Chapter 3
Priority Areas for Quality Improvement

The committee’s deliberations led to the selection of 20 priority areas for health care quality improvement:

  • Care coordination (cross-cutting)

  • Self-management/health literacy (cross-cutting)

  • Asthma—appropriate treatment for persons with mild/moderate persistent asthma

  • Cancer screening that is evidence-based—focus on colorectal and cervical cancer.

  • Children with special health care needs1

  • Diabetes—focus on appropriate management of early disease

  • End of life with advanced organ system failure—focus on congestive heart failure and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

  • Frailty associated with old age—preventing falls and pressure ulcers, maximizing function, and developing advanced care plans

  • Hypertension—focus on appropriate management of early disease

  • Immunization—children and adults

  • Ischemic heart disease—prevention, reduction of recurring events, and optimization of functional capacity

1  

The Maternal and Child Health Bureau defines this population as “those (children) who have or are at increased risk for a chronic physical, developmental, behavioral or emotional condition and who also require health and related services of a type or amount beyond that required by children generally” (McPherson et al., 1998:138).



    The National Academies | 500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001
    Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
    Terms of Use and Privacy Statement



    Below are the first 10 and last 10 pages of uncorrected machine-read text (when available) of this chapter, followed by the top 30 algorithmically extracted key phrases from the chapter as a whole.
    Intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text on the opening pages of each chapter. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

    Do not use for reproduction, copying, pasting, or reading; exclusively for search engines.

    OCR for page 41
    Priority Areas for National Action: Transforming Health Care Quality Chapter 3 Priority Areas for Quality Improvement The committee’s deliberations led to the selection of 20 priority areas for health care quality improvement: Care coordination (cross-cutting) Self-management/health literacy (cross-cutting) Asthma—appropriate treatment for persons with mild/moderate persistent asthma Cancer screening that is evidence-based—focus on colorectal and cervical cancer. Children with special health care needs1 Diabetes—focus on appropriate management of early disease End of life with advanced organ system failure—focus on congestive heart failure and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease Frailty associated with old age—preventing falls and pressure ulcers, maximizing function, and developing advanced care plans Hypertension—focus on appropriate management of early disease Immunization—children and adults Ischemic heart disease—prevention, reduction of recurring events, and optimization of functional capacity 1   The Maternal and Child Health Bureau defines this population as “those (children) who have or are at increased risk for a chronic physical, developmental, behavioral or emotional condition and who also require health and related services of a type or amount beyond that required by children generally” (McPherson et al., 1998:138).

    OCR for page 41
    Priority Areas for National Action: Transforming Health Care Quality Major depression—screening and treatment Medication management—preventing medication errors and overuse of antibiotics Nosocomial infections—prevention and surveillance Pain control in advanced cancer Pregnancy and childbirth—appropriate prenatal and intrapartum care Severe and persistent mental illness—focus on treatment in the public sector Stroke—early intervention and rehabilitation Tobacco dependence treatment in adults Obesity (emerging area)2 The committee made no attempt to rank order the priority areas selected. The first 2 listed above—care coordination and self-management/health literacy—are cross-cutting areas in which improvements would benefit a broad array of patients. The 17 that follow represent the continuum of care across the life span and are relevant to preventive care, inpatient/surgical care, chronic conditions, end-of-life care, and behavioral health, as well as to care for children and adolescents. Finally, obesity is included as an “emerging area” that does not at this point satisfy the selection criteria as fully as the other 19 priority areas. This chapter first reviews the breadth of opportunities for health care improvement represented by the committee’s recommended list of priority areas. The three types of areas included on the list—cross-cutting areas, specific conditions, and emerging areas—are then described. The chapter next profiles each area in detail, including the aim of intervention in that area and the rationale for the area’s selection in light of the three criteria discussed in Chapter 2—impact, improvability and inclusiveness. Breadth of Opportunities Represented by Priority Areas The priority areas selected by the committee can be viewed through a variety of lenses. They represent a range of health care services and challenges, including: The full spectrum of health care, from preventive and acute care, to chronic disease management, to long-term and palliative care at the end of life. Thus they encompass a wide variety of health care services, spanning both reactive acute, emergency, and surgical care and the proactive planned care required to prevent and manage chronic disease, pain, and disability. Care provided for a variety of populations representing Americans of all ages and demographic groups, including care that is oriented to individuals and families, as well as populations. Care delivered in a range of publicly and privately financed ambulatory and inpatient health care settings (outpatient and community health centers, home-based care, emergency departments, hospitals, and nursing homes) by a variety of health care practitioners (physicians, nurses, pharmacists, allied health professionals), including both generalists and specialists. The Full Spectrum of Health Care As noted, the priority areas recommended by the committee represent health care quality improvement challenges and opportunities across the full spectrum of health care. In fact, having relevance to multiple domains of care strengthened an area’s chances of being included on the final list. Boxes 3–1 to 3–6 show how the priority areas relate to a wide range of health care needs. For example, ischemic heart disease figures prominently in preventive care, inpatient/surgical care, chronic

    OCR for page 41
    Priority Areas for National Action: Transforming Health Care Quality care, and end-of-life care. Similarly, medication management cuts across inpatient/ surgical care, chronic care, end-of-life care, and child/adolescent care. Obesity—the emerging area—touches on preventive care, chronic care, behavioral health, and child/adolescent care. The Entire Life Span The committee made a concerted effort to ensure that the priority areas selected would represent issues pertinent to all age groups. Figure 3–1 shows how the priority areas cut across the stages of a typical life span. As demonstrated, only a few areas are unique to certain age groups, such as children with special health care needs and frailty prevention and management. Many areas, such as cancer screening and hypertension, cluster around adulthood and extend into end of life. Additionally, nine of the priority areas encompass the entire life span. Figure 3–1: Priority areas across the life span. Diverse Health Care Settings and Professions The set of priority areas recommended by the committee involves care that is provided in multiple health care settings and organizations, care that is both privately and publicly funded, and care that is provided by a variety of health care professionals. For example, effective asthma management requires integration of care among primary care providers, pediatricians, schools, hospitals (particularly emergency rooms), and pharmacists. Adequate pain control in advanced cancer and stroke rehabilitation require a continuum of care that includes home, community, clinic, and hospital. Improving quality of care for severe and persistent mental illness, such as psychosis, provides an opportunity to focus on the effectiveness of mental health services provided by the public sector (Narrow et al., 2000; Wells, 2002a). To close the gaps between best practice and usual care for the full set of proposed areas will require the collective expertise of a vast array of doctors, nurses, pharmacists, allied health professionals, social workers, and vested laypersons. Virtually every conventional medical specialty will need to develop strategies for one or more of these priority areas.

    OCR for page 41
    Priority Areas for National Action: Transforming Health Care Quality Box 3–1 Priority Areas That Relate to Preventive Care Care coordination (cross-cutting) Self-management/health literacy (cross-cutting) Cancer screening Hypertension Immunization Ischemic heart disease (prevention) Major depression (screening) Pregnancy and childbirth Tobacco dependence Obesity (emerging area) Box 3–2 Priority Areas That Relate to Behavioral Health Care coordination (cross-cutting) Self-management/health literacy (cross-cutting) Major depression Severe and persistent mental illness Tobacco dependence Obesity (emerging area) Box 3–3 Priority Areas That Relate to Chronic Conditions Care coordination (cross-cutting) Self-management/health literacy (cross-cutting) Asthma Children with special health care needs Diabetes End of life with advanced organ system failure Frailty Hypertension Ischemic heart disease Major depression (treatment) Medication management Medication errors Overuse of antibiotics Pain control in advanced cancer Severe and persistent mental illness Stroke Tobacco dependence Obesity (emerging area)

    OCR for page 41
    Priority Areas for National Action: Transforming Health Care Quality Box 3–4 Priority Areas That Relate to End of Life Care coordination (cross-cutting) Self-management/health literacy (cross-cutting) Chronic conditions End of life with advanced organ system failure Frailty Medication management Medication errors Overuse of antibiotics Nosocomial infections Pain control in advanced cancer Box 3–5 Priority Areas That Relate to Children and Adolescents Care coordination (cross-cutting) Self-management/health literacy (cross-cutting) Asthma Children with special health care needs Diabetes Immunization (children) Major depression Medication management Medication errors Overuse of antibiotics Obesity (emerging area) Box 3–6 Priority Areas That Relate to Inpatient/Surgical Care Care coordination (cross-cutting) Self-management/health literacy (cross-cutting) End of life with advanced organ system failure Ischemic heart disease Medication management Medication errors Overuse of antibiotics Nosocomial infections Pain control in advanced cancer Pregnancy and childbirth Severe and persistent mental illness Stroke

    OCR for page 41
    Priority Areas for National Action: Transforming Health Care Quality Three Types of Priority Areas Cross-Cutting Areas There was strong consensus among the committee members on the critical need to improve care coordination, support for self-management, and health literacy for all patients and their families. System and policy changes to achieve improvement in these cross-cutting priority areas would involve most health care organizations and practitioners, could impact all types of conditions, and could provide a means of dramatically improving health care for all Americans. Improved care coordination would, if applied broadly, have an especially important impact on improving health care processes and outcomes for children and adults with serious chronic illness and multiple chronic conditions (Anderson and Knickman, 2001; Anderson, 2002b). Efforts to improve health literacy are in turn essential for effective self-management and collaborative care. For example, a recent study found that diabetics with poor health literacy, unable to read and/or comprehend directions on their pill bottles, had worse blood sugar control and higher rates of preventable vision impairment (Schillinger et al., 2002). Devising strategies to improve health literacy—both at the micro level, where patients and health care professionals interact, and at the macro level, where population health is the target—would not only improve diabetes outcomes, but also form part of a package of improvements for nearly all inadequate aspects of health care. Specific Priority Conditions Chronic Care In keeping with the Quality Chasm report, which notes the critical need to close quality gaps for the growing numbers of Americans with chronic disease (Institute of Medicine, 2001a), the majority of the specific priority conditions recommended are chronic. For all of the recommended conditions, such as diabetes, hypertension, and ischemic heart disease, there are known, effective interventions that can be applied to improve health outcomes, reduce disease burden, and prevent more serious health problems later in life. Moreover, the enormous and rapid growth in the prevalence and burden of chronic disease over the past two decades has been a major force in clarifying the limitations of the current health care system—which evolved primarily to meet acute and emergency health care needs—thus motivating broad action for health care system redesign (Bodenheimer et al., 2002; Institute of Medicine, 2001a). Acute Care One priority area within the realm of acute care—effective medication management— focuses on preventing medication errors and the overprescribing of antibiotics, particularly for acute respiratory infections in children. This area provides an excellent opportunity for designing interventions that can enhance the use and capacity of management information systems. For example, lecturing to physicians about medical errors yields small gains, but technological advances, such as the electronic medical record tied to computerized medication orders with acceptable dosage ranges and interactions, can dramatically reduce errors arising from incorrect orders (Bates et al., 1999; Kaushal et al., 2001). Computerized alerts of potential drug interactions, prompts and reminders for required services, and electronic physician order entry for prescriptions could all be put in place to safeguard health and improve quality of care (Hunt et al., 1998). Corrective measures that redesign work so that errors are “engineered out” are repeatedly found to have high leverage. Preventive Care The committee explicitly included preventive services among the domains of health care that should be represented by the priority areas. Doing so reflected a growing body of evidence that early detection and timely

    OCR for page 41
    Priority Areas for National Action: Transforming Health Care Quality intervention for risk factors or diseases in their preclinical stages are effective in reducing both disease burden and costs. Selected priority areas represent a range of clinical preventive services involving immunization, screening, and counseling for lifestyle changes, which would singly and collectively reduce morbidity and mortality due to the nation’s leading chronic illnesses and infectious disease threats. Specifically, childhood/adult immunization, improved screening for colorectal and cervical cancers, and brief primary care interventions for adult tobacco dependence have been identified as major opportunities for cost-effective improvements in the nation’s health care system (Coffield et al., 2001). For example, just 3–5 minutes of counseling and medication advice given to adult smokers by their physician could more than double the quitting success rates smokers achieve on their own (Fiore et al., 2000). Since there are over 430,000 tobacco-related deaths each year from heart disease, stroke, lung cancer, and chronic lung disease among U.S. adults, the impact of this simple intervention, combined with other effective modes of tobacco treatment, would be dramatic (Max, 2001; United States Department of Health and Human Services, 2000). Unfortunately, only about 50 percent of patients who smoke receive such advice and assistance, largely because supports such as office-based reminder systems and insurance coverage for smoking cessation services are not widely in place (Goodwin et al., 2001; Thorndike et al., 1998). Treating tobacco dependence is critical to preventing disease in healthy populations of smokers, the progression of illnesses caused by tobacco use, poor pregnancy outcomes associated with smoking, and pediatric asthma in infants and adolescents whose parents smoke. Furthermore, there is growing evidence that the types of system and policy changes needed to spur broader use of evidence-based tobacco interventions are similar to those required to support the wider delivery of other proven interventions for changes in health behavior in primary care, such as counseling on physical activity and diet and on the importance of reducing risky consumption of alcohol (Glasgow et al., 2001). Palliative Care Between 2010 and 2030, America’s baby boomers will move beyond the age of 65 and swell the number of older persons to approximately 70 million, representing 20 percent of the population (Administration on Aging, 2002). Accordingly, the committee placed particular emphasis on addressing the complex care issues that surface after age 65 and particularly after age 80. One of the priority areas in the category of palliative care is frailty. Nearly everyone who survives past age 80 experiences a period of frailty involving decreased functional status as a result of multiple health problems, such as heart and lung disease, as well as cognitive deficits resulting from dementia or stroke. As more and more Americans face the physical and social challenges of frailty, systems of care must adapt in ways that allow them to live comfortably and safely at home. Advanced care plans should be put in place that are respectful of both the patient’s and family’s wishes. This priority area can serve as an exemplar for health care quality improvements that incorporate changes at various levels of the health care delivery system to provide integrated, dignified care for those of advanced age. Emerging Areas Obesity was intentionally placed last on the committee’s list and classified as an “emerging area.” The prevalence of overweight and obesity among Americans has reached epidemic proportions (Mokdad et al., 2001; Yanovski and Yanovski, 2002). Obesity represents an important medical condition in its own right and contributes to morbidity and mortality for other diseases, including heart disease, type II diabetes, osteoarthritis, hypertension, and cancer. Addressing growing rates of obesity and obesity-related disease in children and adults has been identified as an urgent national health care priority (Squires, 2001).

    OCR for page 41
    Priority Areas for National Action: Transforming Health Care Quality Obesity was selected as a priority area based on strong evidence for its impact and inclusiveness, but still emerging evidence for improvability. That is, there was relatively limited evidence for the efficacy of existing best-practice treatments for obesity in children and adults, such as behavioral counseling and drug and surgical interventions (Epstein et al., 2001). In addition, effective treatment for obesity will need to integrate many other aspects of society, such as housing, exercise opportunities, food supply, and work patterns, often considered outside the traditional realm of health care. The committee’s aim in denoting obesity as “emerging” was to accelerate the rate at which research generates the evidence needed to identify effective interventions and to develop evidence-based treatment guidelines and valid performance measures. Since this area would serve as a model for potential future emerging priority areas, formal reviews of progress on obesity would be conducted more frequently than for other priority areas, perhaps as often as yearly, to determine future directions. Priority Areas: Detailed Descriptions The following brief descriptions are intended as illustrative rather than exhaustive profiles for each of the 20 recommended priority areas. The committee’s goal was to provide a starting point for experts in the field to undertake effective national health care quality improvement efforts over the next 3 to 5 years. Each priority area is discussed with reference to the committee’s three selection criteria—impact, improvability, and inclusiveness. A vignette is also provided for selected areas to illustrate how a transformed health care system would provide quality care in that area.

    OCR for page 41
    Priority Areas for National Action: Transforming Health Care Quality Care Coordination Aim To establish and support a continuous healing relationship, enabled by an integrated clinical environment and characterized by the proactive delivery of evidence-based care and follow-up. Clinical integration is further defined as “the extent to which patient care services are coordinated across people, functions, activities, and sites over time so as to maximize the value of services delivered to patients” (Shortell et al., 2000:129). Rationale for Selection Impact Nearly half of the population—125 million Americans—lives with some type of chronic condition. About 60 million live with multiple such conditions. And more than 3 million—2.5 million women and 750,000 men—live with SOURCE: Reprinted with permission from Gerard Anderson, Ph.D. (2002). Figure 3–2. Hospitalizations among Medicare beneficiaries with multiple chronic conditions. five such conditions (Partnership for Solutions, 2001). For those afflicted by one or more chronic conditions, coordination of care over time and across multiple health care providers and settings is crucial. Yet in a survey of over 1,200 physicians conducted in 2001, two-thirds of respondents reported that their training was not adequate to coordinate care or education for patients with chronic conditions (Partnership for Solutions, 2001). More than 50 percent of patients with hypertension (Joint National Committee on Prevention, 1997), diabetes (Clark et al., 2000), tobacco addition (Perez-Stable and Fuentes-Afflick, 1998), hyperlipidemia (McBride et al., 1998), congestive heart failure (Ni et al., 1998), chronic atrial fibrillation (Samsa et al., 2000), asthma (Legorreta et al., 2000), and depression (Young et al., 2001) are currently managed inadequately. Among the Medicare-eligible population, the average beneficiary sees 6.4 different physicians in a year, 4.6 of those being in the outpatient setting (Anderson, 2002a).

    OCR for page 41
    Priority Areas for National Action: Transforming Health Care Quality Among this same population, as the number of chronic conditions a person has increases, so, too, does the number of hospitalizations that are inappropriate or avoidable because outpatient treatment would have been effective: from 7 per 1,000 for those with one chronic condition to 95 per 1,000 for those with five chronic conditions and 261 per 1,000 for those with ten or more such conditions (Anderson, 2002a). See Figure 3–2. Improvability In a randomized controlled trial of 970 patients with diabetes cared for by over 450 primary care providers, usual care was compared with a program utilizing regular follow-up, decision support, reminder systems, and modern self-management support. After 6 years, patients in the intervention group had significantly better outcomes, including lower HbAlc, blood pressure, and cholesterol levels (Olivarius et al., 2001). A recent review of ambulatory-care diabetic management programs found that patient education and an expanded role for a nurse in the intervention strategy also improved patient outcomes (Renders et al., 2001). According to a meta-analysis of adult immunization and cancer screening programs, interventions that had the largest impact involved organizational changes, such as the use of a planned care visit for prevention, and designation of nonphysician staff to carry out specific prevention activities (Stone et al., 2002). There is also a growing body of evidence that planned (e.g., proactive, structured) care at set intervals makes a difference, and can be accomplished using nonstandard models, such as group visits (Beck et al., 1997; Sadur et al., 1999). The Chronic Care Model, described in Chapter 1, provides a structure for planned, clinically integrated care. There are promising indications that a wide variety of health systems can reorganize themselves to deliver such care (The National Coalition on Health Care and the Institute for Healthcare Improvement, 2002; Wagner et al., 2001a). Inclusiveness The Institute of Medicine’s 2002 report Unequal Treatment: Confronting Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Health Care documents racial and ethnic disparities in several of the priority areas recommended in this report, all of which could benefit from a more integrated approach to care. These areas include children with special health care needs, diabetes, end of life with advanced organ system failure, frailty, pregnancy and childbirth, and severe and persistent mental illness (Institute of Medicine, 2002).

    OCR for page 41
    Priority Areas for National Action: Transforming Health Care Quality Box 3–7 Care Coordination One participating organization, Care Management Group of Greater NY, Inc. (CMGNY), in the Institute for Healthcare Improvement and The Robert Wood Johnson Foundation’s National Program on Improving Chronic Illness Care incorporated the elements of the Chronic Care Model to enhance recognition and treatment of depression in patients with congestive heart failure. This collaborative is an excellent example of how effective care coordination, or clinical integration of services, improved health outcomes for the chronically ill, particularly for patients with multiple chronic conditions. First, there was strong organizational support from key leaders at CMGNY, a subsidiary of the North Shore Long Island Jewish Health System. Second, clinical information systems were used to extract claims data and a disease registry was built to identify patients within the plan who had been diagnosed with congestive heart failure (CHF). Physicians participating in the program were given the names of their CHF patients for systematic screening for depression. Patients with recent hospitalizations, patients identified through care management, and patients whose annual costs exceeded $50,000 per year, were all targeted for depression assessment as well. Third, decision support was provided at many levels. Physicians within the plan were invited to attend “managed care college” where they were trained to recognize the classic signs of depression and coached to administer the Patient Health Questionnaire (PAQ), a screening tool for depression. Notably, clinicians were given financial incentives for incorporating the PAQ into their daily practice. Additionally, primary care physicians had access to a psychiatrist by telephone for consultation regarding medication dosage and depression management. Fourth, a nurse practitioner used telephone self-management support techniques to facilitate partnerships between patients and their providers. The hallmark of this relationship was active listening and empathy with the overarching goal to educate the patient about their condition and to monitor and encourage adherence to their treatment plan, including medications and appointments. In addition, goal-setting strategies were developed with the patient to encourage exercise and engagement in pleasant events as well as to resolve treatment-emergent problems such as side effects from antidepressant medications, attitudinal issues and social barriers. Fifth, the overall delivery of care was redesigned to incorporate elements of the chronic illness care model, including care management, decision support and development of community relationships. This included providing services outside the doctor’s office such as home health evaluations, home psychiatric evaluations, physical therapy and a home health aide. A nurse practitioner figured prominently in coordinating, monitoring and following-up of care. Lastly, patients were linked with community resources both on the local and national level. Outcomes from this study were dramatic. After 6 months a 50 percent or greater improvement in depression severity was observed among participants. In the words of one patient with CHF who was clinically depressed and on 20 medications “you have turned my life around” (Cole et al., 2002; Cole, 2002).

    OCR for page 41
    Priority Areas for National Action: Transforming Health Care Quality Lehman, A.F., L.B.Dixon, E.Kernan, B.R. DeForge, and L.T.Postrado. 1997. A randomized trial of assertive community treatment for homeless persons with severe mental illness. Arch Gen Psychiatry54 (11):1038–43. Lehman, A.F., R.Goldberg, L.B.Dixon, S. McNary, L.Postrado, A. Hackman, and K. McDonnell. 2002. Improving employment outcomes for persons with severe mental illnesses. Arch Gen Psychiatry59 (2): 165–72. Levenson, J.W., E.P.McCarthy, J.Lynn, R.B. Davis, and R.S.Phillips. 2000. The last six months of life for patients with congestive heart failure. J Am Geriatr Soc48 (5 Suppl):S 101–9. Leviton, L.C., R.L.Goldenberg, C.S.Baker, R.M. Schwartz, M.C.Freda, L.J.Fish, S.P.Cliver, D.J.Rouse, C.Chazotte, I.R.Merkatz, and J. M.Raczynski. 1999. Methods to encourage the use of antenatal corticosteroid therapy for fetal maturation: A randomized controlled trial. JAMA281 (1):46–52. Levy, D., S.Kenchaiah, M.G.Larson, E.J. Benjamin, M.J.Kupka, K.K.Ho, J.M. Murabito, and R.S.Vasan. 2002. Long-term trends in the incidence of and survival with heart failure. N Engl J Med347 (18): 1397–402. Levy, M.H.1996. Pharmacologic treatment of cancer pain. N Engl J Med335 (15):1124–32.3 Lifetime benefits and costs of intensive therapy as practiced in the diabetes control and complications trial. The Diabetes Control and Complications Trial Research Group. 1996. JAMA276 (17):1409–15. Liptak, G.S., C.M.Burns, P.W.Davidson, and E. R.McAnarney. 1998. Effects of providing comprehensive ambulatory services to children with chronic conditions. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med152 (10): 1003–8. Lloyd-Jones, D.M., M.G.Larson, A.Beiser, and D. Levy. 1999. Lifetime risk of developing coronary heart disease. Lancet353 (9147):89– 92. Lumley, J., S.Oliver, and E.Waters. 2000. Interventions for promoting smoking cessation during pregnancy. Cochrane Database Syst Rev (2):CD001055. Lunney, J.R., J.Lynn, and C.Hogan. 2002. Profiles of older medicare decedents. J Am Geriatr Soc50 (6): 1108–12. Lynn, J.2001. Perspectives on care at the close of life. Serving patients who may die soon and their families: The role of hospice and other services. JAMA285 (7):925–32. Lynn, J., E.W.Ely, Z.Zhong, K.L.McNiff, N.V. Dawson, A.Connors, N.A.Desbiens, M. Claessens, and E.P.McCarthy. 2000. Living and dying with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. J Am Geriatr Soc48 (5 Suppl):S91– 100. Lynn, J., J.Lynch-Schuster, and A.Kabcenell. 2000. Improving Care for End of Life: A Sourcebook for Health Care Managers and Clinicians.New York: Oxford University Press. Mahoney, E.M., C.T.Jurkovitz, H.Chu, E.R. Becker, S.Culler, A.S.Kosinski, D.H. Robertson, C.Alexander, S.Nag, J.R.Cook, L. A.Demopoulos, P.M.DiBattiste, C.P.Cannon, and W.S.Weintraub. 2002. Cost and cost-effectiveness of an early invasive vs conservative strategy for the treatment of unstable angina and non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction. JAMA288 (15):1851–8. Manton, K.G.1989. Epidemiological, demographic, and social correlates of disability among the elderly. Milbank Q67 Suppl 2 Pt 1:13–58. Marks, J.S., J.P.Koplan, C.J.Hogue, and M.E. Dalmat. 1990. A cost-benefit/cost-effectiveness analysis of smoking cessation for pregnant women. Am J Prev Med6 (5):282–9. Marshall, M., and A.Lockwood. 2000. Assertive community treatment for people with severe mental disorders. Cochrane Database Syst Rev (2):CD001089. Martin, J.A., B.E.Hamilton, S.J.Ventura, F. Menacker, and M.M.Park. 2001. Births: Final data for 2000. Natl Vital Stat Rep50 (5): 11–12. Marx, A.J., M.A.Test, and L.I.Stein. 1973. Extrohospital management of severe mental illness. Feasibility and effects of social functioning. Arch Gen Psychiatry29 (4):505– 11. Maternal mortality—United States, 1982–1996. 1998. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep47 (34):705–7.

    OCR for page 41
    Priority Areas for National Action: Transforming Health Care Quality Max, W.2001. The financial impact of smoking on health-related costs: A review of the literature. Am J Health Promot15 (5):321–31. Mayo, P.H., J.Richman, and H.W.Harris. 1990. Results of a program to reduce admissions for adult asthma. Ann Intern Med112 (11):864–71. McAfee, T., J.Wilson, S.Dacey, N.Sofian, S. Curry, and B.Wagener. 1995. Awakening the sleeping giant: mainstreaming efforts to decrease tobacco use in an HMO. HMO Pract 9 (3): 138–43. McAlister, F.A., F.M.Lawson, K.K.Teo, and P. W.Armstrong. 2001. A systematic review of randomized trials of disease management programs in heart failure . Am J Med110 (5):378–84. McBride, P., H.G.Schrott, M.B.Plane, G. Underbakke, and R.L.Brown. 1998. Primary care practice adherence to National Cholesterol Education Program guidelines for patients with coronary heart disease. Arch Intern Med158 (11):1238–44. McCaig, L.F., R.E.Besser, and J.M.Hughes. 2002. Trends in antimicrobial prescribing rates for children and adolescents. JAMA287 (23):3096–102. McCaig, L.F., and J.M.Hughes. 1995. Trends in antimicrobial drug prescribing among office-based physicians in the United States. JAMA 273 (3):214–9. McGinnis, M.2002. Diabetes and physical activity: Translating evidence into action. Am J Prev Med22:1–2. McGovern, P.G., D.R.Jacobs Jr, E.Shahar, D.K. Arnett, A.R.Folsom, H.Blackburn, and R.V. Luepker. 2001. Trends in acute coronary heart disease mortality, morbidity, and medical care from 1985 through 1997: The Minnesota Heart Survey . Circulation104 (1):19–24. McMullin, S T., R.M.Reichley, L.A.Watson, S.A. Steib, M.E.Frisse, and T.C.Bailey. 1998. Experience with advanced technologies that reduce medication errors. Enhancing Patient Safety and Reducing Errors in Health Care. McPherson, M., P.Arango, H.Fox, C.Lauver, M. McManus, P.W.Newacheck, J.M.Perrin, J.P. Shonkoff, and B.Strickland. 1998. A new definition of children with special health care needs. Pediatrics102 (1 Pt 1): 137–40. McPhillips-Tangum, C.1998. Results from the first annual survey on addressing tobacco in managed care. Tob Control7 Suppl:S11–3. McPhillips-Tangum C.2001. Year 2000 Addressing Tobacco in Managed Care Survey on Health Plans. Paper presented at the 4th Annual Addressing Tobacco in Managed Care Conference.Nashville, TN. Melfi, C.A., T.W.Croghan, M.P.Hanna, and R.L. Robinson. 2000. Racial variation in antidepressant treatment in a Medicaid population. J Clin Psychiatry61 (1): 16–21. Mercadante, S.1999. Pain treatment and outcomes for patients with advanced cancer who receive follow-up care at home. Cancer85 (8): 1849– 58. Meredith, S., P.H.Feldman, D.Frey, K.Hall, K. Arnold, N.J.Brown, and W.A.Ray. 2001. Possible medication errors in home healthcare patients. J Am Geriatr Soc49 (6):719–24. Minino, A.M. and B.L.Smith. 2001. National Vital Statistics Reports.Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Miranda, J., K.B.Wells, N.Duan, M.Jackson-Triche, I.Lagomasino, and C.D.Sherbourne. 2002. Can Quality Improvement Interventions Improve Care and Outcomes for Depressed Minorities? Results in a Randomized, Controlled Trial.Paper presented at the NIMH Mental Health Services Research Conference: July 18–20, 2002. MMWR Weekly. 2000. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention—CDC49 (8): 149–53. Mokdad, A.H., B.A.Bowman, E.S.Ford, F. Vinicor, J.S.Marks, and J.P.Koplan. 2001. The continuing epidemics of obesity and diabetes in the United States. JAMA286 (10): 1195–200. Mokdad, A.H., E.S.Ford, B.A.Bowman, D.E. Nelson, M.M.Engelgau, F.Vinicor, and J.S. Marks. 2000. Diabetes trends in the U.S.: 1990–1998. Diabetes Care23 (9): 1278–83. Moon, M.1996. The special health care needs of the elderly. Baxter Health Policy Rev2:317–49. Must, A., J.Spadano, E.H.Coakley, A.E.Field, G. Colditz, and W.H.Dietz. 1999. The disease burden associated with overweight and obesity. JAMA282 (16):1523–9.

    OCR for page 41
    Priority Areas for National Action: Transforming Health Care Quality Nadel, M.R., D.K.Blackman, J.A.Shapiro, and L. C.Seeff. 2002. Are people being screened for colorectal cancer as recommended? Results from the National Health Interview Survey. Prev Med35 (3): 199–206. NAEPP Expert Panel Report. 2002. Guidelines for the Diagnosis and Management of Asthma— Update on SelectedTopics.NHLBI, NIH. Narrow, W.E., D.A.Regier, G.Norquist, D.S.Rae, C.Kennedy, and B.Arons. 2000. Mental health service use by Americans with severe mental illnesses. Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol35 (4): 147–55. National Alliance for the Mentally Ill. “PACT: Program of Assertive Community Treatment.” Online. Available at http://www.nami.org/about/pactfact.html [accessed July, 2002]. National Asthma Education and Prevention Program. 1991. Guidelines for the Diagnosis and Management of Asthma.NIH/National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. National Cancer Institute. 1996. “SEER Racial/ Ethnic Patterns of Cancer in the United States, 1988–1992.” Online. Available at http://seer.cancer.gov/publications/ethnicity/ [accessed Nov. 20, 2002]. National Committee for Quality Assurance. 1997. HEDIS 3.0. What’s In It and Why It Matters. Washington, D.C.: NCQA. ——. 2002. State of Health Care Quality Report. Washington, D.C.: NCQA. National Conference of State Legislatures. “Influenza Vaccine Rates Among People Age 65 and Older.”Imunization Project.Washington, D.C. National Heart Lung and Blood Institute (NHLBI). 1998. “The NHLBI Clinical Guidelines.” Online. Available at www.nhlbi.nih/.gov/guileines/obesity/e.textbk/index/htm [accessed Aug. 26, 2002]. National Institutes of Health. 2002. State-of-the-Science Conference Statement. State-of-the- Science Conference on Symptom Management in Cancer: Pain, Depression, and Fatigue. National Institutes of Health Newacheck, P.W., M.A.McManus, and H.B.Fox. 1991. Prevalence and impact of chronic illness among adolescents. Am J Dis Child145 (12):1367–73. Newacheck, P.W., B.Strickland, J.P.Shonkoff, J. M.Perrin, M.McPherson, M.McManus, C. Lauver, H.Fox, and P.Arango. 1998. An epidemiologic profile of children with special health care needs. Pediatrics102 (1 Pt 1):117– 23. Newacheck, P.W., and W.R.Taylor. 1992. Childhood chronic illness: Prevalence, severity, and impact. Am J Public Health82 (3):364–71. NHLBI USPHS. 1997. Expert Panel Report 2. Guidelines for the Diagnosis and Management of Asthma.Bethesda, MD: National Institutes of Health. Ni, H., D.J.Nauman, and R.E.Hershberger. 1998. Managed care and outcomes of hospitalization among elderly patients with congestive heart failure. Arch Intern Med158 (11):1231–6. NIH Consensus Statement. 1996. Cervical cancer. 14(1):1–38. Nolan, T., I.Zvagulis, and B.Pless. 1987. Controlled trial of social work in childhood chronic illness. Lancet2 (8556):411–5. Norman, D.C.2002. Management of antibioticresistant bacteria. J Am Geriatr Soc50 (7 Suppl):S242–6. Norris, S.L., M.M.Engelgau, and K.M.Narayan. 2001. Effectiveness of self-management training in type 2 diabetes: A systematic review of randomized controlled trials. Diabetes Care 24 (3):561–87. Nyquist, A.C., R.Gonzales, J.F.Steiner, and M.A. Sande. 1998. Antibiotic prescribing for children with colds, upper respiratory tract infections, and bronchitis. JAMA279 (11):875– 7. O’Connor, G.T., H.B.Quinton, N.D.Traven, L.D. Ramunno, T.A.Dodds, T.A.Marciniak, and J. E.Wennberg. 1999 . Geographic variation in the treatment of acute myocardial infarction: The Cooperative Cardiovascular Project. JAMA 281 (7):627–33.

    OCR for page 41
    Priority Areas for National Action: Transforming Health Care Quality Olivarius, N.F., H.Beck-Nielsen, A.H.Andreasen, M.Horder, and P.A.Pedersen. 2001. Randomised controlled trial of structured personal care of type 2 diabetes mellitus. BMJ 323 (7319):970–5. Oliveria, S.A., P.Lapuerta, B.D.McCarthy, G.J. L’Italien, D.R.Berlowitz, and S.M.Asch. 2002. Physician-related barriers to the effective management of uncontrolled hypertension. Arch Intern Med162 (4):413–20. Ornish, D., L.W.Scherwitz, J.H.Billings, S.E. Brown, K.L.Gould, T.A.Merritt, S.Sparler, W.T.Armstrong, T.A.Ports, R.L.Kirkeeide, C.Hogeboom, and R.J.Brand. 1998. Intensive lifestyle changes for reversal of coronary heart disease. JAMA280 (23):2001–7. Ossip-Klein, D.J., T.A.Pearson, S.McIntosh, and C.T.Orleans. 1999. Smoking is a geriatric health issue. Nicotine Tob Res1 (4):299–300. Partnership for Prevention. 1999. Why Invest in Disease Prevention? It’s a Good Business Decision. And It’s Good for American Business. ——. 2002. Prevention Priorities: A Health Plan’s Guide to the Highest Value Preventive Health Services. Partnership for Solutions, The Johns Hopkins University. 2001. “Partnership for Solutions: A National Program of The Robert Wood Johnson Foundation.” Online. Available at http://www.partnershipforsolutions.org/statistics/prevalence.htm [accessed Dec. 12, 2002]. Perez-Stable, E.J., and E.Fuentes-Afflick. 1998. Role of clinicians in cigarette smoking prevention. West J Med169 (1):23–9. Perz, J.F., A.S.Craig, C.S.Coffey, D.M. Jorgensen, E.Mitchel, S.Hall, W.Schaffher, and M.R.Griffin. 2002. Changes in antibiotic prescribing for children after a community-wide campaign . JAMA287 (23):3103–9. Petersen, L.A., S.M.Wright, E.D.Peterson, and J. Daley. 2002. Impact of race on cardiac care and outcomes in veterans with acute myocardial infarction. Med Care40 (1.Supp):86–96. Pfizer. 1998. “Promoting Health Literacy: A Call to Action.” Online. Available at http://www.pfizerhealthliteracy.com [accessed July 11, 2002]. Phillips, D.M.2000. JCAHO pain management standards are unveiled. Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations. JAMA284 (4):428–9. Phillips, D.P., N.Christenfeld, and L.M.Glynn. 1998. Increase in US medication-error deaths between 1983 and 1993. Lancet351 (9103):643–4. Phillips, J., S.Beam, A.Drinker, C.Holquist, P. Honig, L.Y.Lee, and C.Pamer. 2001. Retrospective analysis of mortalities associated with medication errors. Am J Health Syst Pharm58 (19):1835–41. Pignone, M., C.Phillips, and C.Mulrow. 2000. Use of lipid lowering drugs for primary prevention of coronary heart disease: Meta-analysis of randomised trials. BMJ321 (7267):983–6. Pignone, M., S.Saha, T.Hoerger, and J. Mandelblatt. 2002. Cost-effectiveness analyses of colorectal cancer screening: A systematic review for the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. Ann Intern Med137 (2):96–104. Pilote, L., R.M.Califf, S.Sapp, D.P.Miller, D.B. Mark, W.D.Weaver, J.M.Gore, P.W. Armstrong, E.M.Ohman, and E.J.Topol. 1995. Regional variation across the United States in the management of acute myocardial infarction. GUSTO-1 Investigators. Global Utilization of Streptokinase and Tissue Plasminogen Activator for Occluded Coronary Arteries. N Engl J Med333 (9):565–72. Pincus, H.A., T.L.Tanielian, S.C.Marcus, M. Olfson, D.A.Zarin, J.Thompson, and J.Magno Zito. 1998. Prescribing trends in psychotropic medications: Primary care, psychiatry, and other medical specialties. JAMA279 (7):526–31. Pless, I.B. and M.E.Wadsworth. 1988. The unresolved question: Long-term psychological sequelae of chronic illness in childhood. In: R. E.K.Stein ed. Caring for Children with Chronic Illness: Issues and Strategies.New York, NY: Springer Publishing Company. Post-stroke Rehabilitation Panel, GE Gresham Chair. 1995. Post-stroke Rehabilitation.Rockville, MD: Agency for Health Care Policy and Research. Prevention Program Reduces Incidences of Pressure Ulcers by Up to 87%. 2002. Dermatol Nurs14 (4):286.

    OCR for page 41
    Priority Areas for National Action: Transforming Health Care Quality Psaty, B.M., N.L.Smith, D.S.Siscovick, T.D. Koepsell, N.S.Weiss, S.R.Heckbert, R.N. Lemaitre, E.H.Wagner, and C.D.Furberg. 1997. Health outcomes associated with antihypertensive therapies used as first-line agents. A systematic review and meta-analysis. JAMA277 (9):739–45. Rathore, S.S., J.D.McGreevey 3rd, K.A. Schulman, and D.Atkins. 2000. Mandated coverage for cancer-screening services: Whose guidelines do states follow?Am J Prev Meet19 (2):71–8. Renders, C.M., G.D.Valk, S.J.Griffin, E.H. Wagner, J.T.Eijk Van, and W.J.Assendelft. 2001. Interventions to improve the management of diabetes in primary care, outpatient, and community settings: A systematic review. Diabetes Care24 (10): 1821–33. Rennels, M.B., and H.C.Meissner. 2002. Technical report: Reduction of the influenza burden in children. Pediatrics110(6):e80. Reogowski J.1998. Cost-effectiveness of care for very low birth weight infants. Pediatrics (102):35–43. Rich, M.W.1997. Epidemiology, pathophysiology, and etiology of congestive heart failure in older adults. J Am Geriatr Soc45 (8):968–74. ——. 1999. Heart failure disease management: a critical review. J Card Fail5 (1):64–75. Richards, C., T.G.Emori, J.Edwards, S.Fridkin, J. Tolson, and R.Gaynes. 2001. Characteristics of hospital and infection control professionals participating in the National Nosocomial Infections Surveillance System 1999. Am J Infect Control29 (6):400–403. Ries, L.A., M.P.Eisner, and C.L.Kosary. 2002. SEER Cancer Statistics Review, 1973–1999. Bethesda, MD: National Cancer Institute, 2002. Rimer, B.K., C.T.Orleans, M.K.Keintz, S. Cristinzio, and L.Fleisher. 1990. The older smoker. Status, challenges and opportunities for intervention. Chest97 (3):547–53. Rodewald, L.E., P.G.Szilagyi, S.G.Humiston, R. Barth, R.Kraus, and R.F.Raubertas. 1999. A randomized study of tracking with outreach and provider prompting to improve immunization coverage and primary care. Pediatrics103 Rogowski, J.1998. Cost-effectiveness of care for very low birth weight infants. Pediatrics102 (1 Pt 1):35–43. Rosenberg, C.H., and G.M.Popelka. 2000. Post-stroke rehabilitation. A review of the guidelines for patient management. Geriatrics55 (9): 75– 81; quiz 82. Rosenheck, R.A., and D.Dennis. 2001. Time-limited assertive community treatment for homeless persons with severe mental illness. Arch Gen Psychiatry58 (11):1073–80. Roth, E.J., A.W.Heinemann, L.L.Lovell, R.L. Harvey, J.R.McGuire, and S.Diaz. 1998. Impairment and disability: Their relation during stroke rehabilitation. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 79 (3):329–35. Roth, K., J.Lynn, Z.Zhong, M.Borum, and N.V. Dawson. 2000. Dying with end stage liver disease with cirrhosis: Insights from SUPPORT. Study to Understand Prognoses and Preferences for Outcomes and Risks of Treatment. J Am Geriatr Soc48 (5 Suppl): S122–30. Saaddine, J.B., M.M.Engelgau, G.L.Beckles, E. W.Gregg, T.J.Thompson, and K.M.Narayan. 2002. A diabetes report card for the United States: Quality of care in the 1990s. Ann Intern Med136 (8):565–74. Sacchetti, A., M.Gerardi, R.Barkin, J.Santamaria, R.Cantor, J.Weinberg, and M.Gausche. 1996. Emergency data set for children with special needs. Ann Emerg Med28 (3):324–7. Sadur, C.N., N.Moline, M.Costa, D.Michalik, D. Mendlowitz, S.Roller, R.Watson, B.E.Swain, J.V.Selby, and W.C.Javorski. 1999. Diabetes management in a health maintenance organization. Efficacy of care management using cluster visits. Diabetes Care22 Samsa, G.P., D.B.Matchar, L.B.Goldstein, A.J. Bonito, L.J.Lux, D.M.Witter, and J.Bian. 2000. Quality of anticoagulation management among patients with atrial fibrillation: Results of a review of medical records from 2 communities. Arch Intern Med160 (7):967–73.

    OCR for page 41
    Priority Areas for National Action: Transforming Health Care Quality Saslow, D., C.D.Runowicz, D.Solomon, A.-B. Moscicki, R.A.Smith, H.J.Eyre, and C. Cohen . 2002. American Cancer Society Guideline for the Early Detection of Cervical Neoplasia and Cancer. CA Cancer J Clin52 (6):342–62. Sawaya, G.F., and D.A.Grimes. 1999. New technologies in cervical cytology screening: A word of caution. Obstet Gynecol94 (2):307–10. Schappert, S.M.1997. Ambulatory care visits of physician offices, hospital outpatient departments, and emergency departments: United States, 1995. Vital Health Stat13 (129):1–38. Schillinger, D., K.Grumbach, J.Piette, F.Wang, D. Osmond, C.Daher, J.Palacios, G.D.Sullivan, and A.B.Bindman. 2002. Association of health literacy with diabetes outcomes. JAMA 288 (4):475–82. Schlesinger, M., R.Dorwart, C.Hoover, and S. Epstein. 1997. The determinants of dumping: A national study of economically motivated transfers involving mental health care. Health Serv Res32 (5):561–90. Schneider, E.C., A.M.Zaslavsky, and A.M. Epstein. 2002. Racial disparities in the quality of care for enrollees in medicare managed care. JAMA287 (10):1288–94. Schoenbaum, M., J.Unutzer, C.Sherbourne, N. Duan, L.V.Rubenstein, J.Miranda, L.S. Meredith, M.F.Carney, and K.Wells. 2001. Cost-effectiveness of practice-initiated quality improvement for depression: Results of a randomized controlled trial. JAMA286 (11):1325–30. Schulberg, H.C., W.Katon, G.E.Simon, and A.J. Rush. 1998. Treating major depression in primary care practice: An update of the Agency for Health Care Policy and Research Practice Guidelines. Arch Gen Psychiatry55 (12):1121– 7. Schulman, K.A., J.A.Berlin, W.Harless, J.F. Kerner, S.Sistrunk, B.J.Gersh, R.Dube, C.K. Taleghani, J.E.Burke, S.Williams, J.M. Eisenberg, and J.J.Escarce. 1999. The effect of race and sex on physicians’ recommendations for cardiac catheterization. N Engl J Med340 (8):618–26. Schwartz, C.E., H.B.Wheeler, B.Hammes, N. Basque, J.Edmunds, G.Reed, Y.Ma, L.Li, P. Tabloski, and J.Yanko. 2002. Early intervention in planning end-of-life care with ambulatory geriatric patients: Results of a pilot trial. Arch Intern Med162 (14):1611–8. Scott, J.G., D.Cohen, B.DiCicco-Bloom, A.J. Orzano, C.R.Jaen, and B.F.Crabtree. 2001. Antibiotic use in acute respiratory infections and the ways patients pressure physicians for a prescription. J Fam Pract50 (10):853–8. Seeff, L.C., J.A.Shapiro, and M.R.Nadel. 2002. Are we doing enough to screen for colorectal cancer? Findings from the 1999 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. J Fam Pract51 (9):761–6. Senate report number 102–397. Serdula, M.K., A.H.Mokdad, D.F.Williamson, D. A.Galuska , J.M.Mendlein, and G.W.Heath. 1999. Prevalence of attempting weight loss and strategies for controlling weight. JAMA282 (14):1353–8. Sheikh, K., and C.Bullock. 2001. Urban-rural differences in the quality of care for medicare patients with acute myocardial infarction. Arch Intern Med161 (5):737–43. Shipp, M., M.S.Croughan-Minihane, D.B.Petitti, and A.E.Washington. 1992. Estimation of the break-even point for smoking cessation programs in pregnancy. Am J Public Health82 (3):383–90. Shortell, S.M., R.R.Gillies, and D.A.Anderson. 2000. Remaking Health Care in America.2nd edition. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass. Silber, J.H., S.P.Gleeson, and H.Zhao. 1999. The influence of chronic disease on resource utilization in common acute pediatric conditions. Financial concerns for children’s hospitals. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med153 (2): 169–79. Simon, G.E., D.Goldberg, B.G.Tiemens, and T.B. Ustun. 1999. Outcomes of recognized and unrecognized depression in an international primary care study. Gen Hosp Psychiatry21 (2):97–105.

    OCR for page 41
    Priority Areas for National Action: Transforming Health Care Quality Simon, G.E., M.VonKorff, C.Rutter, and E. Wagner. 2000. Randomised trial of monitoring, feedback, and management of care by telephone to improve treatment of depression in primary care. BMJ320 (7234):550–4. Sloan, P.A., B.L.Vanderveer, J.S.Snapp, M. Johnson, and D.A.Sloan. 1999. Cancer pain assessment and management recommendations by hospice nurses. University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY. J Pain Symptom Manage18 (2):103–10. Solberg, L.I., T.E.Kottke, S.A.Conn, M.L. Brekke, C.A.Calomeni, and K.S.Conboy. 1997. Delivering clinical preventive services is a systems problem. Ann Behav Med19 (3):271–8. Sperl-Hillen, J., P.J.O’Connor, R.R.Carlson, T.B. Lawson, C.Halstenson, T.Crowson, and J. Wuorenma. 2000. Improving diabetes care in a large health care system: an enhanced primary care approach. Jt Comm J Qual Improv26 Spore, D.L., V.Mor, P.Larrat, C.Hawes, and J. Hiris. 1997. Inappropriate drug prescriptions for elderly residents of board and care facilities. Am J Public Health87 (3):404–9. Squires, S. Dec. 13, 2001. Surgeon General Outlines National Plan on Obesity. The Washington Post. St Lawrence, J.S., D.E.Montano, D.Kasprzyk, W. R.Phillips, K.Armstrong, and J.S.Leichliter. 2002. STD screening, testing, case reporting, and clinical and partner notification practices: A national survey of US physicians. Am J Public Health92 (11):1784–8. Standards for the diagnosis and care of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. American Thoracic Society. 1995. Am J Respir Crit Care Med152 (5 Pt 2):S77–121. STAR*D Program. “Sequenced treatment alternatives to relieve depression.” Online. Available at http://www.edc.gsph.pitt.edu/stard [accessed July, 2002]. Stein, R.1983. A home care program for children with chronic illness. Child Health Care12 (2):90–2. Stone, E.G., S.C.Morton, M.E.Hulscher, M.A. Maglione, E.A.Roth, J.M.Grimshaw, B.S. Mittman, L.V.Rubenstein, L.Z.Rubenstein, and P.G.Shekelle. 2002. Interventions that increase use of adult immunization and cancer screening services: A meta-analysis. Ann Intern Med136 (9):641–51. Strauss, R.S., and H.A.Pollack. 2001. Epidemic increase in childhood overweight, 1986–1998. JAMA286 (22):2845–8. Stuck, A.E., M.H.Beers, A.Steiner, H.U.Aronow, L.Z.Rubenstein, and J.C.Beck. 1994. Inappropriate medication use in community-residing older persons. Arch Intern Med154 (19):2195–200. Sturm, R.1999. Tracking changes in behavioral health services: How have carve-outs changed care?J Behav Health Serv Res26 (4):360–71. Sturm, R.2002. The effects of obesity, smoking, and drinking on medical problems and costs. Obesity outranks both smoking and drinking in its deleterious effects on health and health costs. Health Aff (Millwood)21 (2):245–53. Tamminga, C.A.1997. Gender and schizophrenia. J Clin Psychiatry58Suppl 15:33–7. Taylor, D.H. Jr, V.Hasselblad, S.J.Henley, M.J. Thun, and F.A.Sloan. 2002. Benefits of smoking cessation for longevity. Am J Public Health92 (6):990–6. Testa, M.A., and D.C.Simonson. 1998. Health economic benefits and quality of life during improved glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: A randomized, controlled, double-blind trial. JAMA280 (17): 1490–6. The Commonwealth Fund. 2002. Quality of Health Care in the United States: A Chartbook. The National Coalition on Health Care and the Institute for Healthcare Improvement. 2002. Curing the System: Stories of Change in Chronic Illness Care.The National Coalition on Health Care and the Institute for Healthcare Improvement. The Robert Wood Johnson Foundation. 2001. Substance Abuse: The Nation’s Number One Health Problem.Princeton, NJ: Robert Wood Johnson Foundation .

    OCR for page 41
    Priority Areas for National Action: Transforming Health Care Quality ——. 2002. National Partnership to Help Pregnant Smokers Quit: Action Plan.Princeton, NJ: Robert Wood Johnson Foundation. The sixth report of the Joint National Committee on prevention, detection, evaluation, and treatment of high blood pressure. 1997. Arch Intern Med 157 (21):2413–46. Thompson, R.S.1996. What have HMOs learned about clinical prevention services? An examination of the experience at Group Health Cooperative of Puget Sound. Milbank Q74 (4):469–509. Thorndike, A.N., N.A.Rigotti, R.S.Stafford, and D.E.Singer. 1998. National patterns in the treatment of smokers by physicians. JAMA 279 (8):604–8. Thornley, B., C.E.Adams, and G.Awad. 2000. Chlorpromazine versus placebo for schizophrenia. Cochrane Database Syst Rev (2):CD000284. Tinetti, M.E., and C.S.Williams. 1998. The effect of falls and fall injuries on functioning in community- dwelling older persons. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci53 (2):M112–9. Tomar, S.L., C.G.Husten, and M.W.Manley. 1996. Do dentists and physicians advise tobacco users to quit?J Am Dent Assoc127 (2):259–65. Trepka, M.J., E.A.Belongia, P.H.Chyou, J.P. Davis, and B.Schwartz. 2001. The effect of a community intervention trial on parental knowledge and awareness of antibiotic resistance and appropriate antibiotic use in children. Pediatrics107 (1):E6. United States Department of Health and Human Services. 1990. The Health Benefits of Smoking Cessation: A Report of the Surgeon General. Vol. Rockland, MD: U.S. Govenment Printing Office. ——. 1998. “National Vital Statistics Reports.” Washington, D.C.: Department of Health and Human Services. ——. 2000. Healthy People 2010: Understanding and Improving Health.2nd edition. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office. ——. 2001a. The Surgeon General’s Call to Action to Prevent and Decrease Overweight and Obesity.Vol. Rockville, MD: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Services, Office of the Surgeon General. ——. 2001b. Women and Smoking : A Report of the Surgeon General.Vol. Rockland, MD: U.S. Govenment Printing Office. ——. 2002. “National Vital Statistics Reports.” Washington, D.C.: CDC—Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. United States General Accounting Office. 2000. Medicaid Managed Care: Challenges in Implementing Safeguards for Children with Special Needs.Washington, D.C.: U.S. Goverment Printing Office. United States Preventive Services Task Force. 1996. Guide to Clinical Preventive Services. Baltimore, MD: Williams and Wilkins. United States Preventive Services Task Force. 2002a. Behavioral counseling in primary care to promote a physical activity: Recommendation and rationale. Ann Intern Med137:205–8. United States Preventive Services Task Force. 2002b. “Recommendations and Rationale: Screening for Colorectal Cancer.” Online. Available at http://www.ahrq.gov/clinic/3rduspstf/colorectal/colorr.htm [accessed Nov. 20, 2002b]. United States Preventive Services Task Force. 2003. Behavioral counseling primary care to promote a healthy diet. Recommendation and rationale. Am J Prev Med24(1):93–100 United States Public Health Service. 1999. Office of the Surgeon General Mental Health: A Report of the Surgeon General, pp 244–68. van der Lee, J.H., R.C.Wagenaar, G.J.Lankhorst, T.W.Vogelaar, W.L.Deville, and L.M. Bouter. 1999. Forced use of the upper extremity in chronic stroke patients: Results from a single-blind randomized clinical trial . Stroke30 (11):2369–75. Vasan, R.S., A.Beiser, S.Seshadri, M.G.Larson, W.B.Kannel, R.B.D’Agostino, and D.Levy. 2002. Residual lifetime risk for developing hypertension in middle-aged women and men: The Framingham Heart Study. JAMA287 (8):1003–10.

    OCR for page 41
    Priority Areas for National Action: Transforming Health Care Quality Verschuren, W.M., D.R.Jacobs, B.P.Bloemberg, D.Kromhout, A.Menotti, C.Aravanis, H. Blackburn, R.Buzina, A.S.Dontas, and F. Fidanza. 1995. Serum total cholesterol and long-term coronary heart disease mortality in different cultures. Twenty-five-year follow-up of the seven countries study. JAMA274 (2): 131–6. Vintzileos, A.M., C.V.Ananth, J.C.Smulian, W. E.Scorza, and R.A.Knuppel. 2002. The impact of prenatal care on neonatal deaths in the presence and absence of antenatal high-risk conditions. Am J Obstet Gynecol186 (5):1011– 6. Vishnu-Priya, S., H.Izurieta, C.Bridges, E.Bolyard, D.Johnson, and M.Hoyt. 2000. Prevention and Control of Vaccine-Preventable Diseases in Long-Term Care Facilities. Journal of American Medical Directors Association :S2-S37. Viskin, S., and H.V.Barron. 1996. Beta blockers prevent cardiac death following a myocardial infarction: So why are so many infarct survivors discharged without beta blockers?Am J Cardiol 78 (7):821–2. Von Korff, M., J.Gruman, J.Schaefer, S.J.Curry, and E.H.Wagner. 1997. Collaborative management of chronic illness. Ann Intern Med 127 (12):1097–102. Von Korff, M., G.Nestadt, A.Romanoski, J. Anthony, W.Eaton, A.Merchant, R.Chahal, M. Kramer, M.Folstein, and E.Gruenberg. 1985. Prevalence of treated and untreated DSM-III schizophrenia. Results of a two-stage community survey. J Nerv Ment Dis173 (10):577–81. Wadden, T.A., and G.D.Foster. 2000. Behavioral treatment of obesity. Med Clin North Am84 (2):441–61, vii. Wagner, E.H., S.J.Curry, L.Grothaus, K.W. Saunders, and C.M.McBride. 1995. The impact of smoking and quitting on health care use. Arch Intern Med155 (16):1789–95. Wagner, E.H., B.T.Austin, and M.Von Korff. 1996. Organizing care for patients with chronic illness. Milbank Q74 (4):511–44. Wagner, E.H., R.E.Glasgow, C.Davis, A.E. Bonomi, L.Provost, D.McCulloch, P.Carver, and C.Sixta. 2001a. Quality improvement in chronic illness care: A collaborative approach. Jt Comm J Qual Improv27 (2):63–80. Wagner, E.H., N.Sandhu, K.M.Newton, D.K. McCulloch, S.D.Ramsey, and L.C.Grothaus. 2001b. Effect of improved glycemic control on health care costs and utilization. JAMA285 (2): 182–9. Wagner, E.H., B.T.Austin, C.Davis, M. Hindmarsh, J.Schaefer, and A.Bonomi. 2001c. Improving chronic illness care: Translating evidence into action. Health Aff (Millwood)20 (6):64–78. Wahlbeck, K., M.Cheine, and M.A.Essali. 2000. Clozapine versus typical neuroleptic medication for schizophrenia. Cochrane Database Syst Rev (2):CD000059. Wallander, J.L., J.W.Varni, L.Babani, H.T.Banis, and K.T.Wilcox. 1988. Children with chronic physical disorders: Maternal reports of their psychological adjustment. J Pediatr Psychol13 (2): 197–212. Wallander, J.L., J.W.Varni, L.Babani, C.B. DeHaan, K.T.Wilcox, and H.T.Banis. 1989. The social environment and the adaptation of mothers of physically handicapped children. J Pediatr Psychol14 (3):371–87. Walston, J., and L.P.Fried. 1999. Frailty and the older man. Med Clin North Am83 (5): 1173–94. Wang, P.S., P.Berglund, and R.C.Kessler. 2000. Recent care of common mental disorders in the United States: Prevalence and conformance with evidence-based recommendations. J Gen Intern Med15 (5):284–92. Wang, P.S., O.Demler, and R.C.Kessler. 2002. Adequacy of treatment for serious mental illness in the United States. Am J Public Health92 (1):92–8. Weaver, W.D., R.J.Simes, A.Betriu, C.L.Grines, F.Zijlstra, E.Garcia, L.Grinfeld, R.J.Gibbons, E.E.Ribeiro, M.A.DeWood, and F.Ribichini. 1997. Comparison of primary coronary angioplasty and intravenous thrombolytic therapy for acute myocardial infarction: A quantitative review. JAMA278 (23):2093–8.

    OCR for page 41
    Priority Areas for National Action: Transforming Health Care Quality Weiland, S.K., I.B.Pless, and K.J.Roghmann. 1992. Chronic illness and mental health problems in pediatric practice: Results from a survey of primary care providers. Pediatrics89 (3):445–9. Weinstein, R.A.1998. Nosocomial infection update. Emerg Infect Dis4 (3):416–20. Weiss, K.B., and S.D.Sullivan. 2001. The health economics of asthma and rhinitis. I. Assessing the economic impact. J Allergy Clin Immunol 107 (1):3–8. Weiss, K.B., S.D.Sullivan, and C.S.Lyttle. 2000. Trends in the cost of illness for asthma in the United States, 1985–1994. J Allergy Clin Immunol106 (3):493–9. Wells, K.B.2002a. Mental Disorders and Candidate Quality Improvement Conditions. Presented at May 9–10, 2002 Priority Areas for Quality Improvement Meeting. Wells, K.B.2002b. The story and findings of Partners in Care. From Jackson-Triche M, Wells KB, Minnium K. Beating Depression: The Journey to Hope. New York: McGraw Hill. Wells, K.B., C.Sherbourne, M.Schoenbaum, N. Duan, L.Meredith, J.Unutzer, J.Miranda, M.F. Carney, and L.V.Rubenstein. 2000. Impact of disseminating quality improvement programs for depression in managed primary care: A randomized controlled trial . JAMA283 (2):212–20. Wells, K.B., A.Stewart, R.D.Hays, M.A.Burnam, W.Rogers, M.Daniels, S.Berry, S.Greenfield, and J.Ware. 1989. The functioning and well-being of depressed patients. Results from the Medical Outcomes Study. JAMA262 (7):914– 9. Wenzel, R.P., and M.B.Edmond. 2001. The impact of hospital-acquired bloodstream infections. Emerg Infect Dis7 (2): 174–7. Whelton, P.K., J. He, L.J.Appel, J.A.Cutler, S. Havas, T.A.Kotchen, E.J.Roccella, R.Stout, C.Vallbona, M.C.Winston, and J.Karimbakas. 2002. Primary prevention of hypertension: Clinical and public health advisory from the national high blood pressure education program. JAMA288 (15):1882–8. Whitney, C.G., M.M.Farley, J.Hadler, L.H. Harrison, C.Lexau, A.Reingold, L.Lefkowitz, P.R.Cieslak, M.Cetron, E.R.Zell, J.H. Jorgensen, and A.Schuchat. 2000. Increasing prevalence of multidrug-resistant streptococcus pneumoniae in the United States. N Engl J Med 343 (26):1917–24. Willcox, S.M., D.U.Himmelstein, and S. Woolhandler. 1994. Inappropriate drug prescribing for the community-dwelling elderly. JAMA272 (4):292–6. Wisborg, K., T.B.Henriksen, C.Obel, E.Skajaa, and J.R.Ostergaard. 1999. Smoking during pregnancy and hospitalization of the child. Pediatrics104 (4):e46. World Health Organization. 1996. With a guide to opioid availability. Cancer Pain Relief.2nd edition. Geneva: World Health Organization. ——. 2000. “Global Burden of Disease 2000 Version 1 Estimates.” Online. Available at http://www3.who.int/whosis/menu [accessed May 29, 2002]. Yanovski, S.Z., and J.A.Yanovski. 2002. Obesity. N Engl J Med346 (8):591–602. Young, A.S., R.Klap, C.D.Sherbourne, and K.B. Wells. 2001. The quality of care for depressive and anxiety disorders in the United States. Arch Gen Psychiatry58 (1):55–61. Yusuf, S., R.Peto, J.Lewis, R.Collins, and P. Sleight. 1985. Beta blockade during and after myocardial infarction: An overview of the randomized trials. Prog Cardiovasc Dis27 (5):335–71. Zech, D.F., S.Grond, J.Lynch, D.Hertel, and K.A. Lehmann. 1995. Validation of World Health Organization Guidelines for cancer pain relief: A 10-year prospective study. Pain63 (1):65– 76. Zeiger, R.S., S.Heller, M.H.Mellon, J.Wald, R. Falkoff, and M.Schatz. 1991. Facilitated referral to asthma specialist reduces relapses in asthma emergency room visits. J Allergy Clin Immunol87 (6): 1160–8. Zhan, C., J.Sangl, A.S.Bierman, M.R.Miller, B. Friedman, S.W.Wickizer, and G.S.Meyer. 2001. Potentially inappropriate medication use in the community-dwelling elderly: Findings from the 1996 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey. JAMA286 (22):2823–9.

    OCR for page 41
    Priority Areas for National Action: Transforming Health Care Quality This page in the original is blank.