Below are the first 10 and last 10 pages of uncorrected machine-read text (when available) of this chapter, followed by the top 30 algorithmically extracted key phrases from the chapter as a whole.
Intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text on the opening pages of each chapter. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.
Do not use for reproduction, copying, pasting, or reading; exclusively for search engines.
OCR for page 161
OCR for page 162
162 Cumulative Environmental Effects of Oil and Gas Activities on Alaska's North Slope most cetaceans, they also have dozens to hundreds of roughened areas (~-4 cm t0.4-~.6 in.] diameter) of skin surface (Albert 198Ib, Haldiman et al. 1985, Henk and Mullan 1996) the cause of which is not yet known (see Figure 8-~. In some of the roughened areas, the epidermal cells between the epidermal rods have been removed. The exposed enidermal rods then anDear as tiny hairlike or filamentous projections. The great increase in exposed surface (microrelief) of these roughened areas increases the area to which of! can adhere. In a laboratory expenment, of} adhered, in proportion to the roughness of the skin surface, to formalin-preserved bowhead skin exposed to crude oil on water (Haldiman et al. ~ 98 I). The roughened areas of skin had large numbers of diatoms and bacteria, including potential pathogens with varying tissue-destructive enzymes (Shotts et al. ~ 9901. Thus, it is likely that of! contact would be harmful. The Eyes r ~ a_ --¢ r ~ __~ The conjunctival sac associated with the eye is so extensive that an adult human's fingers can pass beneath the eyelids and reach approximately two-thirds of the way around the eye (Albert 198Ib, DubieIzig and Aguirre 1981, Haidiman et al. 1986~. Thus, a large surface exists for an irritant (such as spilled oil) to contact sensitive visual structures (Zhu 1996, 1998; Zhu et al. 2000, 2001~. The Baleen Bowheads filter prey from the water with their extensive baleen apparatus (Lambertsen et al. ~989~. Many of the hair-like filaments that form the margin of the baleen plates break off during feeding and are commonly found in the stomachs of harvested bowheads. Because the bowhead's baleen apparatus is so extensive and the filaments on the margin of each plate are so prominent, the baleen would be fouled if a whale fed in oiled waters (Albert 1 98 Ib, Braithwaite 1980, 1983~. A laboratory study (Braithwaite et al. 1983) showed that crude oil strongly adhered to isolated bowhead baleen and interfered with filtration efficiency for approximately 30 days. Less of an effect on filtration was found on isolated baleen (fin, sei, humpback, gray whale) characterized by short, rather stiff bristles (Geraci 1990, Geraci and St. Aubin 1982, 1985~. Petroleum also had little direct effect on isolated baleen from several whale species (St. Aubin et al. ~ 9841. A bowhead probably could filter out the heavier portions of spilled oil, including globules and "tar balls,' and would probably swallow the oily material and the dislodged oiled baleen filaments along with its prey. . - The Stomach Broken-off baleen bristles swallowed during feeding can form "tangles" in the stomachs bristles could combine in the stomach with of bowheads (George et al. 19881. Those dislodged weathered oil components (such as tar balIs) to form a sticky mass (Albert 198Ib). The stomach of the bowhead whale consists of four chambers, one of which is a narrow channel that connects two other larger chambers (Tarpley 1985; Tarpley et al. 1983, 1987~. Blockage, leading to gastric obstruction, conic} occur in this small, narrow connecting channel, which has small entrance and exit openings, if a bowhead fed in oil-fouled waters (Albert 198Ib). Ingested of] would also have toxic effects whose severity would be related to the amount of oil swallowed.
OCR for page 163
Appendix A Acknowledgments The following is a list of speakers at the committee's public meetings and contributors of information. At Meeting, January 8-10, 2001, Anchorage, Alaska George N. Ahmaogak, Sr., Mayor of the North Slope Borough Maggie Ahmaogak, Alaska Eskimo Whaling Commission David Allen, Fish and Wildlife Service Art Banet, Bureau of Land Management Lucy Beach, Gwich'in Steering Committee Max Brewer, U.S. Geological Survey (retired) Sara Chapell, Sierra Club Marcia Combes, Environmental Protection Agency Pat Galvin, Office of the Governor of Alaska John Goll, Minerals Management Service Jeanne Hanson, National Marine Fisheries Service Taqulik Hepa, North Slope Borough Mike Joyce, Independent Consultant Jay McKendrick, Lazy Mountain Research Rosa Meehan, Fish and Wildlife Service Pamela A. Miller, Arctic Connections Gordon Nelson, U.S. Geological Survey Russ Gates, Fish and Wildlife Service Walter Parker, U.S. Arctic Research Commission Dan Ritzman, Greenpeace Ted Rockwell, Environmental Protection Agency John Schoen, Audubon Alaska Stanley Senner, Audubon Alaska Brad Smith, National Marine Fisheries Service Pat Sousa, Fish and Wildlife Service Bill Streever, BP Exploration (Alaska) Inc. Steve Taylor, BP Exploration (Alaska) Inc. Peter Van Tuyn, Trustees for Alaska 2n~ Meeting, April 2-5, 2001, Fairbanks, Barrow, and Nuiqsut, Alaska George N. Ahmaogak, Sr., Mayor of the North Slope Borough 163 Maggie Ahmaogak, Alaska Eskimo Whaling Commission Rosemary Ahtuangaruak, City of Nuiqsut Kelly Aikins, North Slope Borough Freddie Aishamma, Whaler Herman Aishamma, Whaling Captain Isaac Akootchook, President of the Native Village of Kaktovik Susie Akootchook, Secretary/Treasurer of the Native Village of Kaktovik Charlie grower, Whaling Captain Eugene grower, Fire Department, North Slope Borough Mike Denega, Private Citizen Nick Dunbar, Ilisagvik College Charlie Edwardson Gary Gortz, Ilisagvik College David Hobble, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Bud Kanayurak, North Slope Borough John Kelley, University of Alaska Fairbanks Lenny Landis, Iligsavik College David McGuire, University of Alaska Fairbanks Edna McLean, Iligsavik College Deb Moore, Northern Alaska Environmental Center Thomas Napageak, Alaska Eskimo Whaling Commission Fenton Rexford, Kaktovik Inupiat Corporation Marie Rexford Pat Sousa, Fish and Wildlife Service Bill Streever, BP Exploration (Alaska) Inc. Gunter Weller, University of Alaska Fairbanks Nancy Welsh, Alaska Department of Natural Resources 3r~ Meeting, July 9-14, 2001, Deadhorse, Alpine, Arctic Village, and Fairbanks, Alaska Ken Boyd, Alaska Department of Natural Resources Sarah James, Gwich'in Steering Committee Janet Jorgenson, Fish and Wildlife Service Mike Joyce, Independent Consultant Roger Kaye, Fish and Wildlife Service
OCR for page 164
164 Ryan Lance, Phillips Alaska Fran Mauer, Fish and Wildlife Service Jay McKendrick, Lazy Mountain Research Dan Payer, Fish and Wildlife Service Evon Peter, Chief of Arctic Village Matt Rader, Alaska Department of Natural Resources John Richardson, LGL Pat Sousa, Fish and Wildlife Service Bill Streever, BP Exploration (Alaska) Inc. Steve Taylor, BP Exploration (Alaska) Inc. 4th Meeting, September 6-9, 2001, Fairbanks and Kaktovik, Alaska Rosemary Ahtuangaruak, City of Nuiqsut Paul Assendorf, General Accounting Office William G. Britt, Jr., Gas Pipeline Office Marilyn Crockett, Alaska Oil and Gas Association Charlie Curtis, NANA Development Corporation Charlie Edwardson Richard Glenn, Arctic Slope Regional Corporation David C. Koester, University of Alaska Fairbanks Jeff Mach, Alaska Department of Environmental Conservation Joe Mathis, Alaska Support Industry Alliance Daniel Maxim, Everest Consulting Colleen McCarthy, Joint Pipeline Office Debbie Miller, Caribou Enterprises APPENDIX A Pamela A. Miller, Arctic Connections Deb Moore, Northern Alaska Environmental Center Robin Renfroe, Doyon Ted Rockwell, Environmental Protection Agency Stanley Senner, Audubon Alaska Bill Streever, BP Exploration (Alaska) Inc. Steve Taylor, BP Exploration (Alaska) Inc. Nancy Wainwright Nancy Welch, Alaska Department of Natural Resources Additional Help Alaska Native Science Commission Terry Carpenter, Corps of Engineers Thor Cutler, Environmental Protection Agency Glenn Gray, Division of Governmental Coordination Leon Lynch, Alaska Department of Natural Resources Ron Niebo, Everest Consulting Rex Okakok, North Slope Borough Margaret Opie, North Slope Borough Evon Peter, Chief of Arctic Village Judd Peterson, Coordinator, Alaska Department of Environmental Conservation Gerald Shearer, Minerals Management Service Lon Sonsalla, Mayor of Kaktovik Jeffrey Walker, Minerals Management Service Bill Wilson, LGL Mike Worley, Bureau of Land Management
Representative terms from entire chapter: