years at the Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, including 6 years at the Armed Forces Research Institute of Medical Sciences in Bangkok, Thailand. His research focuses on the epidemiology and prevention of human epidemic virus diseases including HIV/AIDS, dengue, flavivirus encephalitis, and hepatitis. He is past President of the American Society of Tropical Medicine. He has served on the NRC Roundtable for the Development of Drugs and Vaccines Against AIDS, the NRC Committee on Climate, Ecology, Infectious Diseases, and Human Health (as Chairman), the IOM Committee to Review the Department of Defense Global Emerging Infections Surveillance and Response System, and currently serves on Board of the IOM Medical Follow-up Agency.

GAIL H. CASSELL, PH.D., is Vice President of Scientific Affairs and Distinguished Research Scholar in Infectious Diseases, Eli Lilly and Company, former Vice President, Infectious Diseases Research, Drug Discovery Research, and Clinical Investigation, at Eli Lilly & Company. Previously, she was the Charles H. McCauley Professor and (since 1987) Chair, Department of Microbiology, University of Alabama Schools of Medicine and Dentistry at Birmingham, a department that, under her leadership, has ranked first in research funding from the National Institutes of Health since 1989. She is a member of the Director’s Advisory Committee of the National Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Dr. Cassell is past President of the American Society for Microbiology, a former member of the National Institutes of Health Director’s Advisory Committee, and a former member of the Advisory Council of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases. She has also served as an advisor on infectious diseases and indirect costs of research to the White House Office on Science and Technology and was previously Chair of the Board of Scientific Counselors of the National Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Dr. Cassell served 8 years on the Bacteriology-Mycology-II Study Section and served as its chair for 3 years. She serves on the editorial boards of several prestigious scientific journals and has authored more than 250 articles and book chapters. She has been intimately involved in the establishment of science policy and legislation related to biomedical research and public health. Dr. Cassell has received several national and international awards and an honorary degree for her research on infectious diseases.

JIM YONG KIM, M.D., PH.D., a physician–anthropologist, is a Founding Trustee of Partners in Health (PIH), a Harvard-affiliated non-profit organization that supports health projects in poor communities in Peru, Mexico, Guatemala, Haiti, Russia, and the United States. His main areas of expertise are infectious diseases and access to pharmaceuticals in poor popula-

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