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8 References ACC/SCN (Administrative Committee on Coordination/Sub-Committee on Nutri- tion). 2000. Fourth Report on The World Nutrition Situation. Geneva: ACC/SCN in collaboration with IFPRI. Pp. 27-29. Aickin M, Ritenbaugh C. 1991. Estimation of the true distribution of vitamin A intake by the unmixing algorithm. Commun Stat Sim 20:255-280. ARS (Agriculture Research Service) . 1998. Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Indi- viduals (C8FIIJ 1994-96, 1998. CD-ROM. Beltsville, MD: ARS. Bandini LO, Schoeller DA, Cry HN, Dietz WH. 1990. Validity of reported energy intake in obese and nonobese adolescents. Am J Clin Nutr 52:421-425. Beaton GH. 1994. Criteria of an adequate diet. In: Shils ME, Olson ~A, Shike M, eds. Modern Nutrition in Health and Disease, 8th ed. Philadelphia: Lea & Febiger. Pp. 1491-1505. Beaton GH, Milner l, McGuire V, Feather TE, Little ~A. 1983. Source of variance in 24-hour dietary recall data: Implications for nutrition study design and inter- pretation. Carbohydrate sources, vitamins, and minerals. Am ~ Clin Nutr 37:986-995. Beaton GH, Burema J. Ritenbaugh C. 1997. Errors in interpretation of dietary assessments. Am ~ Clin Nutr 65:1100S-1107S. Becker W. Welten D. 2001. Under-reporting in dietary surveys implications for development of food-based dietary guidelines. Public Health Nutr 4:683-687. Becker W. Foley S. Shelley E, Gibney M. 1999. Energy under-reporting in Swedish and Irish dietary surveys: Implications for food-based dietary guidelines. Bri Nutr 81 :S127-S131. Berner LA, Clydesdale FM, Douglass ~S. 2001. Fortification contributed greatly to vitamin and mineral intakes in the United States, 1989-1991. {Nub 131:2177- 2183. Black AK, Cole TJ. 2001. Biased over- or under-reporting is characteristic of indi- viduals whether over time or by different assessment methods. JAm Diet Assoc 101 :70-80. 156

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REFERENCES 157 Black AK, Goldberg OR, Webb SA, Livingstone MBE, Cole Tl, Prentice AM. 1991. Critical evaluation of energy intake data using fundamental principles of energy physiology: 2. Evaluating the results of published surveys. Ear ~ Clin Nutr 45:583-599. Black AK, Prentice AM, Goldberg OR, Jebb SA, gingham SA, Livingstone MB, Conward WA. 1993. Measurements of total energy expenditure provide insights into the validity of dietary measurements of energy intake. f Am Diet Assoc 93:572-579. Briefel RR, Sempos CT, McDowell MA, Chien S. Alaimo K. 1997. Dietary methods research in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey: Underreporting of energy intake. Am ~ Clin Nutr 65: 1203S-1209S. Burghardt ~A, Gordon AR, Fraker TM. 1995. Meals offered in the national school lunch program and the school breakfast program. Am ~ Clin Nutr 61:187S- 198S. CDC/NCHS (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention/National Center for Health Statistics). 2000. 2000 CDC Growth Charts. Online. Available at http:// www.cdc.gov/growthcharts/. Accessed December 3, 2002. CFIA (Canadian Food Inspection Agency) . 1996. Guide to Food Labelling and Adver- tising. Online. Available at http://www.inspection.gc.ca/english/bureau/ labeti/guide/guidee.shtml. Accessed December 3, 2002. COMA (Committee on Medical Aspects of Food Policy). 1991. Dietary Reference Values for Food Energy and Nutrients for the United Kingdom. Report on Health and Social Subjects, No. 41. London: Her Majesty's Stationary Office. Consumer and Corporate Affairs Canada. 1988. Guide for rood Manufacturers and Advertisers. Ottawa: Consumer Products Branch, Bureau of Consumer Affairs. Demirjian A. 1980. Anthropometry Report. Height, Weight, and Body Dimensions: A Report from Nutrition Canada. Ottawa: Minister of National Health and Welfare, Health and Promotion Directorate, Health Services and Promotion Branch. Devaney BL, Gordon AR, Burghardt JA. 1995. Dietary intakes of students. Am f Clin Nutr 61:205S-221S. FAD/WHO (Food and Agriculture Organization/World Health Organization). 1970. Requirements of AscorbicAcid, Vitamin D, Vitamin B12, Folate, and Iron. Report of a Joint FAD/WHO Expert Group. WHO Technical Report Series No. 452. Geneva: WHO. FAD/WHO. 1988. Requirements of Vitamin A, Iron, Folate, and Vitamin B12. Report of a Joint FAD/WHO Expert Consultation. FAO Food and Nutrition Series No. 23. Rome: FAO. FAO/WHO/UNU (United Nations University). 1985. Energy and Protein Require- ments. Report of a Joint FAO/WHO/UNU Expert Consultation. Technical Report Series No. 724. Geneva: WHO. FDA (U.S. Food and Drug Administration) .1999. The Food Label. FDA Backgrounder. May 1999. Online. Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition. Available at http://www.cfsan.fda.gov/~dms/fdnewlab.html. Accessed November 18, 2002. FDA. 2000. Guidance on How to Understand and Use the Nutrition Facts Panel on Food Labels. Online. Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition. Available at http://www.cfsan.fda.gov/~dms/foodlab.html. Accessed May 16, 2002. Fox MK, Crepinsek MK, Connor P. Battaglia M. 2001. School Nutrition Dietary Assess- ment Study: II. Final Report. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Food and Nutrition Service. Gentle JE. 1998. Random Number Generation and Monte Carlo Methods. New York: Springer-Verlag. ,Z,

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158 DIETARY REFERENCE INTAKES Goldberg OR, Black AK, Webb SA, Cole Tl, Murgatroyd PR, Conward WA, Prentice AM. 1991. Critical evaluation of energy intake data using fundamental princi- ples of energy physiology: 1. Derivation of cut-off limits to identify under- recording. Euri Clin Nutr 45:569-581. Goris AHC, Westerterp-Plantenga MS, Westerterp KR. 2000. Undereating and underrecording of habitual food intake in obese men: Selective underreporting of fat intake. Am ~ Clin Nutr 71:130-134. Goyeneche 0, Carriquiry A, Fuller WA. 1997. Estimating bivariate usual intake distributions. ASA Proceedings of the Biometrics Section. Alexandria, VA: American Statistical Association. Guenther PM, Kott PS, Carriquiry AL. 1997. Development of an approach for estimating usual nutrient intake distributions at the population level. {Nub 127:1106-1112. Health Canada. 1990a. Action Towards Healthy Eating. Canada's Guidelinesfor Healthy Eating and Recommended Strategies for Implementation. The Report of the Commu- nications/Implementation Committee. Ottawa: Public Works and Government Service Canada. Health Canada. 1990b. Nutrition Recommendations. The Report of the Scientific Review Committee 1990. Ottawa: Canadian Government Publishing Centre. Health Canada. 1991. Canada's Food Guide to Healthy Eating. Ottawa: Minister of Supply and Services. Health Canada. 1997. Using the rood Guide. Ottawa: Public Works and Government Service Canada. Health Canada. 1998. Handbook for Canada's Physical Activity Guide to Healthy Active Living. Ottawa: Health Canada and the Canadian Society for Exercise Physiology. Health Canada. 1999. The Addition of Vitamins and Minerals to Foods: Proposed Policy Recommendations. Ottawa: Bureau of Nutritional Sciences, Food Directorate, Health Protection Branch. Health Canada. 2002. Nutrition Labels. Online. Available at http://www.hc- sc.gc.ca/hppb/nutrition/labels/e_before.html. Accessed November 27, 2002. Herman-Giddens ME, Slora El, Wasserman RC, Bourdony Cl, Bhapkar MV, Koch GO, Hasemeier CM. 1997. Secondary sexual characteristics and menses in young girls seen in office practice: A study from the Pediatric Research in Of lice Settings Network. Pediatrics 99:505-512. HHS (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services). 1996. Physical Activity and Health: A Report of the Surgeon General. Atlanta: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Pro- motion. Hoffmann K, Boeing H. Dufour A, Volatier ~L, Telman l, Virtanen M, Becker S. DeHenauw S. 2002. Estimating the distribution of usual dietary intake by short- term measures. Ear f Clin Nutr 56:S53-S62. Hunt OR, Roughead ZK 1999. Nonheme-iron absorption, fecal ferritin excretion, and blood indexes of iron status in women consuming controlled lactoovo- vegetarian diets for 8 wk. Am J Clin Nutr 69:944-952. Hunt JR, Matthys LA, Johnson LK 1998. Zinc absorption, mineral balance, and blood lipids in women consuming controlled lactoovovegetarian and omnivo- rous diets for 8 wk. Am ~ Clin Nutr 67:421-430. IOM (Institute of Medicine) . 1990. Nutrition During Pregnancy: Part I: Weight Gain, Part II: Nutrient Supplements. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. IOM. 1992. Nutrition DuringPregnancy and Lactation: An Implementation Guide. Wash- ington, DC: National Academy Press.

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REFERENCES 159 IOM. 1994. How Should the Recommended Dietary Allowances Be Revised ? Washington, DC: National Academy Press. IOM. 1995. Estimated Mean per Capita Energy RequirementsforPlanningEmergencyFood Aid Rations. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. IOM. 1997. Dietary Reference Intakes for Calcium, Phosphorus, Magnesium, Vitamin D, and Fluoride. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. IOM. 1998a. Dietary Reference Intakes for Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. IOM. 1998b. Prevention of Micronutrient Deficiencies: Tools for Policymakers and Public Health Workers. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. IOM. 1999. Dietary Reference Intakes: A Risk Assessment Model for Establishing Upper Intake Levels for Nutrients. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. IOM. 2000a. Dietary Reference Intakes: Applications in Dietary Assessment. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. IOM. 2000b. Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin C, Vitamin E, Selenium, and Caro- tenoids. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. IOM. 2001. Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin X, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. IOM. 2002a. Dietary Reference Intakes for Energy, Carbohydrate, Fiber, Fat, Fatty Acids, Cholesterol, Protein, and Amino Acids. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. IOM. 2002b. High-Energy, Nutrient-Dense Emergency Relief Food Product. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. Jacques PF, Bostom AG, Williams RR, Ellison RC, Eckfeldt OH, Rosenberg IH, Selhub l, Rozen R. 1996. Relation between folate status, a common mutation in methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase, and plasma homocysteine concentra- tions. Circulation 93:7-9. Johansson L, Solvoll K, Aa Bjorneboe G-E, Drevon CA. 1998. Under- and over- reporting of energy intake related to weight status and lifestyle in a nation- wide sample. Am ~ Clin Nutr 68:266-274. Johnson RK, Soultanakis RP, Matthews DE. 1998. Literacy and body fatness are associated with underreporting of energy intake in US low-income women using the multiple-pass 24-hour recall: A doubly labeled water study. f Am Diet Assoc 98:1136-1140. Kaczkowski CH, ~ones PIH, Feng l, Bayley HS. 2000. Four-day multimedia diet records underestimate energy needs in middle-aged and elderly women as determined by doubly-labeled water. JNutr 130:802-805. Krebs-Smith SM, Graubard BI, Kahle LL, Subar AF, Cleveland LE, Ballard-Barbash R. 2000. Low energy reporters vs. others: A comparison of reported food intakes. Eur J Clin Nutr 54:281-287. Kuczmarski MF, Kuczmarski Rl, Naiiar M. 2001. Effects of age on validity of self- reported height, weight, and body mass index: Findings from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1988-1994. {Am Diet Assoc 101 :28-34. Kuczmarski Rl, Ogden CL, Grummer-Strawn LM, Flegal KM, Guo SS, Wei R. Mei Z. Curtin LR, Roche AF, Johnson CL. 2000. CDC growth charts: United States. Advance Data from Vital and Health Statistics 314: 1-28. Ladizesky M, Lu Z. Oliveri B. San Roman N. Diaz S. Holick MF, Mautalen C. 1995. Solar ultraviolet B radiation and photoproduction of vitamin D3 in central and southern areas of Argentina. ~ Bone Miner Res 10:545-549.

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160 DIETARY REFERENCE INTAKES Larsson CL, Westerterp KR, ~ohansson GK. 2002. Validity of reported energy expenditure and energy and protein intakes in Swedish adolescent vegans and omnivores. Am ~ Clin Nutr 75:268-274. Lewis Cl, Crane NT, Wilson DB, Yetley EA. 1999. Estimated folate intakes: Data updated to reflect food fortification, increased bioavailability, and dietary sup- plement use. Am ~ Clin Nutr 70:198-207. MacLaughlin l, Holick MF. 1985. Aging decreases the capacity of human skin to produce vitamin D. ~ Clin Invest 76:1536-1538. Martin Ll, Su W. Jones Pl, Lockwood GA, Tritchler DL, Boyd NF. 1996. Compari- son of energy intakes determined by food records and doubly labeled water in women participating in a dietary-intervention trial. Am ~ Clin Nutr 63:483-490. Mertz W. Tsui ~C, Judd IT, Reiser S. Hallfrisch l, Morris ER, Steele PD, Lashley E. 1991. What are people really eating? The relation between energy intake derived from estimated diet records and intake determined to maintain body weight. Am ~ Clin Nutr 54:291-295. Mertz W. Abernathy CO, Olin SS. 1994. Risk Assessment of Essential Elements. Wash- ington, DC: ILSI Press. Messina VK, Burke KI. 1997. Position of the American Dietetic Association: Vege- tarian diets. f Am Diet Assoc 97: 1317-1321. Monsen ER, Hallberg L, Layrisse M, Hegsted DM, Cook ~D, Mertz W. Finch CA. 1978. Estimation of available dietaryiron. AmiClinNutr 31:134-141. Northwest Territories Aboriginal Head Start Program. 2002. N.W.T. Food Guide. Online. Available at www.nwtheadstart.org/comp_nutrition_food_guide.htm. Accessed August 16, 2002. NRC (National Research Council). 1968. Recommended Dietary Allowances, 7th ed. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. NRC. 1986. Nutrient Adequacy: Assessment Using Food Consumption Surveys. Wash- ington, DC: National Academy Press. NRC. 1989. Recommended Dietary Allowances, 10th ed. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. Nusser SM, Carriquiry AL, Dodd KW, Fuller WA. 1996. A semiparametric transfor- mation approach to estimating usual daily intake distributions. jAm Stat Assoc 91:1440-1449. PCRM (Physicians Committee for Responsible Medicine). 1997. The origin of U.S. Dietary Guidelines. Online. Good Medicine. Available at http://www.pcrm.org/ magazine/GM97Autumn/GM97Autumn2.html. Accessed November 27, 2002. Pett LB, Ogilvie GH. 1956. The Canadian Weight-Height Survey. Hum Biol 28:177- 188. Prentice AM, Black AK, Coward WA, Davies HL, Goldberg GR, Murgatroyd PR, Ashford J. Sawyer M, Whitehead RG. 1986. High levels of energy expenditure in obese women. Br Med {292:983-987. Saint L, Maggiore P. Hartmann PK. 1986. Y~eld and nutrient content of milk in eight women breast-feeding twins and one woman breast-feeding triplets. Bri Nutr 56:49-58. Sawaya AL, Tucker K, Tsay R. Willett W. Saltzman E, Dallal GE, Roberts SB. 1996. Evaluation of four methods for determining energy intake in young and older women: Comparison with doubly labeled water measurements of total energy expenditure. Am ~ Clin Nutr 63:491-499. Shaw A, Fulton L, Davis C, Hogbin M. 1996. Using the rood Guide Pyramid: A Resource for Nutrition Education. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Food, Nutrition and Consumer Services, Center for Nutrition Policy and Promotion.

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REFERENCES 161 Sichert-Hellert W. Kersting M, Schoh G. 1999. Consumption of fortified foods between 1985 and 1996 in 2- to 14-year-old German children and adolescents. Int Food Sci Nutr 50:65-72. Stallone DD, Brunner El, gingham SA, Marmot MG. 1997. Dietary assessment in Whitehall II: The influence of reporting bias on apparent socioeconomic vari- ation in nutrientintakes. EurtClinNutr51:815-825. Steel ROD, Torrie OH, Dickey DA. 1997. Principles and Procedures of Statistics. A Biometrical Approach, 3rd ed. Boston: WCB McGraw-Hill. P. 612. Subar AF, Harlan LC, Mattson ME. 1990. Food and nutrient intake differences between smokers and non-smokers in the US. AmiPublicHealth 80:1323-1329. Tarasuk VS, Beaton GH. 1999. Women's dietary intakes in the context of house- hold food insecurity. {Nub 129:672-679. Tomoyasu Nl, Toth Ml, Poehlman ET. 1999. Misreporting of total energy intake in older men and women. jAm Geriatr Soc 47:710-715. USDA (U.S. Department of Agriculture) . 1992. The Food Guide Pyramid. Home and Garden Bulletin No. 252. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office. USDA/ARS (Agricultural Research Service). 1997. 1994-96 Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals (C~FII 1994-969. Riverdale, MD: USDA. USDA/HHS (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services). 1980. Nutrition and Your Health: Dietary Guidelines for Americans. Home and Garden Bulletin No. 232. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office. USDA/HHS. 2000. Nutrition and Your Health: Dietary Guidelines for Americans, 5th ed. Home and Garden Bulletin No. 232. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office. Welsh SO, Davis C, Shaw A. 1993. U8DA's Food Guide: Background and Development. Miscellaneous Publication No. 1514. Hyattsville, MD: USDA. Webb AR, Kline L, Holick MF. 1988. Influence of season and latitude on the cutaneous synthesis of vitamin D3: Exposure to winter sunlight in Boston and Edmonton will not promote vitamin D3 synthesis in human skin. ~ Clin Endo- crinol Metab 67:373-378. Whittaker P. Tufaro PR, Rader JL. 2001. Iron and folate in fortified cereals. {Am Coll Nutr 20:247-254. Willett W. Stampfer Ml. 1986. Total energy intake: Implications for epidemiologic analyses. Am {Epidemiol 124:17-27.

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