition when they leave NIST. Office of Law Enforcement Standards The mission of the Office of Law Enforcement Standards (OLES) is to “serve as the principal agent for standards development for the criminal justice and public safety communities.” OLES helps law
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An Assessment of the National Institute of Standards and Technology Measurement and Standards Laboratories: Fiscal Year 2002 enforcement, corrections, and criminal justice agencies ensure that the equipment they purchase and the technologies they use are safe, dependable, and effective. While it is part of EEEL, OLES is a matrix management organization that works with all of NIST. OLES’s primary customers are the criminal justice and public safety communities. In the criminal justice area, OLES supports law enforcement, courts, corrections, and forensic science activities. OLES focuses on the development of performance standards and conducts research on protective clothing, communications systems, emergency equipment, investigative aids, protective and enforcement equipment, security systems, weapons and ammunition, and the analytical techniques used by the forensic science community. In the area of public safety, OLES supports fire services, hazardous material units, emergency medical services, and the first-responder community. Of key importance is detecting threatening individuals and their weapons. To help do so, OLES has the goal of developing a database of faces to support the development and testing of automated facial recognition systems. The office is also working to develop a monolithic microbolometer array for remote detection of concealed weapons on human beings. In addition, work is under way to develop performance standards for chemical and biological protection, detection, and decontamination equipment for first responders. The panel was impressed with the scope of OLES’s work and its pertinence to the new national focus on homeland security. The current work is divided into six programmatic areas: Weapons and Protective Systems; Detection, Inspection, and Enforcement Technologies; Chemical Systems and Materials; Forensic Sciences; Public Safety Communication Standards; and Critical Incident Technologies. These areas and the projects they encompass are appropriate for OLES and consistent with its mission and that of NIST. Critical Incident Technologies was established as a separate program area in 2001 in response to the attacks of September 11. The program inherited ongoing work that was relevant to terrorist attacks, such as developing standards for chemical and biological protection equipment for first responders. A first suite of standards, for respiratory gear, was issued in January 2002; this standard was based on 2 years of careful groundwork by OLES. The Critical Incident Technologies program also includes new initiatives, including improving airline cockpit physical security and developing testing standards for frangible ammunition (ammunition that might be used by security agents defending a plane against hijackers—it shatters when it hits a hard structural surface rather than penetrating the surface, thus posing less danger to the plane and passengers). The results of these efforts could be extremely valuable to the nation for deterring or responding to further terrorist attacks. In fact, opportunities to contribute to the nation’s homeland security activities exist in all OLES programs. The breadth of OLES activities means that it is relevant, in fact critical, to the strategic goals of many organizations. As mentioned in last year’s report, OLES has already been incorporated into the strategic plan of the National Institute of Justice (NIJ). This year, OLES is featured in the strategic plan of the Interagency Board for Equipment Standardization and Interoperability Working Group, where OLES’s role is to administer and promulgate equipment standards suites and to publish, administer, and maintain a set of first-responder equipment guides, which would include test data. OLES also figures in the strategic plan of EEEL and will certainly be a key element of the NIST-level Strategic Focus Area on homeland security. The panel was pleased to see continued strengthening of relationships between the OLES staff and the rest of the NIST staff on the Gaithersburg campus as well as the development of interactions with the U.S. Department of Commerce. OLES devotes significant effort to determining its customers’ needs and disseminating its results to interested parties. Staff serve on technical advisory committees; run training sessions; and attend conferences, meetings, and trade shows to determine research needs and increase awareness of OLES activities. Sponsors of ongoing projects, such as the NIJ, receive quarterly and final reports on their
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An Assessment of the National Institute of Standards and Technology Measurement and Standards Laboratories: Fiscal Year 2002 TABLE 2.8 Sources of Funding for the Office of Law Enforcement Standards (in millions of dollars), FY 1999 to FY 2002 Source of Funding Fiscal Year 1999 (actual) Fiscal Year 2000 (actual) Fiscal Year 2001 (actual) Fiscal Year 2002 (estimated) National Institute of Justice 5.4 8.4 12.5 17.0 Other agencies 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.3 STRS 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.1a Total 5.6 8.8 13.1 17.4 Full-time permanent staff (total)b 9 9 9 10 NOTE: Sources of funding are as described in the note accompanying Table 2.1. aThe internal NIST funding (STRS) for FY 2002 is a contribution from EEEL in support of the construction of OLES’s new ballistics range on the NIST campus. bThe number of full-time permanent staff is as of January of that fiscal year. projects. However, technical reports, performance standards, test procedures, software, and other OLES products are also made available to other relevant audiences and to the public, frequently by means of the OLES Web site. OLES results are widely used at the federal, state, and local levels, and in other countries as well, and they form the basis for testing and certification programs throughout the criminal justice community. OLES reports that thousands of law enforcement and public safety workers are alive because of the improvements in equipment and procedures that this office has facilitated over the past 30 years. Funding sources for OLES are shown in Table 2.8. OLES is supported almost entirely by outside-agency funding, primarily from NIJ, the research arm of the U.S. Department of Justice. Other support comes from the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, the Federal Aviation Administration, the interagency Technical Support Working Group, and the Memorial Institute for the Prevention of Terrorism. The upward trend in funding observed in past years continues and is testimony to OLES’s value to its customers. This trend will probably accelerate as OLES expands to fill an important role in the war on terrorism. The panel has noted in past years that the total dependence on external money adds significantly to the administrative burden on OLES staff. OLES must work hard to ensure continuity of funding, which can be especially difficult when other agencies receive their budgets late or if NIST is delayed in processing the paperwork. This is a NIST-wide issue. As of January 2002, OLES had a paid staff of 10, including 8 technical professionals. Several positions were vacant, including the key role of program leader for Critical Incident Technologies. Office management is creatively seeking alternative ways (such as temporary personnel, staff on assignment from other government units, and so on) to assure that OLES has access to needed expertise. OLES is also looking for a Test Coordinator and Ballistics Range Manager. It is important that this position be filled as soon as possible. A new ballistics range is being constructed on the NIST campus, and OLES is scheduled to occupy it in the fall of 2002. The panel commends EEEL and the NIST Physical Plant unit for supporting this new facility with funding and was pleased to hear of the efforts being made to complete this work in time for a smooth transition of OLES’s ballistics program from its current temporary facility.
Representative terms from entire chapter: