Index

A

Aberration detection and response, 297–299

Academia, 12, 13, 14, 15, 189, 203

comprehensive research agenda and, 221

inappropriate use of antimicrobials and, 207

Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), 2, 20, 24, 32, 41, 227.

See also Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)

antiretroviral therapy for, 85, 90box, 150, 227

antivirals and, 198

famine and, 126

global burden of, 25–26, 27fig., 28–29

increasing incidence of, 59box

nosocomial infections and, 112

social network model and, 339

sub-Saharan Africa and, 26, 28, 128box, 150, 227

Acute respiratory disease, 73, 287

Aerosol terrorist attacks, 48, 49, 50, 131, 132, 134–135

Afghanistan, 157box

Africa, 21, 26, 36t, 70, 188

cholera in, 109, 110

demographic changes in, 81

food emergencies in, 125

HIV/AIDS in, 26, 28, 128box, 150, 227

illicit drug use in, 87, 88

Lassa fever virus in, 73

malaria in, 31, 35t

malnutrition in, 63

measles in, 115

political instability in, 228

sexually transmitted diseases in, 89– 90box

tuberculosis in, 30–31

vaccinations in, 114

yellow fever in, 68, 186

Agency for International Development (USAID)

global disease surveillance and, 9, 159

interdisciplinary disease centers and, 17, 224

response capacity, 8, 151

vaccine strategy and, 13, 190

Agent-based models, 337–338

Agriculture, 3, 20, 22, 126

ecosystem disruption and, 67

inappropriate use of antimicrobials and, 207–209

international trade and, 103–104

Agriculture, Department of (USDA)

diagnostic tests and, 11, 179

disease control and, 15



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Index A Aberration detection and response, 297–299 Academia, 12, 13, 14, 15, 189, 203 comprehensive research agenda and, 221 inappropriate use of antimicrobials and, 207 Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), 2, 20, 24, 32, 41, 227. See also Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) antiretroviral therapy for, 85, 90box, 150, 227 antivirals and, 198 famine and, 126 global burden of, 25–26, 27fig., 28–29 increasing incidence of, 59box nosocomial infections and, 112 social network model and, 339 sub-Saharan Africa and, 26, 28, 128box, 150, 227 Acute respiratory disease, 73, 287 Aerosol terrorist attacks, 48, 49, 50, 131, 132, 134–135 Afghanistan, 157box Africa, 21, 26, 36t, 70, 188 cholera in, 109, 110 demographic changes in, 81 food emergencies in, 125 HIV/AIDS in, 26, 28, 128box, 150, 227 illicit drug use in, 87, 88 Lassa fever virus in, 73 malaria in, 31, 35t malnutrition in, 63 measles in, 115 political instability in, 228 sexually transmitted diseases in, 89– 90box tuberculosis in, 30–31 vaccinations in, 114 yellow fever in, 68, 186 Agency for International Development (USAID) global disease surveillance and, 9, 159 interdisciplinary disease centers and, 17, 224 response capacity, 8, 151 vaccine strategy and, 13, 190 Agent-based models, 337–338 Agriculture, 3, 20, 22, 126 ecosystem disruption and, 67 inappropriate use of antimicrobials and, 207–209 international trade and, 103–104 Agriculture, Department of (USDA) diagnostic tests and, 11, 179 disease control and, 15

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domestic disease surveillance and, 10, 167 global disease surveillance and, 9, 151 global response capacity and, 8, 151 interdisciplinary disease centers and, 17, 224 Plum Island facility, 183box Air travel, 99–101 American trypanosomiasis, 95 Andes virus, 68, 74, 75fig. Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS), 183box Animal husbandry practices, 91–93 anthrax and, 133box inappropriate use of antimicrobials and, 207–209 influenza virus and, 145–146 Animal reservoirs, 2, 4, 59box, 68 abundance and distribution of, 71–75 changes in environment and, 64 domestic animals, 223 increased human contact with, 5, 20, 75–76, 213 of influenza viruses, 139, 141 intelligence gathering about, 324–325 Animals, 22, 166 antibiotic use in, 211box antimicrobials in growth promotion of, 15 raised as food products, 6 relation to microbes, 54 Anthrax (Bacillus anthracis), 20, 46, 48–49, 166 diagnostics and, 174–175 immunohistochemistry and, 177 as natural zoonotic disease, 223 need for stockpile of antimicrobials and, 203 public health capacity and, 162 syndromic surveillance and, 282–283, 287, 289 terrorists and, 34t, 130, 132, 133box, 134, 165, 186 vaccine for, 187 Antibiotics, 24box, 184, 190–191, 192– 195t, 320 animal husbandry and, 92–93 bacterial resistance to, 146–147 bioterrorism and, 48, 49 broad-spectrum, 11, 175 chronic conditions treated with, 43 inappropriate use of, 176 new classes of, 13–14 Antigenic drift, 142, 144 Antimicrobial resistance, 32, 38–40, 41fig., 202, 212box, 320 animal husbandry practices and, 92 climate change and, 65 diagnostics and, 176 tuberculosis control and, 117 Antimicrobials, 6, 91 in aquaculture, 93–94 inappropriate use of, 11, 14–15, 204– 209 need for new drugs, 13–14, 190–191, 192–197t, 198, 199t, 200fig., 201– 204 Antiretroviral therapy, 150, 201t, 227 Antitoxins, 14, 204 Antivirals, 14, 143, 203 HIV and, 198, 201 influenza and, 201–202 need for new drugs, 191, 195–197t, 198 Aquaculture, 93–94, 104 Arbovirus, 118 Archaea pathogens, 313, 314 Arenaviruses, 72, 73 Argentina, 73, 74 Argentine hemorrhagic fever, 73 Arthropod vectors, 68, 70, 71, 185, 186, 213 Asia, 71, 73, 77, 89–90box, 155 “Asian flu,” 138 Aspergillosis/Aspergillus spp., 66box, 86 Atherosclerosis, 42t, 44 Aum Shinrikyo, 130 Australia, 36t, 40, 72box Autopsies, 177, 178box Avian influenza, 33fig., 139, 141fig., 142fig., 144 B Babesiosis, 95 Bacteria, 23n, 34–35t. See also Microbes; Microbial threats; specific species chronic conditions associated with, 42t diversity of, 313 etiologic diagnosis and, 178 genetic mutations in, 56 human immune system and, 57 multidrug-resistant, 2

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Bangladesh, 30, 78, 110 Bartonella henselae, 179 Behavior. See High-risk behaviors; Human behavior Belarus, 115 Biological agents, intentional use of, 17, 49– 50, 130–131, 228. See also Terrorism aerosol dissemination, 134–135 anthrax, 20, 46, 48–49, 281, 307 emerging viruses likely to be used, 47box influenza virus and, 146 intelligence gathering about, 324 national security and, 3, 7, 130 nature of threat, 131–133 research agenda and, 16, 131 surveillance systems and, 10, 132 Biology of Disease Vectors course, 214 Bisexual men, 87, 88, 90box. See also Gay men Blastomycosis, 66box Blood product safety, 6, 94–95 Bolivian hemorrhagic fever, 73 Borna disease virus, 179 Borrelia burgdorferi, 42t, 43 Botswana, 124 Botulinum toxin, 46, 50–51, 130, 283 Botulism, 47box Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), 95, 104, 106, 108box, 129box Brazil, 76, 110, 188 Brucellosis, 47box, 88, 289 Bubonic plague, 111 Bulgaria, 123box C Cambodia, 30, 98 Campylobacter jejuni, 42t, 92, 317 Campylobacter spp., 106–107 Canada, 138–139, 147, 156 Cancers, 43, 318 Candidiasis, 66box Cardiovascular disease, 44 Caribbean Epidemiology Center, 154 Castleman’s disease, 42t Center for Discrete Mathematics and Theoretic Computer Science, 341 Centers, interdisciplinary disease, 16–17, 222–226 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), 98, 151, 159. See also Emerging Infections Program (EIP) anthrax attacks and, 133box comprehensive research agenda and, 16, 221 disease reporting of, 10, 98 Division of Vector-borne Infectious Diseases, 118 Epidemic Intelligence Service (EIS) and, 181–182 etiologic diagnosis and, 11, 179, 205 global response capacity and, 8, 151 hantavirus emergence and, 75 inappropriate use of antimicrobials and, 14, 207 influenza virus and, 156 interdisciplinary disease centers and, 17, 224 malaria reports and, 31 molecular biology and, 213, 214, 215 on nosocomial infections, 112 organ/tissue transplantation and, 96 public health capacity and, 96, 160, 161 surveillance networks and, 9, 11, 154– 155, 159, 164, 167, 170, 282, 284, 289. See also Syndromic surveillance training of health professionals and, 12, 182, 183 vaccines and, 186 Cervical cancer, human papillomavirus and, 42t, 44–46 Chagas’ disease, 70, 185 Children, 23, 78 child care demographics in United States, 79box HIV/AIDS and, 26, 28 influenza virus and, 144 malaria and, 31 malnutrition in, 63–64 China, People’s Republic of, 21, 28, 40, 158 AIDS in, 227 influenza viruses in, 138, 142fig., 145 population growth in, 78 Three Gorges Project in, 77 tuberculosis in, 30 vaccines in, 188 Chlamydia, 89box Chlamydia pneumoniae, 42t, 44 Chlamydia trachomatis, 42t Chloroquinine resistance, 97

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Cholera, 7, 21, 33fig., 34t, 165 international commerce/travel and, 97 poor sanitation and, 221 public health breakdown and, 107, 108– 110 in refugee camps, 126 Chronic wasting disease (CWD), 109box Ciprofloxacin, 203–204 Climate, 4, 20, 54box, 64–65, 67, 336. See also Weather Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments (CLIA), 175 Clostridium perfringens, epsilon toxin of, 47box Clostridium sordellii, 96 Coccidioides, 66box, 92 Coccidioidomycosis, 65, 66box Colombia, 98 Commerce, international, 1, 2, 6, 19, 54box, 104–105 Concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs), 91–92 Congo, Democratic Republic of, 108, 126, 128box. See also Zaire Cote d’Ivoire, 113box, 157box Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists (CSTE), 165 Coxsackievirus, 42t Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, variant (vCJD), 33fig., 37t, 94, 95 autopsies and, 178box cattle herds and, 108–109box outbreak in United Kingdom, 106, 108box public health ignorance and, 129box Cruise ships, 101–103 Cryptococcosis, 66box Cryptosporidiosis, 33fig., 35t, 65, 67box Cryptosporidium, 79box, 92 Cumulative sums (CUSUM) method, 297– 298 Cyclosporiasis, 1, 33fig., 35t Cytokines, inflammatory, 61 Cytomegalovirus (CMV), 42t, 44 D Dams, 20, 75, 77 Data collection, 10 DDT (pesticide), 118, 216, 217 Deer mouse, 74 Deer tick, 76 DEET (insect repellent), 217 Defense, Department of (DOD), 151, 171, 203 biological weapons and, 50 diagnostic tests and, 11, 179 disease control and, 15 global response capacity and, 8, 151 infectious disease surveillance and, 9, 154, 155, 159 interdisciplinary disease centers and, 17, 224 syndromic surveillance and, 287–288 training of health professionals and, 12 Triservice Serum Repository, 177 vaccines and, 13, 187 vector control and, 219 Deforestation, 75, 149, 221 Demographics, 6, 28–29, 54box, 78–88 Dengue, 33fig., 35t dengue hemorrhagic fever and shock syndrome (DHF-SS), 120–121box, 185–186 ecological factors and, 221 harmonic decomposition analysis and, 337 vaccine for, 185, 189 vector ecology of, 68, 70 Denmark, 208, 223–224 Developing countries, 8, 13, 149, 206, 221. See also specific countries cervical cancer in, 44–45 demographic changes in, 80–81, 82fig. food imported from, 105 human resource capacity of, 214 infectious disease surveillance in, 154 technological advances lacking in, 23 vaccines and, 184, 185 Diagnostics, 174–177, 319, 323 defense against biological attack and, 2, 324 development and use of, 11, 174–177 diagnostic pathology, 177–178 inappropriate use of antimicrobials and, 15, 205 microbiological, 178 Diarrheal diseases, 24box, 26t, 63, 138, 314 Digital microbes, 340 Diphtheria, 33fig., 34t, 115–116, 188

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Directly observed therapy (DOT), 29, 117, 119 Diseases. See also specific diseases as agents of biological warfare, 47box chronic, with infectious etiology, 41–46 comprehensive research agenda into, 220–222 computational modeling and simulation of, 335–341 emerging, 32, 33fig., 34–37t global burdens of, 8 political destabilization and, 150 social/political instability and, 2–3, 21 waterborne, 65 DNA, 56, 58box, 60, 98box antivirals and, 191 etiologic diagnosis and, 179 intelligence gathering and, 325 ribosomal (rDNA), 315, 316, 321, 322 Dobrava-Belgrade virus, 74 Domestic surveillance systems, 299–301, 302–305t Drop-in surveillance systems, 285, 286t, 291, 292 Drug resistance. See Antimicrobial resistance Drugs, illicit, 86–88, 220 Duffy antigen, 62 Dysentery, 126 E Early Warning Outbreak Recognition System (EWORS), 307 Ebola virus, 33fig., 36t, 129box, 156 as agent of biological warfare, 47box antivirals and, 198 autopsies and, 178box biological warfare and, 130 Epidemic Intelligence Service (EIS) and, 182 outbreak in Zaire (1995), 112, 113box Eco-epidemiology, 336 Economic development, 4–5, 21, 54box, 68, 75–77 Ecosystems, disruption of, 2, 4, 17, 54box, 67–75 Ecuador, 110 Egypt, 69box, 77, 101box, 155, 157box, 188 EHealth Initiative, 295 Ehrlichiosis, 68 El Nino weather events, 65, 74, 75 Elderly people, 44, 78, 80–81, 112 Electron microscopy, 44 Electronic Surveillance System for Early Notification of Community-based Epidemics (ESSENCE), 171, 172– 173box, 287–288, 291, 292, 300– 301, 307 EMERGEncy ID NET, 168t, 282 Emerging Infections: Microbial Threats to Health in the United States (1992 report), 3, 21, 53, 149, 164, 220 Emerging Infections Program (EIP), 164, 166–167box, 168t, 282, 289, 322. See also Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Encephalitis viruses, 47box, 72box, 179, 314 Energy, Department of, 16, 17, 221, 224 Enteric bacteria, 42t Enterococcus, vancomycin-resistant, 94, 114, 208 Enterovirus 71, 33fig., 36t Entomological surveillance, 9, 15, 209 Epidemic Information Exchange (Epi-X), 161box Epidemic Intelligence Service (EIS), 181–182 Epidemics, 2, 11, 72, 136, 282 Epidemiologists/epidemiology, 181, 291, 298, 299 experimental, 336–340 historical foundations of, 335–336 Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), 42t Equine encephalitis viruses, 47box Erlichiosis, 71, 213 Escherichia coli, 33fig., 34t, 42t as agent of biological warfare, 47box enterotoxigenic (ETEC), 105box, 106 food/water contamination and, 92 genetic mutation of, 56 sources and distribution of, 91box Estonia, 116 Ethiopia, 28, 157box Etiologic diagnosis, 11, 175–180, 205 Europe, 71, 73, 121, 208 demographic changes in, 81 poverty in, 123box sexually transmitted diseases in, 89box vaccines in, 188 Eutrophication, 92

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F False-positive test results, 321 Famine, 7, 17, 126, 220 Federal agencies, 12, 151, 159. See also specific agencies antimicrobial strategy and, 203 epidemiology and, 183–184 vaccine strategy and, 189–190 Field Epidemiology Training Programs (FETPs), 182 Filariasis, 70 Filoviruses, 113box Finland, 176 Fish pathogens, 103–104 Fluoroquinolone, resistance to, 39, 40– 41fig., 92 Fogarty International Center for Advanced Study in the Health Sciences (FIC), 153, 215 Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), 125 Food and Drug Administration (FDA), 10, 17, 95, 167 animal husbandry practices and, 209 etiologic diagnosis and, 11, 179 inappropriate use of antimicrobials and, 14, 15, 206, 207 xenotransplantation and, 97 Food imports, 104–105 Food Safety and Inspection Service, 17, 224 Food safety threats, 47box, 48 Foodborne illnesses, 99, 104, 105, 106–107, 132, 167box FoodNet surveillance network, 106, 167box, 168t, 282 Foot and mouth disease, 104, 223 Foundations, 13, 15, 17, 215 Fourier analysis, 337 France, 101box Fruit bats, 36t, 37t, 324 Fungi, 23n, 66box, 86 G Gay men, 87, 88, 90box. See also Bisexual men Gene expression patterns, 317–319 Genetic polymorphisms, 60, 61–63 Genome sequence analysis, 315 Geographic clustering, 298 Geographic information systems (GIS), 15, 219, 223, 298 GeoSentinel, 307 Geospatial coding, 11 Giardia lamblia, 79box, 92 Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunization, 13, 190 Global Emerging Infections Surveillance (GEIS), 9, 155, 159, 172–173box, 287 Global Fund, 130 Global Outbreak Alert and Response Network, 157box Global Plan to Stop tuberculosis, 130 Global Public Health Intelligence Network (GPHIN), 156, 157box, 158 Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency, 62 Gonococcal Isolate Surveillance Project (GISP), 168t Gonococci, 39, 40 Gonorrhea, 89box, 128box Guanarito virus, 68, 72 Guatemala, 105, 110 H Haemophilus influenzae, 97 Haldane, J.B.S., 61 Handwashing practices, 112 Hantaan virus, 73–74 Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome, 1, 21, 33fig., 36t, 73, 74, 165, 215 Hantaviruses, 65, 72, 158, 182. See also Rodents; Sin Nombre virus as agent of biological warfare, 47box distribution of, 73–75 syndromic surveillance and, 282 vector ecology of, 68 Harmonic decomposition analysis, 336–337 Health Alert Network (HAN), 160–162 Health and Human Services, Department of (DHHS), 13, 14, 119, 189, 203, 204 Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA), 119– 120, 297 Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA), 10, 153, 167 Healthy People 2010, 114 Helicobacter pylori, 42t, 43

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Helminths, 23n, 43t Hemagglutinin (HA), 142–144 Hemoglobinopathies, 61–62 Hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS), 42t, 91box Hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS), 74 Hendra virus, 33fig., 36t, 324 Hepatitis A, 87, 94 Hepatitis B, 6, 42t, 87, 95, 97 antivirals for, 191 liver cancer and, 122 Hepatitis C, 6, 33fig., 42t, 87, 97 antivirals for, 191 blood transfusions and, 95 etiologic diagnosis and, 179 transmission of, 94 Herpes simplex virus (HSV), 44, 179, 203, 320 High-risk behaviors, 86–88 Histocompatibility complex class I molecules, 63 Histoplasma capulatum fungus, 66box HLA-DR class II genes, 62 Holland, 138 Homeland Security, Department of, 13, 14, 189, 190, 203 Hong Kong, 39–40, 141–142, 144, 145, 146, 158, 202 “Hong Kong flu,” 138 “Hot zones,” 155–156 Housing, 20 Human behavior, 2, 6, 54box, 78–88, 145– 146 Human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs), 58box Human genome project, 62, 325 Human herpesvirus-8 (HHV-8), 42t Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), 2, 6, 20, 26, 64, 78, 122. See also Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) antigenic drift and, 144 antivirals for, 191, 198, 201 assays for, 320 chemokine receptor CCR5 and, 63 commercial sex trade and, 83 drug-resistant, 38 famine and, 126 high-risk behaviors and, 86, 87–88 “hot zones” and, 156 international commerce/travel and, 97 life expectancy in developing countries and, 81 medical description, 36t PCR assays and, 179 simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) and, 76 social network model and, 339 vaccine against, 57, 185, 227 Human organ transplants, 6 Human papilloma virus (HPV) 16, 18, 31, 45, 42t, 44–46 Human resource capacity, 213–215 Human T-cell lymphotrophic viruses (HTLV-1, -2), 42t Hungary, 123box Hygiene, conditions of inadequate, 6, 24box, 107–114 I Immune system, human, 4, 57, 63, 95 Immunizations, 6, 80, 114–116, 341. See also vaccines Immunocompromised populations, 6, 66box, 78, 85–86 Immunohistochemistry, 177 India, 21, 28, 62 cholera in, 110 HIV/AIDS in, 227 leishmaniasis in, 70 plague in, 110, 111 population growth in, 78 tuberculosis in, 30 vaccines in, 188 Indonesia, 30, 72box, 78, 110, 307 Industry, 13, 14, 17, 88, 91, 203. See also Technology animal husbandry practices, 91–93 aquaculture, 93–94 comprehensive research agenda and, 221 coordinated approach to solutions and, 189 as factor in emergence of infectious disease, 54box inappropriate use of antimicrobials and, 207 Inequality. See Social inequality Infant/child mortality rates, 24box Infection, susceptibility to, 4, 54box, 60–64, 143–144

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Infectious Diseases Society of America Emergency Infections Network (IDSA EIN), 282 Infertility, 42t Influenza, 2, 6, 14, 136, 140fig. adaptability of, 54, 56 aerosol transmission of, 134 as agent of biological warfare, 47box antivirals for, 191, 201–202 avian H5N1, 36t ecological factors, 144 epidemics and pandemics of, 136, 137box, 138 genetic and biological factors, 139, 140– 144 impact on society and economy, 138– 139 international commerce/travel and, 97, 98, 102–103 preparedness for pandemic, 146–147 social, political, and economic factors, 145–146 surveillance programs and, 225–226, 296, 300 vaccine strains for, 185 WHO progams to combat, 156 Insects, 103 Institute of Medicine (IOM), 3, 119, 158, 281 animal husbandry practices and, 208 Emerging Infections report, 21, 53, 149, 220 on public health capacity, 162 Insurance claims, 295box, 296 International Classification of Disease (ICD) codes, 171, 288, 291, 292, 300 International Collaborations in Infectious Disease Research (ICIDR), 215 International surveillance systems, 301, 306–307 Internet, 156, 160–161, 164 network modeling and, 339–340 outbreak reporting on, 306 syndromic surveillance and, 282 terrorism and, 46 Iran, 110 Iraq, 110 Israel, 101box, 307 J Japan, 145, 188 Japanese encephalitis, 68, 72box, 77 Joint Vaccine Acquisition Program, 50 Junin virus, 73 K Kenya, 88, 155 Korea, 158 Korean hemorrhagic fever, 74 L Lactoferrin enzyme, 60 Land use, 4–5, 20, 54box, 75–77, 221 Lassa fever, 33fig., 73, 112 as agent of biological warfare, 47box ecological factors and, 221 rodent vectors of, 324 Latin America, 28, 35t, 70, 78, 87, 188 cholera in, 109, 110 sexually transmitted diseases in, 89box LEADER (Lightweight Epidemiology and Advanced Detection and Emergency Response System), 298 Lechiguanas virus, 75fig. Legionnaire’s disease, 88, 102, 154, 165, 282 Leishmaniasis, 70, 84–85, 118, 185 Leptospirosis, 178box Life expectancy, 81, 83fig. Listeria monocytogenes, 106 Livestock, 19 Long-Term Ecological Research Site (New Mexico), 74 Lyme disease, 34t, 68, 71, 165, 213 arthritis and, 42t blood transfusions and, 95 ecological factors and, 221 land use patterns and, 76 Lymphatic filariasis, 70, 185 M Machupo virus, 73 Malaria, 1, 2, 7, 21, 35t, 151 blood transfusions and, 95 drug-resistant, 33fig., 38, 205–206, 227

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ecological factors and, 221 effort to eradicate, 128–129box genetic polymorphisms and, 61–62 global burden of, 31–32 harmonic decomposition analysis and, 337 illicit drug use and, 86–87 international commerce/travel and, 97– 98 land use patterns and, 76 as leading cause of death, 26t malnutrition and, 220 in United States, 21 vaccine for, 185, 189, 227 vector ecology of, 68, 70 Malaysia, 72box, 76, 158, 177 Malnutrition, 4, 63–64, 124, 149, 220 Marburg virus, 33fig., 47box, 113box, 198 Marketplace issues, 186–189 Mass spectroscopy, 179, 326 Mathematical modeling, 335, 336 MDR-TB Green Light Committee, 130 Measles, 21, 26t, 64, 97, 115, 134 Megacities, growth of, 6, 85t MeKong Delta Surveillance Network, 155 Meningitis, 26t, 179, 314 Mental retardation, congenital, 42t Methicillin resistance, 38, 114 Mexico, 105, 124 Microbes, 1, 23n, 114 adaptability of, 2, 4, 53–57, 58–59box, 60, 139, 141–143 cultivation of, 313–314 detection and diagnosis, 319–321 digital, 340 intentionally used for harm, 46, 47box, 48–51 Microbial threats, 19, 20, 23–24. See also Pathogens anticipation of, 324–325 assessment of, 7–17 factors in emergence, 4–7, 53, 54box public committee meeting agendas, 277– 279 spectrum of, 3, 23–52 Microbiome, 58–59box, 316–317, 325 Military cargo transport, 104 Model State Emergency Powers Act, 120 Molecular biology, 41, 213 Molecular signatures, 314–317 Mollusks, 104 Monkeypox, human, 33fig., 37t Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 166 Mosquitoes, 31, 35t, 64, 214 agricultural land use patterns and, 77 control of, 216, 218 dengue fever and, 120–121box malaria and, 129box, 221 Rift Valley fever (RVF) and, 69box vector ecology and, 70–71 West Nile virus and, 100–101box yellow fever and, 71 Mozambique, 28 Multidrug-resistant bacterial infections, 2. See also Antimicrobial resistance Mumps, 114 Myocarditis, 42t N National Electronic Disease Surveillance System (NEDSS), 161, 164, 294–295, 297 National Electronic Telecommunications System for Surveillance (NETSS), 66box National Health Service Corps, 153 National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), 153, 155, 156 National Institutes of Health (NIH) blood transfusions and, 95 comprehensive research agenda and, 16, 151, 221 disease control and, 15, 213 etiologic diagnosis and, 11, 179 Fogarty International Center, 153 global response capacity and, 8, 151 infectious diseases surveillance and, 9, 159 interdisciplinary disease centers and, 17, 224 molecular biology and, 213, 215 training of health professionals and, 12, 183 vector control and, 213, 219 National Intelligence Council, 125, 150 National Nosocomial Infections Surveillance (NNIS) System, 113, 114, 168t National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System (NNDSS), 165 National Research Council (NRC), 67

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National Science and Technology Council, 158 National Science Foundation, 16, 17, 74, 221, 224, 341 National security, 7, 163, 221 Natural disasters, 63, 111 Natural selection, 61, 62–63 Neisseria gonorrhoeae, 41fig., 89box Neisseria meningitidis, 6, 97, 98box Network models, 339–340 Neuraminidase (NA), 142–144, 202 New Zealand, 143 Nicaragua, 110 Nigeria, 28, 30, 78, 87, 112, 188 Nipah virus, 1, 33fig., 36t, 37t, 72box, 223 as agent of biological warfare, 47box autopsies and, 178box fruit bats as reservoir of, 324 “hot zones” and, 156 surveillance networks and, 158 Noroviruses (Norwalk-like viruses), 37t, 102, 171, 301 Norway, 93 Nosocomial infections, 6, 32, 95, 225 methicillin resistance, 38 public health breakdown and, 107, 111– 114 O Office International des Epizooties (OIE), 226 Office of Technology Assessment, 131, 135 Onchocerciasis, 70, 185, 227 Operation Topoff, 281–282 Organ transplants, 95–96 Outbreak Verification List, 306 P PacNet, 156 Pakistan, 78, 188 Pan American Health Organization, 154 Pandemics, 21, 136, 137box, 138, 204 Pathogens, 1, 2, 17, 32. See also Microbial threats animal reservoirs of, 71–75 chronic conditions caused by, 43 discovery of, 313–319 diversity of, 175 ease of transport and, 85 ecosystem disruption and, 67–68 genetic material of, 56 host immunity and, 60 risk of exposure to, 6 transmission interruption, 217–218 vector ecology of, 70 Peptic ulcer disease, 42t Pertussis, 26t, 114, 188 Peru, 155 Pesticides, 15, 118, 213, 219, 228 improvement of, 216 usage strategies, 216–217 Pets, exotic, 19, 104 Pfiesteria piscicida, 92 Pharmaceutical companies, 13–14, 186, 187, 191, 192–197t, 204 Pharmacokinetics, 38 Philippines, 72box Plague (Yersinia pestis), 21, 33fig., 46, 47box, 49–50, 165 arthropod vectors of, 71 poor sanitation and, 221 public health breakdown and, 110–111 rat-flea vector of, 86 recent epidemics of, 72 terrorism and, 34t, 130, 281–282, 283 vaccine for, 187 Plum Island, 183box Pneumococcal disease, 114 Pneumococci, 39 Pneumonia, 24box, 38, 44, 114, 179, 314 diagnostics and, 175, 180 influenza and, 147 nosocomial transmission of, 113–114 sample collection/processing and, 319 syndromic surveillance and, 296 Pneumonic plague, 111 Poliomyelitis, 24box, 151 Political will, lack of, 7, 54box, 127–130 Polymerase chain reaction (PCR), 44, 179, 180, 289, 298, 322 as detection platform, 319–320 diagnostic pathology and, 177 genomic sequence and, 315, 316 intelligence gathering and, 325 Population displacement, 65 Population growth, 78, 80fig., 184, 213, 220 Poverty, 2, 17, 19, 54box, 121–125. See also Social inequality as factor in emergence of diseases, 6–7 world statistics, 123box

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Preventing Emerging Infectious Diseases: A Strategy for the 21st Century, 166box, 281 Prions, 23n, 106, 109box Prison populations, 39 Private organizations, 15, 17 Probiotic therapy, 59box Prodrome period, 293 Program for Monitoring Infectious Diseases (Pro-Med), 156 ProMED-mail, 306 Prospect Hill virus, 73, 75fig. Protozoa, 23n, 35t Pseudomonas aeruginosa, 114 Psittacosis, 47box Public health, 2, 21 advances in health care, 94–97 in Africa, 129box antiquated laws, 118–121 behavioral interventions and, 86 breakdowns of, 6, 54box, 107–121 etiologic diagnosis and, 180 rebuilding infrastructure of, 9–10, 159– 163 syndromic surveillance and, 283, 290– 291 Pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), 105box, 106 PulseNet, 106, 168t Puumala virus, 74 Q Q fever, 47box Quarantine, 119, 165, 289 Quinolone, 39, 114, 190 R Rainy seasons, 70 Rapid Syndrome Validation Program (RSVP), 171–172, 288, 291–292 Real-Time Outbreak and Disease Surveillance (RODS), 288 Reforestation, 76 Refugee populations, 23, 125–126 Relapsing fever, 72 Repellents, 15, 217, 219 Research, priorities for, 12, 16, 131, 220– 222 Research Centers of Excellence in Biodefense and Emerging Infections, 222 Resistance, microbial evolution and, 15. See also Antimicrobial resistance Respiratory infections, 26t Respiratory syndrome alarm, 296, 300 Retroviruses, 56, 58box Ricin toxin, 47box Rickettsia, 134 Rift Valley fever (RVF), 33fig., 68, 69box, 77 RNA, 56, 58box, 139, 140fig. antivirals and, 191, 203 vaccines and, 185 Rocky Mountain spotted fever, 95 Rodents, 20, 68, 71, 186, 324. See also Hantaviruses emerging infectious diseases and, 34t, 36t increasing significance of, 73 Lyme disease and, 76 plague and, 110 Romania, 20, 101box Rotavirus, 189 Rousseau, Jean-Jacques, 127 Rubella, 97, 102, 114 Russia, 20, 28, 87. See also Soviet Union, former anthrax outbreak in, 133box diphtheria in, 115 poverty in, 123box tuberculosis in, 30, 150 West Nile virus in, 101box Rwanda, 126 S Saint Louis encephalitis, 70 Salmonella spp., 47box, 92, 106, 107 animal husbandry practices and, 207 intentional use of, 132 Salmonellosis, 97–98, 107 Sample collection/processing, 319 San Joaquin Valley fever, 66box Sanitation, poor conditions of, 19, 107– 114, 220–221 Sarin gas, 132 Saudi Arabia, 69box, 98box Scarlet fever, 88 Schistosomiasis, 76, 77, 185

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SEN virus (SEN-V), 94–95 Seoul virus, 73, 74 Sepsis, 179, 314 Sewage systems, 23, 67box, 84 Sex, unprotected, 86, 88, 220 Sex trade, commercial, 83, 87 Sexually transmitted diseases, 21, 29, 32, 45, 89–90box commercial sex trade and, 83 high-risk behaviors and, 87 social network model and, 339 unprotected sex and, 88 vaccines for, 185 Shigella spp., 47box, 102, 105box Shigellosis, 97 Sickle cell disease, 61 Simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV), 76 Sin Nombre virus, 1, 36t, 223. See also Hantaviruses distribution of, 75fig. etiologic diagnosis and, 179 human resource capacity and, 213, 214 rodents as vectors of, 68, 72, 73, 324 syndromic surveillance and, 289 transmission of, 74 Singapore, 40, 72box Small, round-structured virus (SRSV), 102 Smallpox, 37t, 46, 47box, 49 aerosol transmission of, 134 eradication of, 128box intentional use of, 132 international commerce/travel and, 97 syndromic surveillance and, 289 in United States, 24box vaccine for, 341 Social inequality, 6–7, 54box, 121–125. See also Poverty Somalia, 126 South Africa, 88 South America, 68, 74, 85, 110, 155, 186 Southeast Asia, 188 Soviet Union, former, 31, 34t, 48, 49, 50. See also Russia biological warfare program of, 130, 131, 134, 135 diphtheria in, 115–116 public health breakdown in, 107 sexually transmitted diseases in, 90box tuberculosis in, 150 “Spanish flu” pandemic (1918), 136, 137box, 138, 141, 143, 146 Sporotrichosis, 66box Staphylococcal enterotoxin B, 47box Staphylococcus aureus, 38, 87, 102 methicillin-resistant (MRSA), 38–39 nosocomial transmission of, 114 vancomycin-resistant, 33fig., 35t, 39 State, U.S. Secretary of, 13 Statens Serum Institut, 224 Stockpiling, need for, 203–204 Strategic treatment interruption (STI), 201 Streptococci, Group A, 39 Streptococcus pneumoniae, 175 Sudan, 113box Surveillance, 3, 8–11, 151, 155fig. See also Syndromic surveillance deemphasis of, 24box drug-resistant microbes and, 206 etiologic diagnostics and, 176 improvement of, 154–170 increases in drug-resistant strains, 39–40 for zoonotic diseases, 117 Syndromic surveillance, 170–171, 174, 281–283, 307–309. See also Surveillance attributes, 283–284 cost-effectiveness data, 289–290 definitions and rationale, 283 discussion of selected systems, 299–301, 302–305t, 306–307 key steps in development of, 290–299 types of systems, 285, 286t, 287–289 Syphilis, 26t, 86, 90box T Tanzania, 109 Technology, 6, 10, 41, 54box, 88, 326. See also Industry genome sequencing, 324 health care advances and, 94–97 microsonicators, 176 T-cell analysis, 183 terrorism and, 46 Terrorism, 15, 20, 149, 220. See also Biological agents agricultural, 223 anthrax used by, 34t antibiotic susceptibility and, 191 antivirals and, 198, 203 bioterrorism models, 341 escalation of, 228

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etiologic diagnosis and, 180 exercises for dealing with, 173 public health capacity and, 159, 160 September 11, 2001, attacks, 46, 162, 281, 307 syndromic surveillance and, 281, 283, 284, 289, 291, 293, 299 Tetanus, 26t, 188 Thailand, 98, 155, 182 Therapeutics, 2, 57 Ticks, 218 Tissue transplants, 6, 95–96 TOLL-like receptors (TLRs), 60–61 Toxic algal blooms, 92 Toxic shock syndrome, adult, 289 Toxoplasma spp., 106 Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs), 108–109box Travel, international, 2, 6, 19, 54box, 97– 99 air travel, 99–101 cruise ships, 101–103 influenza virus and, 146 vector ecology and, 71 Tropheryma whippelii, 179 Trypanosomiasis, 70 TT virus (TTV), 94 Tuberculosis, 2, 7, 21 aerosol transmission of, 134 control of, 116–117 global burden of, 29–31 high-risk behaviors and, 87 increase in poor countries, 122 international commerce/travel and, 97 as leading cause of death, 26t multidrug-resistant (MDR-TB), 1, 30, 33fig., 38, 122, 128box, 153 in United States, 24box vaccine for, 185, 189 Tularemia, 46, 47box, 50 aerosol dissemination of, 134 recent epidemics of, 72 syndromic surveillance and, 289 vaccine for, 187 Turning Point initiative, 121 Typhoid fever, 33fig., 88 U Uganda, 20, 113box, 182 Ukraine, 115 Unexplained Deaths and Critical Illnesses Project, 322–323 United Kingdom, 95, 106 United Nations, 21, 78 United States, 7, 8–9, 71 animal husbandry in, 91–93 biological warfare program of, 130, 131, 134, 135 child care demographics in, 79box diversity of research domains in, 16 global response capacity and, 151, 154– 159 HIV/AIDS in, 29, 150, 227 human resource capacity of, 213 immunizations in, 114–115 infectious diseases in, 1, 21, 169box influenza pandemic of 1918 in, 137box interdisciplinary disease centers in, 224 life expectancy in, 81, 83fig. Lyme disease in, 76 malaria in, 31–32 organ/tissue transplants in, 95 overuse of antibiotics in, 176 population growth in, 78 public health breakdown in, 6, 107 rebuilding public health capacity in, 159–163 reprieve from infectious diseases in, 23, 24–25box sexually transmitted diseases in, 45, 89– 90box surveillance systems in, 10, 158–159 terrorist threat against, 46–51 tuberculosis in, 30 vaccines in, 186–188 West Nile virus in, 98, 100–101box Unprotected sex, 86, 88, 220 Urbanization, 6, 29, 149, 213, 220 ecosystem disruption and, 67 global market economy and, 23 rural-to-urban migration, 81, 83–85 world megacities, 85t V Vaccines, 2, 24box, 143, 228. See also Immunizations bioterrorism and, 48–51 development and production of, 12–13, 184–190 efficacy trials of, 336

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for human papillomavirus (HPV), 45–46 for influenza, 146–147 microbial adaptation and, 4 Vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, 33fig., 35t, 39 Vectors, 2, 20, 31. See also Arthropod vectors; Mosquitoes; Rodents control of, 117–118, 120–121box, 209, 213–219 disease control and, 15, 209, 213 ecology of, 68, 70–71 international commerce/travel and, 6 Venezuelan equine encephalitis, 47box Venezuelan hemorrhagic fever, 76 Veterans Affairs, Department of (VA), 10, 13, 167, 189 Veterinary surveillance, 9, 163, 166 Vibrio parahaemolyticus, 65 Virulence genes, 56 Viruses, 23n, 35–37t. See also Microbes; Microbial threats; specific viruses chronic conditions associated with, 42t etiologic diagnosis and, 178 genetic mutations in, 56 human immune system and, 57 stages of replication, 199t Vitamin deficiencies, 63–64 W Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, 288 War, 7, 19, 23, 63, 125–126, 220 Water for agricultural use, 20 contaminated, 67box pollution from animal husbandry practices, 91, 92 potable, 6, 23, 83, 107 Waterborne diseases, 47box, 65 Weather, 4, 20, 54box, 64–65, 67, 336. See also Climate West Nile virus, 2, 15, 20, 37t, 213, 214 autopsies and, 178box avian reservoir of, 324 blood transfusions and, 95 clustering of, 165 control of, 118 ecological factors and, 221 encephalitis, 1, 6, 20 immunohistochemistry and, 177 infectious disease surveillance and, 166 public health capacity and, 162 rapid spread of, 150 syndromic surveillance and, 281, 282 vector ecology of, 68 worldwide outbreaks of, 100–101box Whitewater Arroyo virus, 33fig., 37t Work absenteeism, 293, 295box Workforce, education/training of, 12, 15, 16, 181–184 World Bank, 9 World Health Organization (WHO), 8, 39, 68, 130, 151 animal husbandry practices and, 208 antimicrobial resistance and, 209, 210– 212box cholera reports and, 109–110 directly observed therapy (DOT) and, 117 Global Agenda for Influenza, 146 Global Outbreak Alert and Response Network, 157box infectious disease surveillance and, 154 influenza programs, 156, 204, 225–226 International Health Regulations, 165 Lyon (France) office of, 152box molecular biology and, 213, 214, 215 on nosocomial infections, 111 outbreak verification and, 306 sexually transmitted diseases and, 89box terrorist scenario, 135 tropical disease research and, 215 vaccine strategy and, 13, 115, 139, 188 X Xenotransplantation, 6, 96–97 Y Yellow fever, 33fig., 37t, 68, 165 ecological factors and, 221 vaccine for, 186 vector ecology and, 71 Yemen, 69box Yersinia pestis. See Plague (Yersinia pestis)

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Z Zaire, 112, 126, 129box, 130, 182. See also Congo, Democratic Republic of Zimbabwe, 30, 126 Zoonotic diseases, 32, 34t, 36–37t, 54, 219, 223 in China, 145 control of, 15, 117–118, 209 Rift Valley fever (RVF), 69box