previous Institute of Medicine study (1990–1992) on Emerging Infections. He has been a member of the National Academy of Sciences since 1957 and is a charter member of the Institute of Medicine. He is currently a member of other NRC panels, the National Research Council Committee on Biological Threats to Agricultural Plants and Animals, the National Academy of Science Committee on International Security and Arms Control, the Defense Science Board, and the Defense Threat Reduction Agency’s Threat Reduction Advisory Committee.

RONALD ATLAS, Ph.D., is a professor of biology and graduate dean at the University of Louisville. He received a B.S. degree from the State University of New York at Stony Brook in 1968, an M.S. from Rutgers University in 1970, and a Ph.D. from Rutgers University in 1972. He then served for a year as a National Research Council Research Associate at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. He is a member of the American Academy of Microbiology and was the recipient of the American Society for Microbiology award in Applied and Environmental Sciences.

RUTH BERKELMAN, M.D., is currently a professor of epidemiology and international health at the Rollins School of Public Health, Emory University. A former Assistant Surgeon General, she has served as a Senior Adviser to the Director, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and as deputy director of the National Center for Infectious Diseases. She led CDC’s efforts to respond to the threat of emerging infectious diseases, and is currently a member of the American Society of Microbiology’s Policy and Scientific Affairs Board. She has also been active with the Infectious Diseases Society of America, and the American Epidemiological Society. A graduate of Harvard Medical School, she is board certified in internal medicine and pediatrics. She serves on the Board of Trustees at Princeton University.

GAIL CASSELL, Ph.D., is Vice President of Infectious Disease Research, Drug Discovery Research & Clinical Investigation, Eli Lilly and Company, Lily Corporate Center. She has received a number of awards for her research in infectious diseases and is a recent past President of the American Society of Microbiology. She has been active in national and international policy deliberations, including those of NIH and the U.S.-Japan Cooperative Medical Science Program. She was also a member of the International Science and Technology Center Science Advisory Committee and a member of the steering committee of the U.S.-Japan Cooperative Medical Science Program. She is the recent chair of the Board of Scientific Counselors of the National Center for Infectious Diseases of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and a past member of the NIAID, NIH Advisory Council, and the NIH Director’s Advisory Committee.

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