Index

A

Academic collaboration, 14, 121-122

Academic partnerships, federal agencies to develop, 24, 164

Academic programs, development in federal public health agencies, 160

Academic schools and departments.

See also individual colleges and universities

schools of public health to collaborate with other, 14, 114, 122, 196-197

Accreditation of public health education.

See also Credentialing

moving toward in the post-war years, 235-240

Accredited schools of public health (ASPH), 8, 50

Accrediting Commission on Education for Health Services Administration (ACEHSA), 130

Addressing the Nation’s Changing Needs for Biomedical and Behavioral Scientists, 164

Administration, courses in, 189

Administrative support workers, 264

Administrators, 262

Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ), 22, 25, 157

to spearhead a new effort in public health systems research, 25, 166

User Liaison Program, 66

Agency for International Development (AID), 252

Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR), 159

Aging population, 5

courses in, 188

Air quality, 11

courses in, 187

American Association of Colleges of Nursing (AACN), 138

American Association of Medical Colleges (AAMC), 65

American Hospital Association, 242

American Medical Association (AMA), 79, 242

hostility to the public health service, 241

American Medical Informatics Association (AMIA), 65

American Medication Informatics, 67

American Nursing Association (ANA), 136

Standards for Public Health Nursing Practice, 138



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Who Will Keep the Public Healthy?: Educating Public Health Professionals for the 21st Century Index A Academic collaboration, 14, 121-122 Academic partnerships, federal agencies to develop, 24, 164 Academic programs, development in federal public health agencies, 160 Academic schools and departments. See also individual colleges and universities schools of public health to collaborate with other, 14, 114, 122, 196-197 Accreditation of public health education. See also Credentialing moving toward in the post-war years, 235-240 Accredited schools of public health (ASPH), 8, 50 Accrediting Commission on Education for Health Services Administration (ACEHSA), 130 Addressing the Nation’s Changing Needs for Biomedical and Behavioral Scientists, 164 Administration, courses in, 189 Administrative support workers, 264 Administrators, 262 Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ), 22, 25, 157 to spearhead a new effort in public health systems research, 25, 166 User Liaison Program, 66 Agency for International Development (AID), 252 Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR), 159 Aging population, 5 courses in, 188 Air quality, 11 courses in, 187 American Association of Colleges of Nursing (AACN), 138 American Association of Medical Colleges (AAMC), 65 American Hospital Association, 242 American Medical Association (AMA), 79, 242 hostility to the public health service, 241 American Medical Informatics Association (AMIA), 65 American Medication Informatics, 67 American Nursing Association (ANA), 136 Standards for Public Health Nursing Practice, 138

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Who Will Keep the Public Healthy?: Educating Public Health Professionals for the 21st Century American Psychological Association (APA), 79 American Public Health Association (APHA), 23, 79, 99, 106, 163, 206, 231-232, 250 Committee on Professional Education, 44, 235 Public Health Nursing Section, 136 America’s Vital Interest in Global Health, x Anthrax attacks, 63 Applied research, 88 Assessment, in Essential Public Health Services, 62, 153 Association of Academic Health Centers, 166 Association of Community Health Nurse Educators (ACHNE), 136, 139 Association of Schools of Public Health (ASPH), ix-x, 23, 29, 44, 46-47, 52, 57, 66, 106, 127, 130, 163, 166, 200-206, 234, 250-251, 253 Education Committee, 201, 206 Strategic Planning Committee, 201 Association of State and Territorial Directors of Nursing, 136 Association of State and Territorial Health Officials (ASTHO), ix, 23, 137, 151-152, 207-210 Association of Teachers of Preventive Medicine (ATPM), 17, 130, 139 Council of Graduate Programs in Public Health and Preventive Medicine, 130 Association of University Programs in Health Administration, 50-51 Assurance, in Essential Public Health Services, 63, 153 B Baker, Josephine, 225 Basic research, 88 Behavioral and social science, competency in, 275 Biggs, Hermann, 225, 227-228 Biological science, competency in, 275 Biomedical research, 4-5 funding of public health education in the post-war era, 241-243 Biostatistics, 1, 62, 96 courses in, 56, 187 minimum knowledge expected from a public health education, 212 Bioterrorism, 95 preparing for, 67 Bodian, David, 247 Boston University, x, 54 Bureau of Health Professions (BHPr), 22, 49, 158 C Carson, Rachel, 47, 253 Cassel, John, 246 Center for Controlling Malaria in the War Areas, 234 Center for Law and the Public’s Health, 97 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), ix, 22-23, 25, 65-66, 89, 97, 106, 117, 143, 152, 157-159, 165-166, 211-215, 254 Centers for Public Health Preparedness, 209 Centers, Institutes, and Offices, 165 Corporate University, 211-212 Graduate Certificate Program, 55 intramural and extramural programs of, 165-166 Office of Workforce Policy and Planning, 22, 57 Public Health Informatics Competencies Working Group, 65 Public Health Training Network, 56, 161 to redirect its extramural research funding toward awards in public health, 25, 166 Centers for Public Health Preparedness (CPHP), 67, 159, 209 Centers, Institutes, and Offices (CIOs), 165 Certification, 8, 55, 106 Certified Health Education Specialist (CHES), 106 Challenges facing public health education, 4-5, 34-39, 201-203, 209-210, 213-214, 217, 220-221 demographic transformations, 38-39 environmental opportunities and threats, 202-203 globalization, 34-35 scientific and medical technology, 35-38 strengths and weaknesses, 202, 213 Chromosomal conditions, 68 Chronic diseases, medical schools to link with public health schools in the prevention and care of, 18, 136

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Who Will Keep the Public Healthy?: Educating Public Health Professionals for the 21st Century Clean Air Act, 47 Collaboration community, 125-126 with non-traditional programs, 115-116 Collaborative control, in decision making and action, skills that foster, 90-91 College curricula, 20. See also Courses Columbia University, 227 Committee on Assuring the Health of the Public in the 21st Century, 28 Committee on Educating Public Health Professionals for the 21st Century, 28, 190 Committee on Medical Research, 241 Committee on Professional Education, 44, 235 Communication, 1, 72-78. See also Internet barriers to overcome in public health communication, 75-76 competency in, 272 courses in, 188 future of, 72-78 importance in M.P.H. programs, 17, 131 public health communication competence, 76-78 public health communication defined, 73-74 strategies to facilitate public health communication, 74-75 technology of, 4, 56 Community and behavioral health competency in, 277 courses in, 188 Community-based organizations, to work with schools of public health in their planning and teaching, 16, 197 Community-based participatory research (CBPR), 1, 12, 62, 84-93, 119 community research and practice, 87-88 future of, 84-93 importance in M.P.H. programs in, 17, 131 and other approaches, 87-89 possible institutional consequences for university-based researchers, 92-93 and practice, 87-88 rationale for CBPR and practice, 85-87 with schools of public health, 16, 126, 194 skills training in CBPR and practice, 89-92 social determinants of health, 88-89 Community-based public health activities, schools of public health to provide training in, 16, 197 Community collaboration, 15-16, 125-126 Community Health Education (CHE), programs in, 9, 50, 129-130 Community Health/Preventive Medicine (CHPM), programs in, 9, 50, 129-130 Competency-based education, evolution toward, 205-206 Competency-Based Model of Alverno College, 127 Competency sets, 265-277 core, 267 discipline-specific, 270-276 functional areas, 268-270 topical areas, 267-268, 277 Comprehensive exams, schools of public health requiring at the master’s level, 184 Consumer health informatics, 64 Continuing education in federal public health agencies, 161 local, state, and federal health agencies developing incentives to encourage, 23, 163 Core competencies, 267 “Core Competencies for Public Health Professionals,” 212 Corporate University of the CDC, 211-212 Council of Graduate Programs in Public Health and Preventive Medicine, 130 Council on Education for Public Health (CEPH), 17, 50, 53, 60, 129, 190, 260 Council on Graduate Medical Education, 160 Council on Linkages Between Academia and Public Health Practice , 10, 53, 57, 65, 80, 110-111, 208-209, 212 Courses in air quality, 187 Courses in community and behavioral health, 188 the aging population, 188 communications, 188 ethical considerations, 188 foundations, 188 health and society, 188 health education, 188 international health, 188 maternal and child health, 188 nutrition sciences, 188

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Who Will Keep the Public Healthy?: Educating Public Health Professionals for the 21st Century Courses in environmental and occupational health, 187 air quality, 187 the physical environment, 187 principles, practices, and policy, 187 toxicology, 187 water quality, 187 Courses in health services policy and administration, 189 health care delivery, 189 health care organization, 189 health economics and finance, 189 health law, 189 health policy, 189 quality of health care, 189 Credentialing, of the public health workforce, 206, 214 Crisis in the education of public health professionals, 243-256 federal support for schools of public health, 252 graduate programs in other schools of the university, 255-256 new life in the 1960s, 251-254 in public health schools and departments in the 1950s, 243-251 Cross-cultural sensitivity, 79 Cultural competency, 1, 277 future of, 78-84 importance in M.P.H. programs, 17, 131 Cultural sensitivity, 78 Current status, of schools of public health, 51-60 D Decision making and action, skills that foster collaborative control in, 90-91 Demographic transformations challenge of, 5, 38-39 in student bodies, 203-204 Dentistry, competency in, 275 Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS), 22, 157, 162 Bureau of Health Professions, 49 Office of Minority Health, 79 Department of Health, Education, and Welfare (DHEW), 47, 253-254 Deterioration in 2002 of state fiscal conditions, concern over, 153-154 Determinants of population health, 31-34. See also Multiple determinants of health; Social determinants of health future of, 6 Dietetics, competency in, 273 Discipline-specific competency sets, 270-276 behavioral and social science, 275 biological science, 275 communications, 272 dentistry, 275 economics, 276 engineering, 272 environment, 271 epidemiology, 270 finance, 276 health education, 272 human resources, 273 informatics, 270-271 laboratory, 273 library and information science, 272-273 medicine, 274 nursing, 274-275 nutrition and dietetics, 273 pharmacy, 275 physical activity, 274 policy analysis, 276 program analysis and evaluation, 276 public health advisor, 275 Disease reemergence. See also Chronic diseases future of, 94 Distance learning, 56, 147 by means of the Internet, 56 Diversity, 5, 38-39. See also Cultural competency competency in, 277 of practice setting, 203 Doctoral research training in public health, 186 to include multiple determinants of health within the ecological model, 12, 115 Doll, Richard, 131 Duke University, 18 E Earth Day, 47, 253-254 Ecological model of health, 5-7, 32-34, 168 doctoral research training in public health to include multiple determinants of health within, 12, 115

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Who Will Keep the Public Healthy?: Educating Public Health Professionals for the 21st Century M.P.H. programs to emphasize, 17, 131 nursing schools to teach, 19 primary and secondary schools should integrate education in, 20, 144 schools of public health to develop voluntary certification of competence in, 8 schools of public health to make central, 10, 111 Economics, competency in, 276 Education for More Synergistic Practice of Medicine and Public Health, 132 Education of public health professionals, 109-116, 222-261. See also Competency-based education biomedical funding in the post-war era, 241-243 deepening crisis in, 243-256 federal funding for public health education, 231-234 founding of schools of public health, 225-231 the post-war years—moving toward accreditation, 235-240 threatened withdrawal of federal funds, 256-261 in the 20th century, 222-261 the war years, 234-235 Ehman, Marc, vi, x, 191 Eisenhower, President Dwight D., 47, 251 Emergency preparedness, 67 Emergency response, competency in, 267-268 Emerging areas of practice, federal agencies to develop curricula in, 24, 164 Emerson, Haven, 235 Emory University, x, 54 Rollins School of Public Health, 55 Engineering, competency in, 272 Environment, competency in, 271 Environmental health, 1, 62 courses in, 187 minimum knowledge expected from a public health education, 212 Environmental opportunities and threats, 202-203 Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), 47, 162, 254 Epidemiology, 1, 62, 96 competency in, 270 courses in, 56, 186 minimum knowledge expected from a public health education, 212 Essential Public Health Services, 22-23, 146, 152-153, 162-163, 220 assessment, 153 assurance, 153 policy development, 153 serving all functions, 153 Ethical, legal, and social implications (ELSI) issues, 71-72 Ethics in public health, 2 courses in, 188 future of, 98-105 tensions in, 102 Evolution toward competency-based education, 205-206 Expert linkage approach, 81 F Faculties for schools of public health, 16-17, 126-128 development in federal public health agencies, 160 Faculty exchanges, LHDs as partners with programs and schools of public health, 148-149 Farrand, Livingston, 233-234 Federal funding for public health education, 231-234, 252 threatened withdrawal of, 256-261 Federal public health agencies, 157-162. See also Recommendations for federal agencies; Recommendations for local, state, and federal health agencies continuing education, 161 development of academic programs, 160 development of faculty, 160 modeling, 162 research, 159 support for students, 160-161 technology development, 161 Fee, Elizabeth, ix, 222-261 Field placements, LHDs as partners with programs and schools of public health, 148 Finance, competency in, 276 First National Conference on Public Health Training, 46, 251

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Who Will Keep the Public Healthy?: Educating Public Health Professionals for the 21st Century Flexner, Abraham, 42, 226-227 Fogarty, Representative John E., 251 Food and Drug Administration, ix-x, 44, 46-47, 52, 57, 66, 106, 127, 130, 163, 166, 234, 250-251, 253 Foundations of public health, courses in, 188 Framingham study, 84 Freeman, Allen, 231 Functional area competency sets, 268-270 leadership, 268-269 management, 269 secretary and support, 269-270 The Future of Public Health, x, 28-29, 50-51, 53-54, 56-57, 62, 121, 151, 190, 222, 259 Future of public health education, 5-8, 61-107 communication, 72-78 community-based participatory research, 84-93 cultural competency, 78-84 ethics, 98-105 factors contributing to disease reemergence, 94 genomics, 68-72 global health, 93-95 guide to the determinants of population health, 6 informatics, 62-68 policy and law, 95-98 Future role of schools of public health in educating public health professionals for the 21st century, 108-127 academic collaboration, 121-122 access to life-long learning, 122-125 collaboration with non-traditional programs, 115-116 community collaboration, 125-126 educating leaders in public health practice, 112-114 educating public health researchers, 114-115 education, 109-116 faculties for schools of public health, 126-128 policy, 120-121 transdisciplinary research, 117-120 G Galdston, Iago, 239 Gebbie, Kristine, v, 191, 222, 283 Genomics, 1, 4 competency in, 268 future of, 68-72 importance in M.P.H. programs, 17, 131 Genomics-based drugs, developments in, 36 Geographic Information System (GIS) applications, 56, 92 Global and National Implementation Plan for Public Health Workforce Development, 65, 214 Global health, 2 future of, 93-95 importance in M.P.H. programs, 17, 131 Globalization, challenge of, 34-35 Gordon, John E., 239 Gorgas, William, 131 Graduate Certificate Program (GCP), 55 Graduate nursing education, 139-140 and the job market, 140-141 Graduate programs in accredited schools of public health, 183 in other schools of the university, 255-256 in public health, 17, 129-131 Grayston, J. Thomas, 48, 257 Guttmacher, Alan E., v, 165n, 286 H Harvard University, x, 46, 54 Health. See also Multiple determinants of health social determinants of, 88-89 Health and Behavior: the Interplay of Biological, Behavioral, and Societal Influences, x Health and society courses in, 188 threats in modern world, 1 Health care delivery, courses in, 189 Health care organization, courses in, 189 Health economics and finance, courses in, 189 Health education competency in, 272 courses in, 188 Health Education & Behavior (journal), 87 Health law, courses in, 189 Health literacy, 20, 142

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Who Will Keep the Public Healthy?: Educating Public Health Professionals for the 21st Century Health maintenance organizations (HMOs), 133 Health policy, courses in, 189 Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA), 22, 50, 124, 140, 157-159, 209 Public Health Training Centers, 209 Health services administration, 1, 62 minimum knowledge expected from a public health education, 212 Health services policy, courses in, 189 Healthy People 2010, 61, 72, 80, 208, 220 Hernandez, Lyla M., vi, x, 191 Higher Education for Public Health, 48, 257 Hill, Senator Lister, 46, 251 Hill-Burton Program, 45, 242 Hill-Rhodes bill, 46, 246, 251 Hiring, of persons with a public health education, 200, 207, 211-212, 216, 219 History of public health education from 1914-1939, 41-42 from 1935 to the present, 43-50 HIV/AIDS, 69, 93, 143, 150, 259 competency in, 277 Hospital Survey and Construction Act, 242 Human Genome Project, 36 Human resources, competency in, 273 Hume, John C., 256 I Incentives, for public health training for LHD professionals, 147-148 Informatics, 1, 4 competency in, 270-271 consumer health, 64 future of, 62-68 importance in M.P.H. programs, 17, 131 public health, 63-64 Information science, competency in, 272-273 Input. See Organizational input Institutional Review Boards (IRBs), 103 Insurance, discrimination in, 36 International health, courses in, 188 Internet distance learning by means of, 56, 261 rapid exchange of information on, 37 Intervention-oriented research, 12, 119 J Johns Hopkins University, x, 46, 54, 228, 230-231 School of Hygiene and Public Health, 42, 52, 55-56, 60, 229, 231, 256 Johnson, President Lyndon B., 47, 253 Josiah Macy, Jr., Foundation, 132 K Kass, Nancy, 101-102 Kellogg Foundation, 238 Knowledge required. See Minimum knowledge expected from persons with a public health education; New knowledge for public health professionals Knutson, John W., 250 Korstad, Robert, 244 L Laboratory, competency in, 273 Lasker, Mary, 241 Law, competency in, 268 Leadership, competency in, 268-269 Leathers, Waller S., 231 Leavell, Hugh, 46, 250 Library science, competency in, 272-273 Life-long learning, access to, 14-15, 122-125, 196-197 Linking Research and Public Health Practice: A Review of CDC’s Program of Centers for Research and Demonstration of Health Promotion and Disease, x Local public health agencies (or local health departments—LHDs), 21, 145-151. See also Recommendations for local, state, and federal health agencies activities and responsibilities, 145-146 field placements with, 148 incentives for public health training for professionals in, 147-148 local public health leadership, 149-151 as partners with programs and schools of public health, 148-149 research opportunities with, 149

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Who Will Keep the Public Healthy?: Educating Public Health Professionals for the 21st Century staff and faculty exchanges with, 148-149 training and education in, 146-147 Local staff, program staff at state level working with, 155 Longnecker, Herbert, 256 Luginbuhl, Martha, 235 M Mad cow disease, 95 Mahoney, Florence, 241 Maintenance workers, 264 Management, competency in, 269 Masters of Public Health (M.P.H.) programs, 9, 43, 48, 83, 90-91, 107, 109, 111, 113, 129-131 admission requirements for, 11, 114 to emphasize the ecological model, 17, 131 offered by schools of public health, 185 Maternal and child health (MCH) competency in, 277 courses in, 188 McCollum, Elmer, 247 McGavran, Edward, 245-246 Medical schools, 17-18, 131-136. See also Recommendations for medical schools schools of public health to embrace public-health-related programs in, 14 Medical students. See Recommendations for medical students Medical technology, challenge of, 35-38 Medicare and Medicaid, 152, 154 legislation establishing, 47, 252 Medicine competency in, 274 traditional distinctions from public health, 133 Milbank Commission Report, 255, 259 Milbank Memorial Fund, 48, 257 Minimum knowledge expected from persons with a public health education , 200-201, 207-208, 212, 216, 219 biostatistics, 212 environmental health sciences, 212 epidemiology, 212 health services administration, 212 social and behavioral sciences, 212 Modeling, in federal public health agencies, 162 Multiple determinants of health doctoral research training in public health to include, 12, 115 interactions among, 32 N National Association of Social Workers (NASW), 79 National Associations of County and City Health Officials (NACCHO), ix-x, 21, 23, 106, 163, 216-218 National Coalition for Health Professional Education in Genetics, 70 National Commission for Health Education Credentialing (NCHEC), 106 National Conference of State Legislatures (NCSL), 153 National Environmental Health Association, 106 National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute (NHLBI), 86 National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS) , 85-87 National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), 47, 166, 254 National Institutes of Health (NIH), 22, 25, 45, 97, 150, 157, 166, 209, 241, 254 to launch faculty development awards for population health, 25, 166 mentoring programs in the sciences, 83 National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, 85-87 policy on ethnic minority research, 81 National League for Nursing Accrediting Commission, Inc., 138 National Library of Medicine, 66 National Organization of Nurse Practitioner Faculty (NONPF), 19, 139, 141 National Public Health Performance Standards (NPHPS), 21, 147-148, 156-157 Nelson, Russell, 256 New Horizons in Health, 125 New knowledge for public health professionals, 203-204, 210, 214-215, 217-218, 221 changing fundamentals of practice, 205

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Who Will Keep the Public Healthy?: Educating Public Health Professionals for the 21st Century credentialing of the public health workforce, 206, 214 demographic changes in student bodies, 203-204 diversity of practice setting, 203 evolution to competency-based education, 205-206 more interdisciplinary and interpersonal context for public health work, 204 Nixon, President Richard M., 48, 256 Non-traditional programs, collaboration with, 115-116 Northwest Center for Public Health Practice, 124 Nursing, competency in, 274-275 Nursing schools, 18-20, 136-142. See also Recommendations for nursing schools continuing role for, 141-142 graduate education, 139-140 graduate nursing education and the job market, 140-141 National Organization of Nurse Practitioner Faculty, 19 schools of public health to embrace public-health-related programs in, 14 undergraduate education, 138-139 Nursing student clinical training, the public health community to emphasize, 19, 141 Nutrition competency in, 273 courses in, 188 O Occupational classifications, 262-264 administrative support, 264 administrators, 262 paraprofessionals, 264 professionals, 262-263 protective service, 263 service and maintenance, 264 skilled craft workers, 264 technicians, 263 volunteers, 264 Occupational health, courses in, 187 Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), 47, 162, 254 Office of Equal Opportunity (OEO), 47, 253 Office of Minority Health, 79 Office of Workforce Policy and Planning (OWPP), 22, 57, 159 Ohio State University, x, 54 Organizational climate, 151-152 Organizational input, 199-221 Association of Schools of Public Health, 200-206 Association of State and Territorial Health Officials, 207-210 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 211-215 challenges facing public health education, 201-203, 209-210, 213-214, 217, 220-221 hiring persons with a public health education, 200, 207, 211-212, 216, 219 minimum knowledge expected from persons with a public health education, 200-201, 207-208, 212, 216, 219 most important areas for education for public health professionals, 201, 208-209, 212-213, 216-217, 219-220 National Associations of County and City Health Officials, 216-218 new knowledge public health professionals will require in the future, 203-204, 210, 214-215, 217-218, 221 Public Health Foundation, 219-221 P Pan American Health Organization, 243 Paraprofessionals, 264 Parran, Thomas, 45, 231, 233, 240-243 Participatory research, 88, 119 Penicillin, 241 Pharmacy, competency in, 275 Philanthropic foundations, to fund new initiatives and experiments in public health education, 16, 128 Physical activity training, competency in, 274 Physical environment, courses in, 187 Planning, community-based organizations to work with schools of public health in their, 16, 197 Policy, 120-121. See also Health policy activities involving academics, 14, 121, 196-197

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Who Will Keep the Public Healthy?: Educating Public Health Professionals for the 21st Century competency in analysis, 276 engagement in, 13 importance in M.P.H. programs, 17, 131 and law, future of, 1-2, 95-98 in schools of public health, 12-14 Policy development for Essential Public Health Services, 62-63, 153 and implementation, 13, 121, 191-193 Policy-related activities, schools of public health to recognize and reward, 13, 121 Population-level health. See also Ecological model of health determinants of, 6 importance of focusing on, 1 the NIH to launch faculty development awards for, 25, 166 public health professionals focusing on, 29 Practice. See also Supervised practice opportunities changing fundamentals of, 205 diversity of settings, 203 federal agencies to develop partnerships in, 24, 164 placing greater emphasis on, 127 Prevention, 99n Primary schools, to integrate education in an ecologically oriented view of health, 20, 144 Program analysis and evaluation, competency in, 276 Promoting Health: Intervention Strategies from Social and Behavioral Research, x Protective service workers, 263 The public, schools of public health to spread scientific findings and knowledge to, 14, 121, 196-197 Public health. See also Determinants of population health ethical tensions within, 102 founding of schools of, 225-231 mandates and powers, 102 medical students to receive joint classes and clinical training in, 18, 135 medical students to receive training in the ecological approach to, 18, 135 principles of the ethical practice of, 100 a redirection of CDC extramural research funding toward awards in, 25, 166 traditional distinctions from medicine, 133 Public health advising, competency in, 275 Public health agencies, 20-25. See also Schools of public health; individual agency listings Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, 22, 25 American Public Health Association, 23 Association of Schools of Public Health, 23 Association of State and Territorial Health Officers, 23 Bureau of Health Professions, 22 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 22-23, 25 Department of Health and Human Services, 22 Essential Public Health Services, 22-23, 153 federal, 157-162 Health Resources and Services Administration, 22 local health departments, 21, 145-151 National Associations of County and City Health Officials, 21, 23 National Institutes of Health, 22, 25 National Public Health Performance Standards, 21 Office of Workforce Planning and Policy, 22 Public Health Practice Program Office, 22 Public Health Workforce Collaborative, 22 recommendations, 5-25, 162-168, 191-197 state, 151-157 state public health departments, 153 Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, 22 their roles in educating public health professionals, 145-167 Public Health Code of Ethics, 102 Public health communication barriers to overcome in, 75-76 competency in, 76-78 defined, 73-74 strategies to facilitate, 74-75 Public health community, needing to emphasize nursing student clinical training, 19, 141

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Who Will Keep the Public Healthy?: Educating Public Health Professionals for the 21st Century Public Health Data Standards Consortium (PHDSC), 67 Public health education broadening the scope of, 57-58 deepening crisis in, 243-256 expansion of supervised practice opportunities and of sites for, 11, 113 federal funding for, 231-234 future of, 5-8, 61-107 granting all undergraduates access to, 20, 141, 144, 195-196 local, state, and federal health agencies to develop plans assuring needs are met, 23, 163 medical students to receive basic, 18, 135 minimum knowledge expected from persons with, 200-201, 207-208, 212, 216, 219 need for in programs and schools, 129-144 philanthropic foundations to fund new initiatives and experiments in, 16, 128 programs for, 23, 163 Public health ethics, importance in M.P.H. programs , 17, 131 Public Health Faculty/Agency Forum, 52 Public health fellowship programs, federal agencies to fund, 24, 164 Public Health Foundation (PHF), x, 219-221 Public Health Informatics Competencies Working Group, 65 Public health informatics (PHI), 63-65 Public Health Nursing Section, 136 Public health practice educating leaders in, 112-114 schools of public health to aim at preparing students for senior positions in, 10, 110 strengthening the link with, 52-54 Public Health Practice Program Office (PHPPO), 22, 158 Public Health Workforce Collaborative, 158 Public health professionals, 1-2, 29-30, 262-263 crisis in the education of, 243-256 defined, 1, 4, 169 educating in the 20th century, 222-261 federal agencies to support continued education and training of, 24, 165 focusing on population-level health, 29 local, state, and federal health agencies to ensure that public health leaders and managers are, 23, 163 most important areas for education for, 201, 208-209, 212-213, 216-217, 219-220 Public health programs medical schools to partner with accredited, 18, 195-196 nursing schools to partner with accredited, 19, 142, 195-196 Public health research, a significant increase in support needed, 24-25, 166 Public health researchers, educating, 114-115 Public health schools, in the 1950s, 243-251 Public health students, federal agencies to improve practice experiences for, 24, 165 Public health system the AHRQ to spearhead a new effort in researching, 25, 166 review of progress, 153 Public Health Training Centers, 209 Public Health Training Network (PHTN), 56, 161 Public health workforce credentialing of, 206, 214 more interdisciplinary and interpersonal context for, 204 Public Health Workforce Development Collaborative , 22, 158, 209 Public meetings held, 278-282 Q Quad Council of Public Health Nursing Organizations, 136 Quality of health care, courses in, 189 R Racial and Ethnic Approach to Community Health (REACH) program, 88 Ramsey, Frank C., 257

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Who Will Keep the Public Healthy?: Educating Public Health Professionals for the 21st Century Reagan, President Ronald, 48 Recommendations, 162-167, 191-197 for the AHRQ to spearhead a new effort in public health systems research, 25, 166 for all undergraduates to have access to public health education, 20, 141, 144, 195-196 for community-based organizations to work with schools of public health in their planning and teaching, 16, 197 for doctoral research training in public health to include multiple determinants of health within the ecological model, 12, 115 for expansion of supervised practice opportunities and of sites for public health education, 11, 113 for M.P.H. programs to institute curricular changes, 17, 131 for the NIH to launch faculty development awards for population health, 25, 166 for philanthropic foundations to fund new initiatives and experiments in public health education, 16, 128 for primary and secondary schools to integrate education in an ecologically oriented view of health, 20, 144 for the public health community to emphasize nursing student clinical training, 19, 141 for a redirection of CDC extramural research funding toward awards in public health, 25, 166 for a significant increase in public health research support, 24-25, 166 Recommendations for federal agencies to develop academic and practice partnerships, 24, 164 to develop competencies and curricula in emerging areas of practice, 24, 164 to fund public health fellowship programs, 24, 164 to improve practice experiences for public health students, 24, 165 to support continued education and training of public health professionals, 24, 165 Recommendations for local, state, and federal health agencies to assess public health workforce development needs, 23, 163 to create faculty and staff exchanges with public health education programs, 23, 163 to develop incentives to encourage continuing education, 23, 163 to develop plans assuring public health education and training needs are met, 23, 163 to ensure that public health leaders and managers are public health professionals, 23, 163 Recommendations for medical schools to link with public health schools in the prevention and care of chronic diseases, 18, 136 to partner with accredited public health programs, 18, 195-196 Recommendations for medical students to receive basic public health training, 18, 135 to receive joint classes and clinical training in public health, 18, 135 to receive training in the ecological approach to public health, 18, 135 Recommendations for nursing schools to partner with accredited public health programs, 19, 142, 195-196 to teach the ecological model of health, 19 Recommendations for schools of public health to aim at preparing students for senior positions in public health practice, 10, 110 to collaborate with other academic schools and departments, 14, 114, 122, 196-197 to collaborate with other academic units in transdisciplinary activities, 16, 126, 194-195 to develop voluntary certification of competence in the ecological approach to public health, 8 to embrace public-health-related programs in medical and nursing schools, 14

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Who Will Keep the Public Healthy?: Educating Public Health Professionals for the 21st Century to enhance faculty involvement in policy development and implementation, 13, 121, 191-193 to implement reforms based on transdisciplinary research, 12, 120 to lead public policy discussions about the U.S. health care system and its future, 13, 121, 194 to make the ecological approach central, 10, 111 to participate in community-based research and service, 16, 126, 194 to participate in policy activities involving academics, 14, 121, 196-197 to provide access to life long learning opportunities for various health professionals, 15, 125, 196-197 to provide training in community-based public health activities, 16, 197 to recognize and reward policy-related activities, 13, 121 to reward faculty based on teaching excellence, 16, 127 to spread scientific findings and knowledge to the public, 14, 121, 196-197 Research. See also Community-based participatory research basic, applied, and participatory, 88 in federal public health agencies, 159 intervention-oriented, 12, 119 in schools of public health, 12 transdisciplinary, 11-12, 117-120 Research findings. See Organizational input Research opportunities, LHDs as partners with programs and schools of public health, 149 Rhodes, Representative George M., 46, 251 Robert Wood Johnson Foundation (RWJF), ix, 27, 166, 190 Rockefeller Foundation, 42, 225, 227-228, 230-231 Rockefeller Sanitary Commission, 41, 226 Rose, Geoffrey, 142 Rose, Wickliffe, 42, 226-230 Rosenau, Milton, 245 Rosenstock, Linda, v, 191, 283 Ryle, John, 239 S Saint Louis University, x, 54 San Diego University, x, 54 Scheele, Leonard, 242 Scholarly contributions, assessing, 127 School of Public Health Survey Instrument, 190-198 on all undergraduates having access to public health education, 195-196 on community-based organizations working with schools of public health in their planning and teaching, 197 on medical schools partnering with accredited public health programs, 195-196 on nursing schools partnering with accredited public health programs, 195-196 on schools of public health collaborating with other academic schools and departments, 196-197 on schools of public health collaborating with other academic units in transdisciplinary activities, 194-195 on schools of public health enhancing faculty involvement in policy development and implementation, 191-193 on schools of public health leading public policy discussions about the U.S. health care system and its future, 194 on schools of public health participating in community-based research and service, 194 on schools of public health participating in policy activities involving academics, 196-197 on schools of public health providing access to life long learning opportunities for various health professionals, 196-197 on schools of public health providing training in community-based public health activities, 197 on schools of public health spreading scientific findings and knowledge to the public, 196-197

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Who Will Keep the Public Healthy?: Educating Public Health Professionals for the 21st Century Schools of public health (SPH), 8-17, 51-60, 183-189, 201. See also Federal funding for public health education; Public health education; Recommendations for schools of public health academic collaboration, 14 access to life-long learning, 14-15 accredited, 8 broadening the scope of public health education, 57-58 community collaboration, 15-16 current status of, 51-60 education, 9-12 faculties for schools of public health, 16-17 federal support for, 252 graduate degrees available from accredited schools of public health, 183 international health programs of, 82 LHDs as partners with, 148-149 links with other departments and schools, 56-57 most offered courses among accredited schools in biostatistics, 187 most offered courses among accredited schools in community and behavioral health, 188 most offered courses among accredited schools in environmental and occupational health, 187 most offered courses among accredited schools in epidemiology, 186 most offered courses among accredited schools in health services policy and administration, 189 new training opportunities, 54-56 policy, 12-14 progress in, 51-60 research, 12, 57 schools by doctor’s degree, 186 schools by master’s degree, 185 schools requiring comprehensive exams at the master level, 184 strengthening the link with public health practice, 52-54 survey responses identifying challenges and opportunities, 58-60 Scientific technology, challenge of, 35-38 Secondary schools, to integrate education in an ecologically oriented view of health, 20, 144 Secretarial functions, competency in, 269-270 Service and maintenance workers, 264 Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), competency in, 277 Shannon, James, 241 Shepard, William, 235 Sheps, Cecil, 256, 258 Silent Spring, 47, 253 Skilled craft workers, 264 Skills training in CBPR and practice, 89-92 skills that foster collaborative control in decision making and action, 90-91 technical competencies research and evaluation, 91-92 Smillie, W.G., 231, 233-234 Social and behavioral sciences, 1, 5, 62 minimum knowledge expected from a public health education, 212 Social determinants of health (SDOH), 88-89 Social Medicine: Its Derivations and Objectives, 239 Social protective factors (SPF), 89 Social Security Act of 1935, 43, 231, 233 Staff exchanges, LHDs as partners with programs and schools of public health, 148-149 Standards for Public Health Nursing Practice, 138 State fiscal conditions, concern for deterioration in 2002 of, 153-154 State public health agencies, 151-157. See also Recommendations for local, state, and federal health agencies National Public Health Performance Standards Program, 156-157 organizational climate, 151-152 responsibilities of state public health departments, 152-155 a window of opportunity, 155-156 State public health departments, 21 continuum of workforce development assessment activity, 154-155 Essential Public Health Services, 153 program staff at state level working with local staff, 155 responsibilities of, 152-155 review of the public health system’s progress, 153 State University of New York at Albany, 183 Stebbins, Ernest L., 46, 248, 250

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Who Will Keep the Public Healthy?: Educating Public Health Professionals for the 21st Century Strategic Plan for Public Health Workforce Development, 159, 212, 214 Student bodies, demographic changes in, 203-204 Students. See also Nursing student clinical training; Public health students; Recommendations for medical students; Undergraduate students support from federal public health agencies, 160-161 Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA), 22, 157 Successful Models of Community-Based Participatory Research, 87 Supervised practice opportunities, for public health education, expansion of, 11, 113 Support for students, from federal public health agencies, 160-161 Support functions, competency in, 269-270 Survey responses, identifying challenges and opportunities, 58-60 T Teaching community-based organizations to work with schools of public health in, 16, 197 schools of public health to reward faculty based on excellence in, 16, 127 Teaching Cultural Competence in Health Care, 79 Technical competencies, research and evaluation, 91-92 Technicians, 263 Technology development. See also Communication in federal public health agencies, 161 Texas A&M University, x, 54 Topical area competency sets, 267-268, 277 community-based health, 277 cultural diversity, 277 emergency response, 267-268 genomics, 268 law, 268 maternal and child health, 277 STDs and HIV, 277 Toxicology, courses in, 187 Training and education, in local health departments, 146-147 Transdisciplinary research, 11-12, 117-120, 128 schools of public health to collaborate with other academic units in, 16, 126, 194-195 schools of public health to implement reforms based on, 12, 120 Tulane University, x, 54 School of Public Health and Tropical Medicine, 55 Twentieth century, education of public health professionals in, 222-261 Twenty-first century, future role of schools of public health in educating public health professionals for, 108-127 U Undergraduate students, to have access to public health education, 20, 141, 144, 195-196 Unequal Treatment: Confronting Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Health Care, x United States health care system, schools of public health to lead public policy discussions about its future, 13, 121, 194 United States public health education, 3 history and current status of, 41-60 United States Public Health Service, 43, 47, 227, 236, 241, 245, 253 United States Supreme Court, 143 University of Alabama, Birmingham, x, 54 University of Albany (SUNY), x, 54 University of California, Berkeley, x, 54, 134-135 University of California, Los Angeles, x, 54 School of Public Health, 83 University of California, San Francisco, 18, 134-135 University of Colorado, 140 University of Illinois, 140 University of Iowa, x, 54 University of Massachusetts, x, 54 University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, x, 54 University of Michigan, x, 54 University of Minnesota, x, 54 University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, x, 54

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Who Will Keep the Public Healthy?: Educating Public Health Professionals for the 21st Century University of Oklahoma, x, 54 University of Pittsburgh, x, 54 University of South Carolina, x, 54 University of Southern California, 135 University of Texas, Houston, x, 54 University of Washington, x, 48, 54 Northwest Center for Public Health Practice, 124 School of Public Health and Community Medicine, 56 University of Wyoming, 140 Urban planning field, 144 User Liaison Program (ULP), 66 V Veterans Administration, 242 Volunteers, 14, 264 organizations of, 30 W Wahl, Patricia W., v, 288 Wald, Lillian, 137 War on Poverty, 47 War years, public health education during, 234-235 Water quality, courses in, 187 Welch, William Henry, 228-229 West Nile virus, 112 Williams, Huntington, 231 Winslow, Charles-Edward A., 227, 240 Wolman, Abel, 249 Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) program, 88 Workforce development continuum of assessment activity, 154-155 local, state, and federal health agencies to assess needs in public health, 23, 163 World Health Organization, 31 World Trade Center, terrorist attack on, 63 Y Yale University, x, 45, 54