F
Biographical Sketches

COMMITTEE ON THE CONSEQUENCES OF UNINSURANCE SUBCOMMITTEE ON COMMUNITY EFFECTS OF UNINSURED POPULATIONS

Mary Sue Coleman, Ph.D., Co-chair, is president of the University of Michigan. She is professor of biological chemistry in the University of Michigan Medical School and professor of chemistry in the College of Literature, Science and the Arts. She previously was president of the University of Iowa and president of the University of Iowa Health Systems (1995–2002). Dr. Coleman served as provost and vice president for academic affairs at the University of New Mexico (1993– 1995) and dean of research and vice chancellor at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (1990–1992). She was both faculty member and Cancer Center administrator at the University of Kentucky in Lexington for 19 years, where her research focused on the immune system and malignancies. Dr. Coleman is a member of the Institute of Medicine (IOM) and a fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science. She serves on the Iowa Governor’s Strategic Planning Council, the Board of Trustees of the Universities Research Association, the Board of Governors of the Warren G. Magnuson Clinical Center at the National Institutes of Health, and other voluntary advisory bodies and corporate boards.

Arthur L. Kellermann, M.D., M.P.H., Co-chair, is professor and director, Center for Injury Control, Rollins School of Public Health, Emory University, and professor and chairman, Department of Emergency Medicine, School of



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A Shared Destiny: Community Effects of Uninsurance F Biographical Sketches COMMITTEE ON THE CONSEQUENCES OF UNINSURANCE SUBCOMMITTEE ON COMMUNITY EFFECTS OF UNINSURED POPULATIONS Mary Sue Coleman, Ph.D., Co-chair, is president of the University of Michigan. She is professor of biological chemistry in the University of Michigan Medical School and professor of chemistry in the College of Literature, Science and the Arts. She previously was president of the University of Iowa and president of the University of Iowa Health Systems (1995–2002). Dr. Coleman served as provost and vice president for academic affairs at the University of New Mexico (1993– 1995) and dean of research and vice chancellor at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (1990–1992). She was both faculty member and Cancer Center administrator at the University of Kentucky in Lexington for 19 years, where her research focused on the immune system and malignancies. Dr. Coleman is a member of the Institute of Medicine (IOM) and a fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science. She serves on the Iowa Governor’s Strategic Planning Council, the Board of Trustees of the Universities Research Association, the Board of Governors of the Warren G. Magnuson Clinical Center at the National Institutes of Health, and other voluntary advisory bodies and corporate boards. Arthur L. Kellermann, M.D., M.P.H., Co-chair, is professor and director, Center for Injury Control, Rollins School of Public Health, Emory University, and professor and chairman, Department of Emergency Medicine, School of

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A Shared Destiny: Community Effects of Uninsurance Medicine, Emory University. Dr. Kellermann has served as principal investigator or co-investigator on several research grants, including federally funded studies of handgun-related violence and injury, emergency cardiac care, and the use of emergency room services. Among many awards and distinctions, he is a fellow of the American College of Emergency Physicians (1992), is the recipient of a meritorious service award from the Tennessee State Legislature (1993) and the Hal Jayne Academic Excellence Award from the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine (1997), and was elected to membership in the Institute of Medicine (1999). In addition, Dr. Kellermann is a member of the Editorial Board of the journal Annals of Emergency Medicine, and has served as a reviewer for the New England Journal of Medicine, the Journal of the American Medical Association, and the American Journal of Public Health. Ronald M. Andersen, Ph.D. is the Fred W. and Pamela K. Wasserman Professor of Health Services and professor of sociology at the University of California at Los Angeles School of Public Health. He teaches courses in health services organization, research methods, evaluation, and leadership. Dr. Andersen received his Ph.D. in sociology at Purdue University. He has studied access to medical care for his entire professional career of 30 years. Dr. Andersen developed the Behavioral Model of Health Services Use that has been used extensively nationally and internationally as a framework for utilization and cost studies of general populations as well as special studies of minorities, low income, children, women, the elderly, oral health, the homeless, and the HIV-positive population. He has directed three national surveys of access to care and has led numerous evaluations of local and regional populations and programs designed to promote access to medical care. Dr. Andersen’s other research interests include international comparisons of health services systems, graduate medical education curricula, physician health services organization integration, and evaluations of geriatric and primary care delivery. He is a member of the Institute of Medicine and was on the founding board of the Association for Health Services Research. He has been chair of the Medical Sociology Section of the American Sociological Association. In 1994 he received the association’s Leo G. Reeder Award for Distinguished Service to Medical Sociology; in 1996 he received the Distinguished Investigator Award from the Association for Health Services Research; and in 1999 he received the Baxter Allegiance Health Services Research Prize. John Ayanian, M.D., M.P.P. is associate professor of medicine and health care policy at Harvard Medical School and Brigham and Women’s Hospital, where he practices general internal medicine. His research focuses on quality of care and access to care for major medical conditions, including colorectal cancer and myocardial infarction. He has extensive experience in the use of cancer registries to assess outcomes and evaluate the quality of cancer care. In addition, he has studied the effects of race and gender on access to kidney transplants and on quality of care for other medical conditions. Dr. Ayanian is deputy editor of the journal Medical

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A Shared Destiny: Community Effects of Uninsurance Care, a Robert Wood Johnson Foundation Generalist Physician Faculty Scholar, and a fellow of the American College of Physicians. David W. Baker, M.D., M.P.H.* is associate professor of medicine and chief, Division of General Internal Medicine, Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University in Chicago, Illinois. His research has focused on access to health care and health care delivery for vulnerable populations. He is currently principal investigator for a study examining health outcomes for the uninsured among a national sample of adults 51–61 years old in the Health and Retirement Study. He is also principal investigator for a study examining trends in mortality rates for patients hospitalized in northeast Ohio. Other areas of interest include the effect of limited reading ability and language barriers on patients’ health care use and the cost-effectiveness of screening patients for early heart disease. He has served on the Cuyahoga County Access to Care Coalition, the Cuyahoga County Community Health Assessment Project, and the Ohio Department of Health State Health Resources Plan Task Force. Regina M. Benjamin, M.D., M.B.A.* is associate dean for rural health at the University of South Alabama (USA) in Mobile, Alabama, where she administers the USA-Telehealth and the Alabama-Area Health Education Center programs. In addition, she is a clinical professor at the University of Alabama-Birmingham. She established and operates the Bayou La Batre Rural Health Clinic in Bayou La Batre, Alabama. In 1998 she was the United States recipient of the Nelson Mandela Award for Health and Human Rights. In 1995, Dr. Benjamin was elected to the American Medical Association Board of Trustees, making her the first physician under age 40 and the first African American woman to be elected. She serves on the Board of Physicians for Human Rights, as well as a number of professional and philanthropic boards and commissions. Dr. Benjamin is a diplomate of the American Board of Family Practice and a fellow of the American Academy of Family Physicians. She was a Kellogg National Fellow and a Rockefeller Next Generation Leader. Dr. Benjamin was named by Time Magazine as one of the “Nation’s 50 Future Leaders Age 40 and Under.” She was featured in a New York Times article, “Angel in a White Coat,” “Person of the Week” on ABC’s World News Tonight with Peter Jennings, “Woman of the Year” by CBS This Morning, and on the December 1999 cover of Clarity Magazine. She previously served as a member of the Committee on Cancer Research Among Minorities and the Medically Underserved. Robert J. Blendon, M.B.A., Sc.D. is currently professor of health policy and political analysis at both the Harvard School of Public Health and the John F. Kennedy School of Government and has received outstanding teaching awards *   Member, Subcommittee on the Community Effects of Uninsured Populations.

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A Shared Destiny: Community Effects of Uninsurance from both institutions. He also directs the Harvard Opinion Research Program and the Henry J. Kaiser National Program on the Public, Health and Social Policy, which focuses on the better understanding of public knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs about major domestic public policy issues. Dr. Blendon also co-directs the Washington Post-Kaiser Family Foundation (KFF) survey project, which was nominated for a Pulitzer Prize, and a new project for National Public Radio and KFF on American attitudes toward health and social policy, which was cited by the National Journal as setting a new standard of public opinion surveys in broadcast journalism. From 1987 to 1996, Dr. Blendon served as chair of the Department of Health Policy and Management at the Harvard School of Public Health and as deputy director of the Harvard University Division of Health Policy Research and Education. Prior to his Harvard appointment, Dr. Blendon was senior vice president at The Robert Wood Johnson Foundation. He was senior editor of a three-volume series, The Future of American Health Care, and is a member of the Institute of Medicine, the advisory committee to the director of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and the editorial board of the Journal of the American Medical Association. Dr. Blendon is a graduate of Marietta College and received his master’s of business administration and doctoral degrees from the University of Chicago and the Johns Hopkins School of Public Health, respectively. Sheila P. Davis, B.S.N., M.S.N., Ph.D. is associate professor, Department of Adult Health, in the School of Nursing at the University of Mississippi Medical Center. She is also vice president of Davis, Davis & Associates, a health management consultant company. Her research focuses on minority health issues, especially cardiovascular risk among ethnic populations. Dr. Davis is the founder and chair of the Cardiovascular Risk Reduction in Children Committee at the University of Mississippi. This is a multidisciplinary committee (physicians, nurses, dietician, health educator, college administrator, nurse practitioners, etc.) committed to reducing cardiovascular risks in children. Dr. Davis is a member of the American Nurses’ Association and has written numerous publications on the profession and the experiences of ethnic minorities in the health professions. She is author of a faith-based program Healthy Kid’s Seminar, which is used to promote adoption of healthy life-style choices by children. George C. Eads, Ph.D. is vice president of Charles River Associates (CRA), Washington, D.C., office and is an internationally known expert in the economics of the automotive and airlines industries. Prior to joining CRA, Dr. Eads was vice president and chief economist at General Motors Corporation. He frequently represented the corporation before congressional committees and federal regulatory agencies. He has served as a member of the President’s Council of Economic Advisers and as a special assistant to the assistant attorney general in the Antitrust Division of the U.S. Department of Justice. Dr. Eads has published numerous

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A Shared Destiny: Community Effects of Uninsurance books and articles on the impact of government on business and has taught at several major universities, including Harvard and Princeton. Sandra R. Hernández, M.D.* is chief executive officer (CEO) of The San Francisco Foundation, a community foundation serving the five Bay Area counties. It is one of the largest community foundations in the country. Dr. Hernández is a primary care internist who previously held a number of positions within the San Francisco Department of Public Health, including director of the AIDS Office, director of community public health, county health officer, and finally director of health for the City and County of San Francisco. She was appointed to and served on President Clinton’s Advisory Commission on Consumer Protection and Quality in the Healthcare Industry. Among the many honors and awards bestowed on her, Dr. Hernandez was named by Modern Healthcare magazine as one of the top ten health care leaders for the next century. Dr. Hernández is a graduate of Yale University, Tufts School of Medicine, and the JFK School of Government at Harvard University. She is on the faculty of University of California at San Francisco School of Medicine and maintains an active clinical practice at San Francisco General Hospital in the AIDS Clinic. Ichiro Kawachi, M.D., Ph.D. * is director of the Harvard Center for Society and Health at the Harvard School of Public Health, where he also holds an appointment as associate professor of health and social behavior. Dr. Kawachi’s current research ranges from the psychosocial predictors of health and illness (job stress, social networks and support, and psychological factors) to the investigation of more distal societal influences on population health (income distribution, social capital, and gender inequality). Dr. Kawachi is the recipient of a Robert Wood Johnson Investigator Award in Health Policy Research for his work on income distribution, social capital, and health. He recently coedited the first textbook on social epidemiology as well as a reader on income inequality and health. Dr. Kawachi is a member of the Research Advisory Committee of the Pan American Health Organization–WHO, and also acted as a consultant to the World Bank on social capital and health. For the past three years, he has served as a core member of the MacArthur Foundation Network on Socioeconomic Status and Health. Dr. Kawachi is also senior editor of the international journal Social Science & Medicine. Ronda Kotelchuck, M.R.P.* is executive director of the Primary Care Development Corporation (PCDC), a public–private partnership initiative to build primary care centers in New York City’s underserved communities. Prior to PCDC, she worked for the New York City Health and Hospitals Corporation (HHC) where, as vice president for corporate planning and intergovernmental *   Member, Subcommittee on the Community Effects of Uninsured Populations.

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A Shared Destiny: Community Effects of Uninsurance relations, she spearheaded HHC’s 1989 strategic plan, financial restructuring, and Communicare program, a city initiative that expanded community-based primary care. Ms. Kotelchuck previously worked for the New York City Financial Control Board and the Greater Boston Health Systems Agency. She speaks and has written broadly on health care topics. She is a fellow of the New York Academy of Medicine. Ms. Kotelchuck received her B.A. from Lewis and Clark College and her M.R.P. from Cornell University. Willard G. Manning, Ph.D. is professor in the Department of Health Studies, Pritzker School of Medicine, and in the Harris School of Public Policy, at the University of Chicago. His primary research focus has been the effects of health insurance and alternative delivery systems on the use of health services and health status. He is an expert in statistical issues in cost-effectiveness analysis and small area variations. His recent work has included examination of mental health services use and outcomes in a Medicaid population, and cost-effectiveness analysis of screening and treating depression in primary care. Dr. Manning is a member of the Institute of Medicine. James J. Mongan, M.D. is president and CEO of Partners HealthCare, Inc. and was previously president of Massachusetts General Hospital. Dr. Mongan served as assistant surgeon general in the Department of Health and Human Services, as former associate director for health and human resources, Domestic Policy Staff, the White House; and as former deputy assistant secretary for health policy, Department of Health, Education and Welfare. Dr. Mongan is chair of the Task Force on the Future of Health Insurance for Working Americans, a nonpartisan effort of the Commonwealth Fund to address the implications of the changing U.S. workforce and economy for the availability and affordability of health insurance, is a member of the Kaiser Family Foundation Board and the Kaiser Commission on the Medicaid and the Uninsured. Keith Mueller, Ph.D.* is director of the Nebraska Center for Rural Health Research and a professor in the Department of Preventive and Societal Medicine (section chief, Health Services Research and Rural Health Policy) at the University of Nebraska Medical Center. Dr. Mueller’s doctoral training is in political science, with additional post-doctorate training in health services research. He was the 1996–1997 President of the National Rural Health Association and is a member of the Health Delivery Panel of the Rural Policy Research Institute. His research interests include policy analysis, access to care among the uninsured, and managed care. *   Member, Subcommittee on the Community Effects of Uninsured Populations.

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A Shared Destiny: Community Effects of Uninsurance Christopher Queram, M.A.* has been CEO of the Employer Health Care Alliance Cooperative (The Alliance) of Madison, Wisconsin, since 1993. The Alliance is a purchasing cooperative owned by more than 175 member companies that contracts with providers, manages and reports data, performs consumer education, and designs employer and provider quality initiatives. Prior to his current position, Mr. Queram served as vice president for programs at Meriter Hospital, a 475-bed hospital in Madison. Mr. Queram is a member of the Board of the National Business Coalition on Health and served as board chair for the past two years. He was a member of the President’s Advisory Commission on Consumer Protection and Quality in the Health Care Industry. Mr. Queram served as a member of the Planning Committee for the National Quality Forum and continues as convenor of the Purchaser Council of the Forum. He is a member of the Wisconsin Board on Health Information and the Board of the Wisconsin Private Employer Health Care Coverage program. He holds a master’s degree in health services administration from the University of Wisconsin at Madison and is a fellow in the American College of Healthcare Executives. Shoshanna Sofaer, Ph.D. is the Robert P. Luciano Professor of Health Care Policy at the School of Public Affairs, Baruch College, in New York City. She completed her master’s and doctoral degrees in public health at the University of California, Berkeley; taught for six years at the University of California, Los Angeles School of Public Health; and served on the faculty of George Washington University Medical Center, where she was professor, associate dean for Research of the School of Public Health and Health Services, and director of the Center for Health Outcomes Improvement Research. Dr. Sofaer’s research interests include providing information to individual consumers on the performance of the health care system; assessing the impact of information on both consumers and the system; developing consumer-relevant performance measures; and improving the responsiveness of the Medicare program to the needs of current and future cohorts of older persons and persons with disabilities. In addition, Dr. Sofaer studies the role of community coalitions in pursuing public health and health care system reform objectives and has extensive experience in the evaluation of community health improvement interventions. She has studied the determinants of health insurance status among the near-elderly, including early retirees. Dr. Sofaer served as co-chair of the Working Group on Coverage for Low Income and Non-Working Families for the White House Task Force on Health Care Reform in 1993. Currently, she is co-chair of the Task Force on Medicare of the Century Foundation in New York City, a member of the IOM Board of Health Care Services, and a member of the Health Systems Study Section of the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. *   Chair, Subcommittee on the Community Effects of Uninsured Populations.

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A Shared Destiny: Community Effects of Uninsurance Mary B. Tierney, M.D.* is senior primary care advisor at the American Institutes for Research in Washington, D.C. She also has hospital privileges at the Children’s National Medical Center in Washington, D.C. Dr. Tierney previously was an associate clinical professor of child health and development at the George Washington University School of Medicine. Formerly, she was chair, Department of Pediatrics at the Public Benefits Corporation of the District of Columbia. She is a member of the American Academy of Pediatrics and is featured in Who’s Who in American Women. Dr. Tierney’s research interests includes clinical child development, special needs children, Medicaid and State Children’s Health Insurance Program policy, quality assurance, and public health. Stephen J. Trejo, Ph.D. is associate professor in the Department of Economics at the University of Texas at Austin. His primary research focus has been in the field of labor economics. He has examined the response of labor market participants to the incentives created by market opportunities, government policies, and the institutional environment. Specific research topics include the economic effects of overtime pay regulation; immigrant labor market outcomes and welfare recipiency; the impact of labor unions on compensation, employment, and work schedules; the importance of sector-specific skills; and the relative economic status of Mexican Americans. Reed V. Tuckson, M.D.* is senior vice president of Consumer Health and Medical Care Enhancement at United Health Group. Formerly, he was senior vice president, Professional Standards, at the American Medical Association. Dr. Tuckson was President of Charles R. Drew University, School of Medicine and Science from 1991 to 1997. From 1986 to 1990, he was commissioner of public health for the District of Columbia. Dr. Tuckson serves on a number of health care, academic, and federal boards and committees and is a nationally known lecturer on topics concerning community-based medicine, the moral responsibilities of health professionals, and physician leadership. He currently serves on the IOM Roundtable on Research and Development of Drugs, Biologics, and Medical Devices and is a member of the Institute of Medicine. Edward H. Wagner, M.D., M.P.H., F.A.C.P. is a general internist–epidemiologist and Director of the W.A. (Sandy) MacColl Institute for Healthcare Innovation at the Center for Health Studies (CHS), Group Health Cooperative. He is also professor of health services at the University of Washington School of Public Health and Community Medicine. Current research interests include the development and testing of population-based care models for diabetes, frail elderly, and other chronic illnesses; the evaluation of the health and cost impacts of chronic disease and cancer interventions; and interventions to prevent disability and re *   Member, Subcommittee on the Community Effects of Uninsured Populations.

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A Shared Destiny: Community Effects of Uninsurance duce depressive symptoms in older adults. Dr. Wagner has written two books and more than 200 journal articles. He serves on the editorial boards of Health Services Research and the Journal of Clinical Epidemiology and acts as a consultant to multiple federal agencies and private foundations. He recently completed a stint as senior advisor on managed care initiatives in the Director’s Office of the National Institutes of Health. As of June 1998, he directs Improving Chronic Illness Care (ICIC), a national program of The Robert Wood Johnson Foundation. The overall goal of ICIC is to assist health systems improve their care of chronic illness through quality improvement and evaluation, research, and dissemination. Dr. Wagner is also principal investigator of the Cancer Research Network, a National Cancer Institute funded consortium of 10 health maintenance organizations (HMOs) conducting collaborative cancer effectiveness research. Mary Wakefield, R.N., Ph.D. * is Director, Center for Rural Health, at the University of North Dakota and was previously professor and director of the Center for Health Policy, Research, and Ethics at George Mason University. Previously, Dr. Wakefield served as chief of staff for two U.S. senators. During her tenure on Capitol Hill, she co-chaired the Senate Rural Health Caucus Staff Organization. In this capacity, she was directly involved with a wide range of rural health policy issues including recruitment and retention of health care providers, reimbursement, emergency services, telemedicine, rural research, and interdisciplinary education. Dr. Wakefield serves on many health-related advisory boards, and in March 1997, she was appointed to President Clinton’s Advisory Commission on Consumer Protection and Quality in the Health Care Industry. Dr. Wakefield previously served as a member of the Committee on Quality of Health Care in America. Lawrence Wallack, Dr.P.H. is professor of public health and director, School of Community Health, at Portland State University. He is also emeritus professor of public health, University of California, Berkeley. Dr. Wallack’s primary interest is in the role of mass communications, particularly the news media, in shaping public health issues. His current research is on how public health issues are framed in print and broadcast news. He is principal author of Media Advocacy and Public Health: Power for Prevention and News for a Change: An Advocate’s Guide to Working with the Media. He is also co-editor of Mass Communications and Public Health: Complexities and Conflicts. Dr. Wallack has published extensively on topics related to prevention, health promotion, and community interventions. Specific content areas of his research and intervention work have included alcohol, tobacco, violence, handguns, sexually transmitted diseases, cervical and breast cancer, affirmative action, suicide, and childhood lead poisoning. Dr. Wallack is a member of the IOM Committee on Communication for Behavior Change in the 21st Century: Improving the Health of Diverse Populations. *   Member, Subcommittee on the Community Effects of Uninsured Populations.

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A Shared Destiny: Community Effects of Uninsurance Institute of Medicine Staff Wilhelmine Miller, M.S., Ph.D. is a senior program officer in the Division of Health Care Services. She served as staff to the Committee on Immunization Finance Policy and Practices, conducting and directing case studies of health care financing and public health services. Prior to joining the IOM, Dr. Miller was an adjunct faculty member in the Departments of Philosophy at Georgetown University and Trinity College, teaching political philosophy, ethics, and public policy. She received her doctorate from Georgetown, with studies and research in bioethics and issues of social justice. In 1994–1995, Dr. Miller was a consultant to the President’s Advisory Committee on Human Radiation Experiments. Dr. Miller was a program analyst in the Department of Health and Human Services for 14 years, responsible for policy development and regulatory review in areas including hospital and HMO payment, prescription drug benefits, and child health. Her M.S. from Harvard University is in health policy and management. Dianne Miller Wolman, M.G.A. joined the Health Care Services Division of the Institute of Medicine in 1999 as a senior program officer. She directed the study that resulted in the IOM report Medicare Laboratory Payment Policy: Now and in the Future, released in 2000. Her previous work experience in the health field has been varied and extensive, focused on finance and reimbursement in insurance programs. She came from the U.S. General Accounting Office, where she was a senior evaluator on studies of the Health Care Financing Administration, its management capacity, and its oversight of Medicare contractors. Prior to that, she was a reimbursement policy specialist at a national association representing nonprofit providers of long-term care services. Her earlier positions included policy analysis and management in the Office of the Secretary in the Department of Health and Human Services and work with a peer review organization, a governor’s task force on access to health care, and a third-party administrator for very large health plans. In addition, she was policy director for a state Medicaid rate-setting commission. She has a bachelor’s degree in sociology from Brandeis University and a master’s degree in government administration from Wharton Graduate School, University of Pennsylvania. Lynne Page Snyder, Ph.D., M.P.H. is a program officer in the IOM’s Division of Health Care Services. She came to IOM from the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, where she worked as a public historian, documenting and writing about past federal activities in medicine, health care, and public health. In addition, she has worked for the Social Science Research Council’s Committee on the Urban Underclass and served as a graduate fellow at the Smithsonian Institution’s National Museum of American History. She has published on twentieth-century health policy, occupational and environmental health, and minority health. Current research interests include long-term care, health literacy, and access to care by low-income seniors. She earned her doctorate in the

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A Shared Destiny: Community Effects of Uninsurance history and sociology of science from the University of Pennsylvania (1994), working under Rosemary Stevens, and received her M.P.H. from the Johns Hopkins School of Hygiene and Public Health (2000). Tracy McKay, B.A. is a research associate in the IOM Division of Health Care Services. She has worked on several projects, including the National Roundtable on Health Care Quality; Children, Health Insurance, and Access to Care; Quality of Health Care in America; and a study on non-heart-beating organ donors. She has assisted in the research for the National Quality Report on Health Care Delivery, Immunization Finance Policies and Practices, and Extending Medicare Coverage for Preventive and Other Services and helped develop this project on the consequences of uninsurance from its inception. Ms. McKay received her B.A. in sociology from Vassar College in 1996. Ryan Palugod, B.S. is a senior program assistant in the IOM Division of Health Care Services. Prior to joining the project staff in 2001, he worked as an administrative assistant with the American Association of Homes, Services for the Aging. He graduated with honors from Towson University with a degree in health care management in 1999. Consultants to the Committee on the Consequences of Uninsurance Darrell J. Gaskin, Ph.D. is deputy director of the Center for Health Disparities Solutions and research scientist in the Department of Health Policy and Management at the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. Prior to joining the Hopkins faculty, he was a research professor at Georgetown University’s Institute for Health Care Research and Policy. He is an expert in the areas of access to care for the low-income and uninsured and the health care safety net. Dr. Gaskin is the principal investigator for a study funded by the Commonwealth Fund entitled “The Impact of Managed Care and Medicaid Payment Changes on Urban Safety Net Hospitals.” Dr. Gaskin is also involved in the IOM’s ongoing study of academic health center hospitals and their missions. He is a staff member of the Commonwealth Fund Task Force on Academic Health Centers. Dr. Gaskin’s other research interests include the impact of market forces and public policy on physicians’ behavior, hospitals’ provision of mental health care and patients’ treatment decision making. Dr. Gaskin recently received the Academy of Health Services Research and Health Policy 2002 Article-of-the-Year Award for his Health Services Research article entitled, “Are Urban Safety Net Hospitals Losing Low-Risk Medicaid Maternity Patients.” Jack Needleman, Ph.D. is assistant professor of economics and health policy in the Department of Health Policy and Management at Harvard University. Dr. Needleman’s research examines the impact of changes in the health care market

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A Shared Destiny: Community Effects of Uninsurance and regulation on health care providers and consumers. Recent work looks at the future of public hospitals and clinics, the impact of the Balanced Budget Act on safety net hospitals, market change and access to inpatient psychiatric services for Medicaid and uninsured patients, the relationship of nurse staffing and hospital quality, and quality of care for Medicaid beneficiaries with diabetes. Dr. Needleman has done extensive research on nonprofit and for-profit hospitals, including the extent and impact of changes in hospital ownership from nonprofit or public to for-profit corporations. He teaches and conducts program evaluation. Dr. Needleman has a Ph.D. in public policy from Harvard University.