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Air Emissions from Animal Feeding Operations: Current Knowledge, Future Needs About the Authors Perry R. Hagenstein, Ph.D. (Chair), is a consultant on resource economics and policy and president of the Institute for Forest Analysis, Planning, and Policy, a nonprofit research and education organization. Prior to this, he was executive director of the New England Natural Resources Center and served as a Charles Bullard Research Fellow at the John F. Kennedy School of Government at Harvard. He also served as senior policy analyst for the U.S. Public Land Law Review Commission and was a principal economist for the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) Forest Service. Hagenstein received his B.S. (1952) from the University of Minnesota, M.F. (1953) from Yale University, and Ph.D. (1963) in forest and natural resources economics from the University of Michigan. He currently serves on the National Research Council Board on Agriculture and Natural Resources and previously served on the Board on Earth Sciences and Resources and Board on Mineral and Energy Resources. Hagenstein has served on ten prior National Research Council committees including the Committee on Noneconomic and Economic Value of Biodiversity: Application for Ecosystem Management, Committee on Hardrock Mining on Federal Lands (chair), Committee on Onshore Oil and Gas Leasing (chair), and Committee on Abandoned Mine Lands (chair). Robert G. Flocchini, Ph.D. (Vice Chair), is professor of the Department of Land, Air and Water Resources and director of the Crocker Nuclear Laboratory at the University of California, Davis. His interests include the identification, transport, and fate of particulate matter with regard to agricultural sources and application of nuclear techniques for emission measurement and characterization in agriculture and environment. He received his B.A. (1969) from the University of San
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Air Emissions from Animal Feeding Operations: Current Knowledge, Future Needs Francisco and his M.A. (1971) and Ph.D. (1974) in physics from the University of California, Davis. Flocchini currently serves as a member of the USDA Task Force on Agricultural Air Quality and trustee of the National Institute for Global Environmental Change. John C. Bailar III, M.D., Ph.D., is professor emeritus at the University of Chicago. He is a retired commissioned officer of the U.S. Public Health Service and worked at the National Cancer Institute for 22 years. He has also held academic appointments at Harvard University and McGill University. Dr. Bailar’s research interests include assessing health risks from chemical hazards and air pollutants and interpreting statistical evidence in medicine, with a special emphasis on cancer. He received his B.A. (1953) from the University of Colorado, M.D. (1955) from Yale University, and Ph.D. (1971) in statistics from American University. He is a member of the Institute of Medicine and has served on more than 20 National Research Council committees including the Committee on Estimating the Health-Risk-Reduction Benefits of Proposed Air Regulations (chair), Committee on Risk Assessment of Hazardous Air Pollutants, and Committee on Epidemiology of Air Pollutants. Candis Claiborn, Ph.D., is an associate professor in the Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering at Washington State University. Prior to that, she was a senior process control engineer at ARCO Petroleum Products and a process engineer at Chevron. Her areas of expertise include airborne particulate matter measurement, characterization, and emissions, and air pollution control. She received her B.S. (1980) in chemical engineering from the University of Idaho and Ph.D. (1991) from North Carolina State University. Dr. Claiborn was a member of the Western Governor’s Association’s Western Regional Air Partnership Expert Panel on Windblown and Mechanically Generated Fugitive Dust, and a contributing author for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA’s) Air Quality Criteria Development for Particulate Matter. Russell R. Dickerson, Ph.D., is a professor and chair (effective July 1, 2002) of the Department of Meteorology at the University of Maryland, College Park. Prior to this, he worked at the National Center for Atmospheric Research and at the Max Planck Institute for Chemistry in Mainz, Germany. He received his A.B. (1975) from the University of Chicago, M.S. (1978) from the University of Michigan, and Ph.D. (1980) in chemistry from the University of Michigan. His areas of expertise include atmospheric chemistry, air pollution, and biogeochemical cycles with an emphasis on NOx, ozone, carbon monoxide, black carbon, and ammonia. Dickerson previously served on the National Research Council Panel to Review the Langley Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC) and U.S. Mideast Research Grants Panel.
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Air Emissions from Animal Feeding Operations: Current Knowledge, Future Needs James N. Galloway, Ph.D., is a professor in the Department of Environmental Sciences at the University of Virginia and is currently a visiting scientist at the Marine Biological Laboratory and the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution. His major interests include the biogeochemistry of emissions, transport, and fate of nitrogen and sulfur and their potential effects on ecology. He received his B.A. (1966) from Whittier College and Ph.D. (1972) in chemistry from the University of California, San Diego. Galloway has given expert testimony to state and federal agencies and legislatures on environmental issues. He has previously served on the National Research Council Global Climate Change Study Panel (Chair), Panel on Processes of Lake Acidification, Tri-Academy Committee on Acid Deposition, and Committee on Transport and Transformation Chemistry in Acid Deposition. Margaret Rosso Grossman, Ph.D., J.D., is a professor of agricultural law in the Department of Agricultural and Consumer Economics at the University of Illinois. She has spent sabbatical leaves (1986-1987, 1993-1994, 2000-2001) and many summers in the Law and Governance Group (formerly Department of Agrarian Law) at Wageningen University, Netherlands. Her research interests include domestic and international agricultural and environmental law. She received her B. Mus. (1969) from the University of Illinois, A.M. (1970) from Stanford University, Ph.D. (1977) from the University of Illinois, and J.D. (1979) from the University of Illinois. Grossman is past president (1991) of the American Agricultural Law Association (AALA) and received the AALA Distinguished Service Award (1993). She was awarded the Silver Medal of the European Council for Agricultural Law (1999), and she has received three Fulbright grants to support her research in Europe. Grossman is a member of the bar in Illinois and the District of Columbia (inactive). Prasad Kasibhatla, Ph.D., is an associate professor in the Division of Environmental Science and Policy at Duke University. His areas of expertise include tropospheric chemistry and transport, global tropospheric oxidants, global tropospheric aerosols, regional air quality, anthropogenic impacts on atmospheric composition and ecosystems, and global and regional tropospheric chemistry modeling. He received his B.S. (1982) from the University of Bombay, M.S. (1984) from the University of Kentucky, and Ph.D. (1988) in chemical engineering from the University of Kentucky. Dr. Kasibhatla has previously served on the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Committee for Measurement of Air Pollution from Satellites and proposal review panels for National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and Department of Energy (DOE) atmospheric chemistry programs. Richard A. Kohn, Ph.D., is an associate professor in the Department of Animal and Avian Sciences at the University of Maryland. His areas of expertise include
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Air Emissions from Animal Feeding Operations: Current Knowledge, Future Needs the environmental impact of animal production systems, the effect of diet on nitrogen and phosphorus excretion, and modeling of nutrient metabolism and whole-farm nutrient management. He received his B.S. (1985) from Cornell University, M.S. (1987) from the University of New Hampshire, and Ph.D. (1993) from Michigan State University, all in animal science. In 1999, Kohn gave an invited presentation on “Calculating the Environmental Impact of Animal Feeding and Management” to the National Research Council Committee on Animal Nutrition. Michael P. Lacy, Ph.D., is a professor and chair in the Department of Poultry Science at the University of Georgia. His area of expertise is poultry, specifically, production and management, housing and equipment, ventilation, management in hot climates, and mechanical harvesting. Lacy received his B.S. (1974), M.S. (1982), and Ph.D. (1985) from the Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University. Calvin B. Parnell, Jr., Ph.D., P.E., is a Regents Professor of the Department of Biological and Agricultural Engineering at Texas A&M University. He has special expertise in the air pollution regulatory process, including permitting and enforcement of air pollution regulations. His research expertise includes pollutant measurements, dispersion modeling, emission factor development, and air pollution abatement. In addition, Dr. Parnell is known for his expertise in agricultural processing, grain dust explosions, and energy conversion of biomass. He received his B.S. (1964) from New Mexico State University, M.S. (1965) from Clemson University, and Ph.D. (1970) in environmental systems engineering from Clemson University. Parnell is a registered professional engineer in Texas, a fellow of the American Society of Agricultural Engineers, and a member of the Air and Waste Management Association. He has provided expert testimony to state and federal legislatures on agricultural air quality. Parnell has previously served on the Texas Air Control Board and currently serves on the USDA Task Force on Agricultural Air Quality. He currently receives research funding from a Texas Legislative Initiative on Air Pollution Regulatory Impacts on Agricultural Operations. Dr. Parnell teaches undergraduate and graduate courses in air pollution engineering. Robbi Pritchard, Ph.D., is a professor in the Department of Animal and Range Sciences at South Dakota State University. His interests include beef feedlot management and ruminant nutrition. Pritchard received his A.A. (1975) from Black Hawk Junior College, B.S. (1977) and M.S. (1978) from Southern Illinois University, and Ph.D. (1983) in animal science from Washington State University. He previously served on Farmland Industries’ University Advisory Board and was an ex officio member of the Board of Directors of the Dakota Feed Manufacturers.
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Air Emissions from Animal Feeding Operations: Current Knowledge, Future Needs Wayne P. Robarge, Ph.D., is a professor of soil physical chemistry in the Department of Soil Science at North Carolina State University. His research interests include studies of emissions of ammonia from swine lagoons, temporal and spatial patterns in ambient ammonia and ammonium aerosol concentrations, nitrogen budgets using Geographical Information Systems, and dry deposition of ammonia and ammonium aerosols to crop and woodland canopies. He received his B.S. (1969) and M.S. (1971) from Cornell University and his Ph.D. (1975) in soil science from the University of Wisconsin-Madison. He currently serves on the USDA Task Force on Agricultural Air Quality. He currently conducts research from the North Carolina State University Animal and Poultry Waste Management Center as part of “An Integrated Study of the Emissions of Ammonia, Odor and Odorants, Pathogens and Related Contaminants from Potential Environmentally Superior Technologies for Swine Facilities”. Daniel A. Wubah, Ph.D., is a professor of biology and associate dean of the College of Science and Mathematics at James Madison University. Prior to this, Wubah was chairperson of the Department of Biology at Towson University. His special expertise includes rumen microbiology and anaerobic zoosporic fungi. He received his B.S. and B.Ed. (1984) from the University of Cape Coast (Ghana), M.S. (1987) from the University of Akron, and Ph.D. from the University of Georgia (1990). Wubah previously served on the National Research Council Panel for Review of Proposals Under the AID (Agency for International Development) Research Grants Program for the Historically Black Colleges and Universities—Agriculture, Health, and Social Sciences. He is a member of the Board of Governors of the National Aquarium in Baltimore. Kelly D. Zering, Ph.D., is an associate professor in the Department of Agricultural and Resource Economics at North Carolina State University. His special expertise is the economics of swine production and processing. He received his B.S. (1977) and M.S. (1980) from the University of Manitoba and his Ph.D. (1984) in agricultural economics from the University of California, Davis. Dr. Zering has extension responsibilities in the areas of swine management and marketing. He has completed research funded by EPA and the Animal and Poultry Waste Management Center, titled “Economic Analysis of Alternative Manure Management Systems.” He currently conducts research on manure technology evaluation funded by the North Carolina Attorney General-Smithfield Agreement via the Animal and Poultry Waste Management Center. Ruihong Zhang, Ph.D., is an associate professor in the Department of Biological and Agricultural Engineering at the University of California, Davis. Her main interests include control of gaseous and particulate emissions from animal feedlots, and wastewater treatment. She is a member of the USDA multistate research project NCR-189, “Air Quality Issues Associated with Livestock Facilities” and
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Air Emissions from Animal Feeding Operations: Current Knowledge, Future Needs a member of the American Society of Agricultural Engineers Committee on Environmental Air Quality. Zhang received her B.S. (983) from Inner Mongolia Engineering University (China), M.S. (1986) from the Northeast Agricultural University (China), and Ph.D. (1992) from the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. She has a U.S. patent approved (filed by the University of California, Davis) for a “Biogasification of Solid Wastes by Anaerobic phased Solids Digester System.”
Representative terms from entire chapter: