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Scientific Data for Decision Making Toward Sustainable Development Senegal River Basin Case Study Summary of a Workshop Paul F. Uhlir, Director, U.S. National Committee for CODATA U.S. National Committee for CODATA Board on International Scientific Organizations Policy and Global Affairs NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES in cooperation with the Senegal National Committee for CODATA THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS Washington, D.C. www.nap.edu
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THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS 500 Fifth Street, N.W. Washington, DC 20001 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. INT-0138247. Any opinions, findings, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Science Foundation. International Standard Book Number 0-309-08709-0 Copyright 2003 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America
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THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES Advisers to the Nation on Science, Engineering, and Medicine The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Wm. A. Wulf is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine as established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts and Dr. Wm. A. Wulf are chairman and vice chairman, respectively, of the National Research Council. www.national-academies.org
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U.S. NATIONAL COMMITTEE FOR CODATA Harlan J. Onsrud, University of Maine, Chair William Anderson, praxis101 Peter Arzberger, University of California, San Diego Robert Chen, Center for International Earth Science Information Network Richard Chinman, University Corporation for Atmospheric Research Janet Gomon, National Museum of Natural History Jan Hopmans, University of California, Davis Toni Kazic, University of Missouri, Columbia* Maureen Kelly, Consultant Gary King, Harvard University Melanie Loots, University of Illinois* Goetz Oertel, Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy (retired) Robert Snyder, Ohio State University James Sweeney, Consultant National Research Council Staff Paul Uhlir, Director, USNC/CODATA Julie Esanu, Program Officer Pamela Gamble, Senior Program Assistant * Rotated off the committee on June 30, 2002.
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SENEGAL NATIONAL COMMITTEE FOR CODATA Committee Officials Abdoulaye Gaye, Chair El Hadj Malick Diop, Université de Dakar, Vice President Dialo Diop, Université Cheikh Anta Diop, Secretary General Papa Madiaw Seck, Direction de l’Aménagement du Territoire, Treasurer Committee Members Thierno Gueye, Intellectual Property Rights Consultant Amadou Ba, Centre National des Recherches Agronomiques Papa Assane Camara, Institut Sénégalais de Recherches Agricoles Awa Evelyne Cisse, Délégation des Affaires Scientifiques et Techniques Balla Moussa Daffe, Université Cheikh Anta Diop Oumar Talla Diaw, Laboratoire National Recherches Vétérinaires Lamine Fall, Consultant en Education à distance Dakar Bouna Gaye, Université Cheikh Anta Diop Erick Gbodossou, PROMETRA El Hadj Gueye, Président de l’Ordre des Vétérinaires, Conseiller du Premier Ministre Mamadou Kanoute, Ministère des Mines, de l’Energie, et d’Hydraulique Papa Goumbo Lo, Institut des Sciences de la Terre, Université Cheikh Anta Diop Semou Mar, Consultant en Sciences de l’Education Mamadou Mbaye, Institut Sénégalais de Recherches Agricoles Malick Ndiaye, Administrateur Serveur du Gouvernement du Sénégal Mamadou Ndoye, Chirurgien CHU-HALD Cheikh Tidiane Sakho, Délégation a l’Informatique
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Preface The U.S. National Committee for CODATA collaborated with the Senegalese National CODATA Committee to convene a Workshop on Scientific Data for Decision Making Toward Sustainable Development: Senegal River Basin Case Study, which was held on March 11-15, 2002, in Dakar, Senegal. This workshop examined, on a multidisciplinary level, data sources and data handling in the West Africa region, using the Senegal River basin (in Senegal, and in the bordering countries of Mali, Mauritania, and Guinea) as a case study, to determine how these scientific and technical data assets are or can be better managed and used in decision making related to sustainable development. An organizing committee consisting of eight members representative of the expertise and experience required, four from the United States and four from Senegal, planned the workshop. This organizing committee was cochaired by Abdoulaye Gaye, chair of the Senegal National CODATA Committee, and William Jobin of Blue Nile Associates. Areas of expertise that were not covered by this committee were augmented by additional workshop attendees. The organizing committee developed the workshop agenda, prepared for the meeting and related logistics, and selected and invited all the meeting attendees. The U.S. National Committee for CODATA had the responsibility for publishing the workshop summary and disseminating the report. The workshop included researchers and data managers from the United States, Senegal, and other African countries who have collected, managed, and used data regarding the Senegal River basin. The meeting helped identify local and foreign data resources related to the ecology and environment of the Senegal River system in West Africa, and to the related health and economic activity of the populations. In the Senegal River basin, for example, scientists have been considering issues such as the hydrology and environmental impact of the new dams (Diama and Manantali), biodiversity and ecosystem assessments, protection and use of natural resources, and the monitoring and improvement of the health of the local population. A considerable amount of remote sensing, aerial,
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and in-situ data already has been collected and archived for this region, so it provides a robust example of what has been done in one region of the developing world, as well as what might be done in the future. The workshop provided U.S. federal government and academic data experts and researchers with an inside view of African science and technology data programs and an opportunity to initiate collaboration in various related areas. Prior to the workshop there was a one-day site visit to the Diama Dam on the Senegal River, as well as to the Organisation pour la Mise en Valeur du Fleuve Sénégal (Senegal River Authority) Regional Documentation Center and the Université Gaston Berger, both in Saint-Louis, Senegal. Many of the research activities and training opportunities related to the Senegal River basin are conducted at the university. There was a half-day site visit the following day to the Centre de Suivi Ecologique (Ecological Monitoring Center) in Dakar, which develops, archives, and manages most of the country’s ecological and environmental data and information resources. It is hoped that this workshop contributed to the capabilities for sustainable development in West Africa by identifying and reviewing scientific data activities that could help managers in different sectors, policy makers, and citizens to make better-informed decisions about the Senegal River basin area. The workshop and this resulting publication are intended to foster communication and interaction among a number of interested groups at the local and regional levels. The primary audience includes scientists, data managers, educators, and senior decision makers from the government, nongovernmental organizations, and industry sectors who are working in Senegal and the West African region, as well as their counterparts in the United States who have similar interests in that area. A secondary but also very important audience includes similar categories of individuals in other African nations and in other developing countries outside Africa who are concerned with using scientific data for improved decision making in sustainable development activities, particularly relating to river systems. This report also is available online via the National Academies Press Web site, and includes hyperlinks where available to organizations and data sources identified during the course of the workshop. Links to individual workshop presentations where available can be found through the U.S. National Committee’s Web site at http://www7.nationalacademies.org/usnc-codata/Senegal%20Workshop.html and on the Senegal National Committee’s Web site at http://www.codata.sn/16conf.htm. Paul F. Uhlir Workshop Rapporteur
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Acknowledgments The U.S. National Committee for CODATA and the Senegal National CODATA Committee wish to express their sincere thanks to the many individuals who played significant roles in planning the Workshop on Scientific Data for Decision Making Toward Sustainable Development: Senegal River Basin Case Study. The workshop Organizing Committee was cochaired by Abdoulaye Gaye, chair of the Senegal National Committee for CODATA, and William Jobin, of Blue Nile Associates. Additional members of the Organizing Committee included Oumar Talla Diaw, Laboratoire National de Recherches Vétérinaries; Dialo Diop, Université Cheikh Anta Diop; William Parton, Colorado State University; Madiaw Seck, Direction de l’Aménagement du Territoire; William Sprigg, University of Arizona; and Larry Tieszen, EROS Data Center, U.S. Geological Survey. The committees would like to thank those individuals from the Organisation pour la Mise en Valeur du Fleuve Sénégal (OMVS, or Senegal River Authority) who organized the March 11 site visit to the Diama Dam and the OMVS documentation center in Saint-Louis, including Mbacké Gueye and Alassane Touré, OMVS Regional Documentation Center; Tamsir Ndiaye, OMVS Environmental Observatory; Malang Diatta, Office of Regional Infrastructure; and Mody Seck, OMVS. In addition, the committees extend their thanks to Oumar Gaye, Salta Services International, for arranging the site visit to the Université Gaston Berger de Saint-Louis and the following luncheon. The committees also appreciate the efforts of Moctar Niang, Amadou Dieye, and the staff of the Centre de Suivi Ecologique (Ecological Monitoring Center) for the March 12 site visit to the Centre in Dakar.
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The committees would like to thank the following individuals (in order of appearance) who made presentations during the workshop (see Appendix A for the final workshop agenda): His Excellency Fodé Seck, Ambassador, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, African Union and Senegalese Abroad; Donald Clark, U.S. Agency for International Development; William Jobin; Lester Chitsulo, World Health Organization; Amadou Mbaye, Programme Espoir; Larry Tieszen; Amadou Dieye; Wassila Thiaw, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration; William Sprigg; T. Tamuka Magadzire, University of California at Santa Barbara; William Parton; Hamdou-Rabby Wane, Centre d’Etudes et de Recherche sur la Population pour le Développement; Alioune Dieng, ISRA; Per Hansen, DHI Water and Environment; Ana Niang, Tropis Cabinet; Mbarack Diop, TROPICA Environmental Consultants; Kristine McElwee, National Ocean Service Pacific Services Center (formerly with Oregon State University); Aaron Wolf, Oregon State University (by teleconference); and Madiodio Niasse, IUCN (by teleconference). This workshop summary has been reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, as well as for their attendance at the workshop, in accordance with procedures approved by the National Research Council’s Report Review Committee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making the published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. The study committee would like to thank the following individuals for their participation in the review of this summary report: Dialo Diop, Kristine McElwee, William Sprigg, and Hamdou-Rabby Wane. Finally, the committees would like to recognize the contributions of the following National Research Council staff: Paul Uhlir, director of International Scientific and Technical Information Programs of the Policy and Global Affairs Division and director of the U.S. National Committee for CODATA, served as workshop rapporteur; Julie Esanu helped to organize the workshop and prepare the summary report; and Pamela Gamble organized the logistical arrangements.
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Contents 1 INTRODUCTION 1 2 THE SENEGAL RIVER BASIN AND RELATED DATA SOURCES 4 Key Geographic and Hydrological Features of the Senegal River Basin, 4 Selected Scientific Data Sources Related to the Senegal River Basin, 8 3 SUMMARY OF PRESENTATIONS ON SCIENTIFIC DATA FOR DECISION MAKING 14 Environmental Issues and Related Data, 14 Health Issues and Related Data, 21 Socioeconomic Issues and Related Data, 25 Issues Concerning Data for Decision Making about Dam Projects, 26 4 SUMMARY ISSUES RAISED BY THE PARTICIPANTS AT THE WORKSHOP 30 Scientific Data Issues, 30 Technological Data Issues, 32 Institutional Data Issues, 32 Policy Issues Regarding Data for Decision Making, 33 APPENDIXES A SITE VISITS AND WORKSHOP AGENDAS 37 B LIST OF WORKSHOP PARTICIPANTS 43 C CONTACT INFORMATION ON SELECTED SCIENTIFIC DATA SOURCES 49 D ACRONYMS AND INITIALISMS 54
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