principle for sharing integral data and materials expeditiously (UPSIDE),” as follows:

Community standards for sharing publication-related data and materials should flow from the general principle that the fundamental purpose of publication of scientific information is to move science forward. More specifically, the act of publishing is a quid pro quo in which authors receive credit and acknowledgment in exchange for disclosure of their scientific findings. An author’s obligation is not only to release data and materials to enable others to verify or replicate published findings (as journals already implicitly or explicitly require) but also to provide them in a form on which other scientists can build with further research. All members of the scientific community— whether working in academia, government, or commercial enterprise—share responsibility for upholding community standards as equal participants in the publication system, and all should be equally able to derive benefits from it.

Along with UPSIDE, five additional principles guide the development and implementation of community standards. Chapters 3 and 4 discuss those principles and the nuances of how they are embodied in examples of community standards for sharing data, software, and materials. New community standards are likely to evolve as science itself changes, but the principles remain a fundamental underpinning of the their development. The principles motivate the creation of standards that maximize the value of scientific findings to the community, because this has proved to be the way that science progresses most rapidly. In addition to the principles of publication, Chapters 3 and 4 include the Committee’s recommendations for increasing the effectiveness of community standards for sharing data and materials.



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