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Appendix E Aeromap Analyses and Data The information summarized in Chapter 4 on the history of industrial development includes novel analyses created ex- pressly for this report by Aeromap Inc. (Ambrosius 2002~. Most of the raw data were supplied by BP, Inc. The methods and details of that assemblage are given here. 190

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APPENDIX E It ~ ~^ l#~=T~ - ~~. #' ~~ bitt 15~ ~ ~^ ~ l - CALL ~~ - ~ - ~~lY'IYt" g - 10 - ~1~ 5~ I The National Academies National Academy of Sciences Memorandum: Calculation of Area Impacted by Oil Field Development North Slope Alaska January 30, 2002 Rev.1 02/07/02 This memorandum is a description of the calculations of the area of impact due to oil field development on the Alaskan North Slope. The impact area was calculated through the use of IndustrY owned larae-scale topographic base mans and historical aerial 191 ~ - ~ -- - - r - =- --r --- - - --- - -----r - photography. Area calculations were done for the years 1968, 1973, 1977, 1983, 1988, 1994 and 2001. The geographic area of this project is limited to: north of 70 5' north latitude, and between 145 55' and 151 20' west longitude. A more detailed area description is included on page 7. For the purpose of these calculations "impact" was defined as the footprint of a gravel facility, the area used for gravel extraction, any overburden piles, or any visible marks or scars on the tundra that persisted for a period of 10 years or more. All facilities related to the oil field development were included for the purpose of these impact area calculations. No distinction was made between industry owned facilities, contractor facilities, or State of Alaska facilities such as Deadhorse. Those portions of the Trans Alaska Pipeline System and the DOT' s Dalton Highway that fall within the study limits are included. Only the Distant Early Warning (DEW Line) military sites and any native owned or other private property sites are excluded. These area calculations do not include the exploration work done by the U.S. Government in NPRA, exploration wells or seismic camps in the foothills of the Brooks Range, the DOT Dalton highway that falls outside the study area limit, nor any of the Trans Alaska Pipeline system that fall outside of the study area limit. The geographic area of the project was limited to the area for which detailed maps and photos were available for my use. The area calculations were divided into four geographic regions for each year: 1) West of Kalubik Creek 2) Kuparuk River to Kalubik Creek 3) Foggy Island to Kuparuk 4) East of Foggy Island Oil field facilities and roads are raised gravel structures that have well defined edges. Deep pit gravel mines (more than 20 feet deep) also have well defined edges. These items are mapped to 1"=500' standards through photogrammetric methods. Exploration activity before 1978 sometimes took place without raised gravel pads or roads. Prior to 1978 some gravel was extracted from riverbeds by simple grading material into a pile and then hauling it off. Some of these items are well defined in current aerial photos while others are not. The area limits for those items that are not well defined were interpreted from historical photography.

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192 The procedure used for the area calculations involved the following steps: APPENDIX E A 'footprint' polygon was extracted from the most recent topo map CAD files available from the oil industry. This polygon was placed in a single CAD file and was used as a 'base' for construction of all years studied. The file contained only the areas currently covered by gravel facilities, roads, and mine excavations. Exploration facilities, riverbed gravel extraction, and other impacted areas (disturbed tundra not covered by gravel facilities) were not included. The 1968 aerial photos were examined to determine the impact area for that year. The 'base' reference file was used to help locate and define the areas as they appeared in 1968. Well-defined gravel facilities that were a match to what was observed in the 1968 photos were copied from the 'base' reference file into the 1968 CAD file. From an examination of the 1968 photos other impacted areas were then also digitized into the 1968 file with the aid of the current industry topo maps as a backdrop. The 1968 CAD file was then copied and renamed 1973. The 1973 photos were examined, those polygons from the 'base' reference file that matched were copied into the 1973 CAD file, and other impacted areas were digitized as above. The procedure was repeated for the years 1977, 1983, 1988, 1994, and 2001. A CAD file that contained all impact areas up to that time was created for each year. Each year depicts a cumulative impact up to that time with no consideration for "rehabilitation". These CAD files are the source for the calculations in the accompanying excel tables. Calculations were done using ARC View software in an Alaska State Plane, zone 4, NAD27 projection. An additional column was created in the excel tables labeled '2001 current'. Areas that appear to have been rehabilitated through either natural process or through industry efforts have been subtracted from the impact area. This is my best effort at an objective interpretation of the "current conditions"; it does NOT represent the 'Industry viewpoint'. CALCULATIONS Exploration Sites Access to exploration wells from 1963 through 1973 was achieved by three methods each had a varying degree of impact on the tundra. The original table from the project proposal included only Peat Roads; it was expanded it to include all three. These methods of access were only used prior to 1973. Later permanent production facilities and gravel roads were constructed over some of these early access routes when possible. a. Tractor Trails / Tundra Scars For some early exploration wells the rig was simple parked on the frozen tundra and shimmed up on timbers to level. Access was from driving over the frozen tundra. By continued use of these routes after spring thaw ruts and tundra scars were produced that have persisted for many Years. All of these rutted or scared areas are included in the cumulative impact area calculations. Natural processes have since revegetated areas where the routes crossed well-drained high ground. Other low lying wet areas remain marked by well-defined water filled depressions or ditches. In the '2001 current' column of the table those areas that appear to be rehabilitated have been left out. b. Peat Roads For a few years exploration well access and rig movement was done over peat roads. Peat roads were constructed by using a bulldozer to blade the native soil into a mound, one bulldozer on each side of a route centerline. The result was a pair of parallel shallow ditches on either side of a mound. The mound was graded and packed and when frozen provided a roadbed. Peat roads have left a very well defined mark on the landscape still visible today. The peat roads have become revegetated through natural processes and most have shallow ponds on each side. However, the construction of peat roads has altered the native vegetation patterns and the drainage patterns, it has created a new habitat type that is different than was originally present. Attempts to return these areas to the original state would likely create more impact. In the '2001 current' column of the table the area covered by peat roads has been retained because they have produced a tangible impact on the native environment that remains today.

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APPENDIX E 193 c. Exploration Access Roads of Thin Gravel & Frozen Tundra A third method of access was a combination of; a) the placement of a thin layer of gravel over uneven ground and, b) driving over frozen tundra where the ground was already smooth and even. In the areas where no gravel was placed a visible scar on the tundra was observed that persisted for as many as ten to fifteen years, probably a die off of vegetation through repeated passage. All of these areas of thin gravel or vegetation die off are included in the cumulative impact area calculations. Some of the tundra scars have disappeared by year 1994 or 2001 revegetated through natural processes. Some of the low-lying wet areas where a thin layer of gravel was placed also appear to have become revegetated through natural processes. These may be considered rehabilitated. Other well-drained areas where gravel was placed have remained pretty much as they were when first constructed. In the '2001 current' column of the table those areas that are consider rehabilitated were left out. d. Exploration Site Disturbed Area in Addition to Gravel Covered Area i) Early exploration wells were drilled in winter when the tundra was frozen. For some wells the rig sat on the tundra and was leveled with timbers, no gravel was used at all. Activity around the rig caused some vegetation die off, other areas were rutted and scared by vehicle activity, sometimes pits were dug in the tundra. After the rig was demobilized from the site some pits were filled in, material that was dug up was spread around, some sites appears to have been graded. All of these disturbed areas are included in the impact area calculations. Over time some of these disturbed areas have become revegetated through natural processes. In the '2001 current' column of the table those areas that are revegetated and considered rehabilitated were left out. ii) For some exploration wells a thin layer of gravel was used to level the site. Again, activity around the rig caused vegetation die off, other areas were rutted by vehicle activity, and pits may have been dug in the tundra. After the rig was demobilized the thin gravel may have been left in place or it may have been spread around or used to fill in pits. The material that was dug from the pits may have been spread around, some sites appear to have been graded. All of these disturbed areas are included in the impact area calculations. Over time some of these disturbed areas have become revegetated through natural processes. In the '2001 current' column of the table those areas that are revegetated and considered rehabilitated were left out. iii) For some exploration wells a gravel pad was constructed, normally 3 to 5 feet thick with a pad and camp area and reserve pits constructed at grade by use of gravel dikes or berms. These sites generally had little to no activity off of the pad that impacted the tundra, however for the few that did these areas are also included in the impact area calculations. Some of these gravel exploration pads have been revisited by industry and 'closed out' to State of Alaska specifications in recent years. The close out procedure may have included regrading some of the gravel found onsite to cover the reserve pits or it may have included breaching the dikes to prevent pending of water. Sometimes these activities have slightly increased the disturbed area. Some areas have been revegetated through natural processes over time. All of the disturbed areas are included in the impact area calculations. In the '2001 current' column of the table those areas that are revegetated and considered rehabilitated were left out. e. Exploration Site Tundra Covered by Gravel - These are the footprint area of those exploration sites that are raised gravel pads. The area calculation is cumulative and includes some sites that are no longer visible on the aerial photography. Some of the sites were located on barrier islands and have since washed away a few others have become thermocarsted and revegetated by natural processes. In the '2001 current' column of the table any sites that were washed away or that have been revegetated were left out. f. Exploration Airstrips Thin Gravel / Tundra Scar Some of the early exploration wells were accompanied by airstrips that were a combination of the placement of a thin layer of gravel over uneven ground and a thin ice pad where the native ground was smooth and even. In the areas where no gravel was placed a visible scar on the tundra was observed that persisted for as many as ten to fifteen years, probably a die off of vegetation through repeated passage. All of these areas of thin gravel or vegetation die off are included in the cumulative impact area calculations.

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194 APPENDIX E Areas where gravel was placed have remained pretty much as they were when first constructed. The tundra scars have disappeared by year 1994 or 2001, revegetated through natural processes and are considered rehabilitated. In the '2001 current' column of the table those areas that are consider rehabilitated were left out. g. Exploration Islands The exploration island area calculations are only for that portion of the island that is above sea level in the same manner as was done for "Causeways". For the cumulative figures every island was included, even after an island may have been washed away or removed. In the '2001 current' column the area of all islands that are no longer in place were left out and those that were changed by erosion were modified to show current conditions. Production Facilities h. Roads Gravel roads for general transportation are normally five feet thick and vary in width. Some gravel roads were constructed for pipeline inspection or maintenance and are not intended for general use, these may be less than five feet thick. All of these roads are included in these calculations. Areas were calculated from the toe of the roads. i. Causeways The causeways are generally constructed to be about twelve feet above Mean Sea Level; side slopes are approximately 7 to 1. The depth or elevation of the seabed beneath any of the causeways varies. The area included in these calculations is only for that portion of the causeway that is above Mean Sea Level, no effort was made to interpolate the area of seabed actually covered. The area of the causeways was reduced from 1994 to 2001 due to the construction of a breach at West Dock and another at Endicott. j. Airstrips Area calculations include both active usable airstrips and airstrips that were constructed for exploration activities that are no longer in use. All of these airstrips were constructed from gravel and are generally a minimum of five feet thick. Though some of the exploration airstrips have severe thermocarsting and are no longer useable the area of impact numbers remain under this 'airstrip' heading. The gravel from some airstrips has been removed for use in construction of other facilities. In both the '2001 cumulative' and the '2001 current' columns of the tables those area that have been removed and reused were left out. The calculations for those removed areas are recorded under the "Gravel Removed From Tundra" heading. k. Production Islands Production islands area calculations are only for those portions that are above sea level in the same manner as was done for "Causeways". One production island is incorporated into a causeway; that area was segregated out and reported as a production island. 1. Production Pads / Drill Sites Some production drilling pads were constructed over exploration sites. In these cases the area calculations are reported as 'drill sites' rather than under 'exploration sites'. At the time of construction some facilities were built in such a way as to enclose areas of tundra that are not part of the facility. Other areas that were to be used as flare or reserve pits are completely enclosed, though some were never used and appear to be native tundra with no impact. The drill site areas as calculated here include all of those parts of a facility that were intended for use as a pit as well as the areas of tundra actually covered by gravel. The tundra areas that are not part of the facility but are surrounded by the facility are not included in the area calculations. m. Processing Facilities Processing facilities are generally large pads with large equipment. In recent years a few very small pads were built in conjunction with the Badami and Northstar pipelines. These small pads are at shore fall and at either bank of rivers, they contain automated valves and a helicopter-landing pad. I included these as process facilities for area calculations, however I did not count each one as a separate facility for purposes of 'number of facilities' due to the relatively insignificant size. Some facilities were built in such a way as to enclose areas of tundra that are not part of the facility. Some of these areas are large and have not been visibly impacted; others are small and have filled with storm runoff or snowmelt debris. Areas intended as flare or reserve pits are completely enclosed by gravel dikes. The production facility areas as calculated here include all of those parts of a facility that were intended for use as a pit, the small impacted enclosures, and the areas of tundra covered by gravel pad. The larger tundra areas with no visible impact but surrounded by the facility are not included in the area calculations.

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APPENDIX E 195 n. Support Pads Support pads include facilities under the control of the oil industry and State of Alaska owned and leased properties that are not under industry's control. In general these facility footprints are well defined, however on occasion they have spread out unto the tundra and have then contracted back to the gravel pad. All of these areas that were used for storage or that appear to have otherwise disturbed the tundra are included in the impact area calculations. Over time some of these storage areas have been cleaned up, some disturbed areas have become revegetated through natural processes. In the '2001 current' column of the table those area that are considered rehabilitated were left out. O. Gravel Pad Removed Site in Process of Recovery By year 1973 the very first gravel pad constructed, the ARCO base camp, was reconfigured. A portion of the gravel pad was removed and reused elsewhere. In every subsequent year photography examined additional areas of gravel pad or gravel road were found that had been picked up. Some areas have become revegetated through natural processes in a relatively short time. Others take as long as ten to fifteen years, while still others have remained a visible scar to this day. For the years 1973 through 1994 all gravel removed from tundra was placed in this area calculation regardless of status of recovery. Note that this category was used only for those areas where a raised gravel pad or road was removed; it was not used for other 'disturbed areas' or thin gravel. Also note that a few of these areas of removed gravel were in riverbeds and the 'removal' may have been caused by erosion rather then by construction equipment. p. Gravel Pad Removed Site Recovered Those areas that are appear to be recovered by natural means or rehabilitated by industry are reported here, separately from those that remain visible scars as of 2001. q. Gravel Mine on Riverbed Gravel for facility construction was removed from the Sagavanirktok and Kuparuk Rivers (typical gravel filled meandering glacier riverbeds) by two different methods: i) Up to 1978 gravel was removed from some portions of the riverbed by pushing portions of the gravel bars into large piles and then hauling them off with earth moving equipment. The equipment used for this surface mining left some well defined and some not so well defined tracks, pits and piles in the riverbeds. Subsequent spring flooding erased much of the evidence. I suspect that in some areas the river channels changed due to the removal of gravel and this further erased evidence of the gravel removal. From examination of the historical photography I believe that I have accurately defined the gravel removal areas. All of these disturbed areas are included in the cumulative impact area calculations. Over time evidence of gravel removal for some of these areas has disappeared due to spring floods and the action of the river. In the '2001 current' column of the table I have subtracted out those areas that I consider to be rehabilitated. ii) From 1973 through 2001 a side channel of the Kuparuk River has been the site of deep pit mining. This side channel floods during spring break up but is otherwise a series of oxbow lakes. From year to year dependent on the results of the spring floods these oxbows are connected by streams. A series of pits were dug from the spine road to the river delta. Some surface mining and surface grading was also done in some of these areas. All of the pits are currently full of water; those that had no surface mining at the edges appear to be natural oxbows and are indiscernible from the natural environment. Some of the pits are currently used as reservoirs and have a flat graded area for vehicle traffic next to them. All of the areas used for mining are included in the cumulative impact area calculations. I consider the areas that were pit mined and that have no disturbed areas around the edges to be rehabilitated. In the '2001 current' column of the table I have subtracted out those areas. r. Gravel Mine in Tundra Some gravel mines were situated in tundra areas that are near rivers or streams, these have a very well defined footprint. Typically an overburden layer of mixed organics and gravel was removed and placed to the side of the mine area. The area calculations here include the footprint of the excavation as well as the overburden pile.

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196 APPENDIX E s. Pipelines The length and number of pipelines data set was taken from the industry topo maps. On these maps individual pipelines are not shown, pipeline bundles are mapped with an annotation to denote the estimated number of pipelines in each bundle. This is the best data source available to me within the time constraints of this project schedule. t. Transmission Lines The transmission lines were extracted from the most recent industry topo maps. These include all known power lines that are located above ground on poles. No effort was made to research and define the many buried power lines. u. Number of culverts Culvert locations were extracted from the most recent topo where available and from spill contingency maps for areas not yet covered by topo maps (Tarn, Meltwater and Alpine). The numbers here are for culvert locations rather than for individual culverts. Many culvert locations contain more than one culvert. Large culverts (some as much as eight feet in diameter) are included here and not under 'bridges'. v. Number of bridges The bridge count includes causeway breaches as well as road bridges. These are from the most recent topo where available and from spill contingency maps for areas not yet covered by the detailed topo maps (Tarn, Meltwater and Alpine). w. Number of caribou crossings Caribou crossing numbers are from the industry topo maps. Some caribou crossings have had pipelines built across them rather than under them in recent years. For the purposes of this count these have not been included. The overall geographic extent of the areas included in this calculation is limited to the extent of the aerial photography and/ or current topographic mapping coverage. This geographic extent includes the following townships: TlON-R04E, Tl lN- R04E, T12N-R04E, T13N-R04E, TlON-R05E, TllN-R05E, T12N-R05E, T13N-R05E, T14N-R05E, T09N-R06E, T1ON- R06E, TllN-R06E, T12N-R06E, T13N-R06E, T14N-R06E, T08N-R07E, T09N-R07E, TlON-R07E, TllN-R07E, T12N- R07E, T13N-R07E, T14N-R07E, TlON-R08E, TllN-R08E, T12N-R08E, T13N-R08E, T14N-R08E, TlON-R09E, TllN-R09E, T12N-R09E, T13N-R09E, T14N-R09E, TlON-RlOE, TllN-RlOE, T12N-RlOE, T13N-RlOE, T14N-RlOE, TlON-RllE, TllN-RllE, T12N-RllE, T13N-RllE, T14N-RllE, TlON-R12E, TllN-R12E, T12N-R12E, T13N-R12E, T14N-R12E, TlON-R13E, TllN-R13E, T12N-R13E, T13N-R13E, T14N-R13E, TlON-R14E, TllN-R14E, T12N-R14E, T13N-R14E, T14N-R14E, T09N-R15E, TlON-R15E, TllN-R15E, T12N-R15E, T09N-R16E, TlON-R16E, TllN-R16E, T12N-R16E, T09N-R17E, TlON-R17E, TllN-R17E, T12N-R17E, T09N-R18E, TlON-R18E, T09N-R19E, TlON-R19E, T09N-R20E, TlON-R20E, T09N-R21E, TlON-R21E, T09N-R20E, TlON-R20E, T09N-R21E, TlON-R21E, T09N-R22E, T1ON-R22E, T08N-R23E, T09N-R23E, T1ON-R23E, T08N-R24E, T09N-R24E, T1ON-R24E, T09N-R25E, T1ON-R25E, Umiat meridian. BASE MAPS BP Exploration (Alaska) Inc. maintains a set of topographic base maps of the North Slope, Alaska producing oil fields. These maps were produced by photogrammetric methods from 1973 through 2001 aerial photography. The map scale is 1"=500', the horizontal datum is Alaska State Plane, NAD27, based on USC&OS monuments. The vertical datum is Mean Sea Level based on a limited number of tidal observations at East Dock in 1973. The survey of photogrammetric control points was done to third order class two standards. The planned map accuracy is: 90% of the planimetric features are plotted to within 1/40 inch of their true positions. (At 1"=500' this is + 12.5 feet.) Independent ground surveys have shown the horizontal accuracy to be + 2.0 feet for gravel facilities and pipelines. The detailed mapping covers all production facilities with the exception of the Phillips Alaska oil fields: Alpine, Meltwater, and Tarn. Less detailed 1:63,360 maps were used for the calculations in these areas. Ken Ambrosius AeroMap U.S. map attachments

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200 o Cq a~ 3 a~ o VO o s~ ,~o. a~ .= bC o o Cq _4 C) _4 a~ _4 o C~ o E~ o ~ CM .> o ~ o CM ~ .> .> oo oo ~ .> .> .> oo ~o o ~o o o o ~o n ~ o CM o o ~ o ~ ~o o o o ~ o o o ~ _ _ O ~o 0 In O ~ n ~ 0 In O O ~ ~ ~ \0 0 0 0 ~ O ~ O ~ _ _ _ ~ ~ ~ In o o o ~ o o o ~ ,~ o o o o o o o ~o o o o ~ Cd Cd Ct Ct o o o o 0 ~o 0 In O ~ O ~ O ~ O ~ Cd Cd Ct Ct Ct Ct Ct ~ Ct Ct Ct Ct Ct Ct Ct Ct Ct Ct Ct Ct Ct Ct Ct Ct Ct Ct Ct Ct Ct Ct Ct Ct Ct Ct Ct ~ ~ ~ O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O 0 ~o 0 In O ~ O ~ O ~ O ~ Cd Cd Ct Ct Ct Ct Ct Ct Ct Ct Ct Ct Ct Ct Ct Ct Ct Ct Ct Ct Ct Ct Ct Ct Ct Ct Ct Ct Ct Ct Ct Ct Ct Ct Ct ~ ~ ~ O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O 0 ~o 0 In O ~ O O O \0 0 0 0 ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ O ~ O ~ O ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O 0 ~o 0 In O O O O ~ O O O ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ O ~ O ~ O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O 0 ~o 0 In O ~ O O O ~ O O O ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ O ~ O ~ O ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O ~ O O O O ~ ~ ~ ~ O ~ O ~ O ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O ~ Ct ~ ~ ~ ~ U) U) ~ ~ CO Cd ~ ~ ~ ~' 3 a 3 3 ~ a ~ 3 a ~ ~ ~ ~ 3 _ ~ ~ c ~ ~ ~ ~ a ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ In ~ ~ ~ V ~ ~ ~ V ~ ~ ~ ~ V ~ ~ ~ ~ X ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ O ~ ' V, E~ 7 u' ~ .= V, _ Ct O ~0 U) o - l o v - l .~ o ~ . - l ~ ~i

OCR for page 190
201 0 0 ~ ~ ~ 0 ~ ~ 0 0 0 In 00 0 ~ ~ ~ O O ~ O O CM O In 0 ~ ~ ~ o 0 0 ~ ~ o ~ ~ o 0 0 ~ ~ o ~ o ~ ~ o ~ o 0 ~ o ~ o ~ ~ o In ~ ~ ~ c~ In CM 00 ~ ~ ~ \0 ~ ~ In O O ~ ~ ~ O ~ ~ 0 0 0 In 00 0 o o o ~o ~ o ~ ~ o o o ~ CM o ~ o In ~ ~ ~ c~ In CM 00 oo ~ ~ ~ o CM o ~ o ~ ~ ~ . . . . . . . . . . . . n CM ~ ~o o ~ o ~ o ~ ~ oo c~ ~ ~ In ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ In 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 ~ ~ ~ ~ 0 0 In O O O In 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ 0 0 ,~ In 0 0 0 ~ o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o ~ ~ ~ ~ o o ~ o o o ~ cd O O O O O O O O O O ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ \0 0 0 cd ~ O O O In o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o ~ ~ ~ ~ o o ~ o o o ~ ~ ~ ~ 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 ~ ~ ~ ~o ~ ~ ~o O O ~ oo O O O In o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o ~ ~ ~ ~ o o CM o o o CM ~ ~ ~ O O O O O O O O O O O O O ~ ~ ~ \0 0 0 ~ \0 0 0 0 \0 O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O ~ ~ ~ ~ O O CM O O O CM Ct Ct Cd O O O O O O O O O O O O O ~ ~ ~ \0 0 0 Cd \0 0 0 0 \0 O O O O Ct Ct Cd o o o O O O O O O O O O O CM O ~ ~ O O Cd CM O C O O O O O O O O O O O O O ~ O ~ ~ O O ~ ~ O C) CM ~ CM O O O O ~z ~ ' ~: ~ ~5: ~ , ~, ~ ~cs ~ ~ o ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ v ~ ~ ~ ~ v ~ ~ ~ ~ 0 ~ ~ ~ o ~ . ~ Ct U) C,~ Cd .s ~ ~ ~ ! ~ q u ~ ~ ~ ~

OCR for page 190
202 as 3 as as o Vet o so To as = be o o Cal _4 C) _4 a~ _4 o o E~ o ~ CM ~ .> o ~ o CM ~ .> .> oo oo .> .> .> oo ~o c~ In O ~ O O In O ~ ~ c~ O ~o ~ ~ oo ~ c~ In O In ~ 0 In O ~ ~ CM O oo oo In ~ ~ ~ O In 0 cd cd c~ c~ o o o o n ~ ~ ~ 0 In O cd cd c~ c~ o o o o oo ~ In ~ 0 0 In O o o o o 0 0 ~ ~ 0 0 ~ 0 ~ ~ ~ ~ CM ~ ~ ~ ~ 0 0 0 0 0 0 ~ ~ 0 0 ~ 0 ~ ~ ~ ~ 0 0 0 0 Ct Ct Ct Cd 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 ~ ~ ~ ~ 0 0 0 0 U) Ct U) U) 3 - ~ ~ ~ o ~ U) ~ ~ ~ O ~ ~ ~ ~ '; ~ ~ ~ ~ Ca i~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ i~ ~ ~ a a a a ~ ~ ~ ~ In \0 ~ ~ V ~ ~ In 0 0 In ~ ~ 1~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ L~ ~ ~ ~1 L~ ~ L~ . . . . . . O ~ ~ O ~o ~ 0 CM 0 0 ~ ~ c~ In ~ 00 ~ ~ ~ \0 ~ ~ CM \0 ~ \0 0 ~ ~ O ~ O O O 0 0 ~ ~ 0 00 ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ 0 0 ~ 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 ~o CM 0 0 ~ \0 O O ~ ~ cd cd cd cd cd cd cd In ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O ~ \0 0 0 ~ In cd cd ct ct ct ct cd ~ ~ ~ cO`4 ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O ~ O O \0 ~ ~ In O ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ {d {d {d O CM ~ \0 ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O ~ O 0 \0 0 1~ 0 ~ ~ ~ Cd Ct Ct Ct Ct Ct Ct Ct Ct Ct Ct Ct Ct Ct Ct Ct Ct Ct Ct Ct Ct ~ CM ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O ~ \0 ~ O ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ {d {d {d CM ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O cd cd cd cd cd cd cd cd cd cd cd cd cd cd cd cd cd cd cd cd cd o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o u) cd ~ - u) cd - ~ - l ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ . . . - o ~ v ~ ~ ~ v, E~ 7 u' ~ .= V, _ Ct O ~0 V, U) C,~ U) ~ d) ~ d) d) C~ U) C~ C~~ C~~ C~ ~ ~ ~ ~-~ ~ ~-~ ~ ~-~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ oo o ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ o ~ v ~ ~ ~ ~ x ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ o ~ o' ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ u) o - l o v - l .~ o ~ . - l ~ ~i

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203 0 ~ to 0 0 0 In CM ~ CM \0 ~ 0 0 to In ~ \0 CM 0 ~ ~ 0 0 0 ~ n ~ ~ 0 ~ 0 ~ In In o o o o ~ ~ ~ to CM 0 ~ to In O ~ ~ ~ In ~ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cal to 0 to ~ ~ 0 ~ ~ n ~ O ~ o o o ~ ~ ~ to CM ~ ~ oo In . . . . In ~ to ~ ~ In 0 0 Cal n ~ to ~ oo ~ ~ ~ . . . . . . . . . . . . O ~ ~ In ~ ~ 0 to ~ ~ ~ o oo In ~ to ~ ~ ~ 0 ~ ~ In 0 In ~ ~ ~ ~ In In 0 0 ~ to to 0 ~ oo \0 ,~ In 0 In ~ ~ O ~ ~ ~ In ~ ~ ~ ~ 0 ~ ~ ~ no , o CM o o Cal o ~ In 0 In ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ O ~ O ~ \0 \0 In ~ oo ~ In ~o In ~ 0 ~ ~o oo c~ ~ oo O ~ O ~ ~ \0 0 ~ \0 In c~ ko ~ ~ ~ cM ~ ~ ~ ~ cM ~ ~ ~ cM In In ~ ~ ~ ~ In ~ ~o 0 M ~o 0 ~ c~ 0 0 0 In ~ O ~ O ~ 00 0 ~ In ~o O ~ In O O O ~ ~ ~o ~ ~ oo oo O ~ O ko ko ko ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ko cM o ~ O ~o ~ ~ 0 In o ~ oo ko cM ~ ko ~ o ~ ~ ~ ~ n ~ ~ oo O o ~ oo O oo c~ O O O O O ~ c~ ~ ~ ~ O ~ oo \0 0 ~ ~ O ~ In ko o ~ o ~ o ~ o ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ o ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ o o o ~ ko o ko ~ o o o o o ~ ko ~ cM cM o ~ ~ k O ~ In O O O O O oo In ~ ~ ~ O ~ O \0 0 ~ ~ ~ O ~ ~ ~o ~o ~ In ~o ~ c~ ~ ~ ~ ~ 0 In In O O O O cd O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O o O O O O O O cd O O O O O O O O O O O ~ O O O O O ~0 ,~ =, O , ~ ~ , ~ ~ a j , ~ ~ ~ ~ , ~, _ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ v ~ ~ ~ ~ v ~ ~ ~ ~ 0 ~ ~ ~ . Ct U) C,~ Cd .s ~ ~ ~ !5' e=~ e ~ ~ ~{ 5~

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204 _. be be o o o an o VO o sly To as = be o o Cal _4 C) _4 as _4 o q o Em o ~ CM ~ .> o ~ o CM ~ .> .> Do Do .> .> .> Do To ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ CM CM Do Do ~ O o ~ ~ ~ ~ Do Do ~ ~ ~ ~ Do o ~o ~ ~ ~o o ~ oo ~ Cd Cd Ce Ce Ct Ct Ct Ct o o o o ~ ~ o ~ o ~ oo ~ Cd Cd Ct Ct Ct Ct Ct Ct O O O O oo ~ ~ \0 In O O 0 00 ~ Cd Ct Ct Cd ~ ~) ~ 00 ~4 00 CM O O O O ~ O ~ O ~ O 00 CM ~ \0 ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ O O O O 0 ~ c~ O O ~ (~ Cd Cd Ct Cd O In O O O O O Ct Ct Ct Ct O O ~ ~ O O ~ O ~ ~ ~ ~ O O O O 3 - U) ~ Ct ~ ~ Cd ~ ~ o ~ , U) ^ ~ ~ 3 ~ ~ ~ '; ~ ~ D ~ O O O .0 o o O O ~ ~ ~ ~ _ O O ~ ~ O ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ In ~ ~ ~ V ~ ~ In ~ c~ 0 0 oo ~ ~ \0 c~ c~ ~ oo ~ In ~ c~ ~ In ~o ~ ~ c~ ~ ~ ~o 0 ~ ~ ~ 0 ~ In ~ ~ In ~ ~ ~ oo ~ ~ ~ O O O O ~ O O O O oo n ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ 0 0 oo ~ ~ \0 c~ c~ ~ oo ~ In ~ c~ ~ In ~o ~ ~ c~ ~ ~ ~o In ~ ~ In ~ ~ ~ oo ~ ~ ~ O O O O ~ O O O O oo 0 cM ~ o. In ~o In ~ In ~ ~ oo ~ ~ cd cd cd cd cd cd cd cd cd cd cd cd cd cd cd cd cd cd cd cd cd o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o In In ~o In O d cd cd cd cd cd cd cd cd cd cd cd cd cd cd cd cd cd cd cd cd O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O cd cd cd cd cd cd cd cd cd cd cd cd cd cd cd cd cd cd cd cd cd O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O oo In ~ In ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ cd cd cd CM ~ ~ ~ CM cd cd cd cd cd cd cd cd cd cd cd cd cd cd cd cd cd cd cd cd cd CM ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O cd cd cd cd cd cd cd cd cd cd cd cd cd cd cd cd cd cd cd cd cd o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o u) cd ~ - u) cd - ~ - l ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ . . . - o ~ v ~ ~ ~ v, E~ 7 U) ~ .= V, _ Ct O ~0 Ct Ct Ct Ct Ct Ct Ct Ct Ct Ct Ct Ct Ct Ct Ct Ct Ct Ct Ct Ct Ct O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O V, U) C~ U) ~ C~ U) C~ C', C', C~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~-~ ~ =-~ ~-~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ 00 0 ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ o ~ V ~ ~ ~ ~ X ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ O ~ O' ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ U) o _1 o V _1 .~ o ~ . _1 ~ ~i

OCR for page 190
205 In oo ~ In ~ ~ ~ 0 ~ ~ ~ to ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ oo ~ cot O ~ O oo oo oo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . oo cat ~ ~ O ~ cat \0 In ~ cot n ~ \0 ~ \0 ~ CM CM In ~ ~ cat ~ o ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ oo ~ o ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ oo oo In ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ so ~ ~ 0 ~ ~ ~ In oo ~ ~ oo In oo ~ In ~ ~ ~ 0 ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ In O ~ O ~ 0 ~ ~ 0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . oo cot ~ ~ oo ~ O In In ~ 0 In ~ 00 ~ ~ ~ cat cat o ~ ~ ~ ~ o ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ o ~ ~ ~ In ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ so ~ ~ ~ 0 ~ ~ ~ oo \0 In ~ O In ~ so ~ 0 ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ cut ~ so 0 ~ 0 ~ ~ ~ ~ 0 ~ ~ {d ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ O ~ ~ ~ ~ 0 ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ 0 ,~ ~ ~ ~ 0 In ~ ~ CM ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ oo o CM ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ko ~o ~ CM oo ~ o ~o n ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~o ~ ~ 0 ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ oo In In ~ O \0 0 0 ~ n ~ ~ 0 ~ ~ 0 ~o ~ ~ ~ O c~ ~ ~ ~ c~ ~o oo O In ~ ~ CM ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ CM ~o ~ ~ CM Ct ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~o ~ ~ ~ 0 ~o o 0 oo O ~ ~ In ~ 0 ~o ~ ~ ~ In cd \0 In ~ ~ ~o ~ ~ ~ oo ~ C o O ~ ~ ~ \0 ~ ~ ~ ~ O ~ \0 ~ O ~ ~ ~ ~ In 0 ~ ~ ~ n ~ ~ ~ \0 00 In O ~ ~ ~ ~ ~o oo ~ O ~ ~ ~ O ~ ~ In ~ ~ ~ ~o ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ c~ c~ ~ In ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ oo In ~ 00 00 0 ~ ~ 0 In ~ 0 ~ ~ oo ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ O ~ ~ O In ~ ~o ~ In In In 0 In ~ ~ ~ ~ In oo ~ \0 oo In ~ O ~ In ~ ~o 0 ~ ~ o ~ ~ o ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ o ~ ~ o ~ ~ ~ o ~ ~ ~ o c~ ~o ~ ~ oo O c~ c~ ~ ~ ~ oo In ~ \0 In o ~ ~ o ~ ~ oo 0 ~ 0 0 0 0 ~ ~ ~ In c~ ~ In 0 ~o ~ ~ ~ oo c~ O c~ ko ~ ~ ko ~ ~ ~ k ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ o ~ ~ ~ ~o ~o ~ ~ ~ oo In ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ In o ~ o ~ ~ ~ cd o o o ~ o o o o o o o o ~ ~ o o ~ o o cd o ko o ko ~ ~ o o o ~ o o o o o ~ o ~ o ~ o o ~ o o ~ ~ ~ o ~ o o o ~ 9 9 9' ~ ~ ~ W ~ ~ ~ ~ _ , a a Oaa a a 9 , a a ~ 9 ~ ~ u ~ ~ ~ y ,~ ~ ,,, ~ a ~ ~ d~ ~ ~ ~ a ~ V, ~ V, ~ V ~ ~ ~ ~ V ~ ~ ~ ~ O Ct ,~ . 1 U) ~ Ct ~ a ~; ~s 3 ~ ~ j ~ a

OCR for page 190
206 Cq _. bC bC o o a~ a~ o VO s~ ,~o. a~ .= bC C) _4 a~ _4 o o E~ o ~ CM ~ .> o ~ o CM ~ .> .> oo oo ~ .> .> .> oo ~o o o ~ ~ ~ o ~ o Cd Cd Ct Ct o o o o o o ~ ~o CM o ~ o o o ~ ~o CM o ~ o ~ ~ ~ ~ o o o o o o ~ ~o o o ~ o ~ ~ ~ ~ o o o o o o o ~ o o ~ o ~ ~ ~ ~ o o o o Ct Ct Ct Ct o o o o o o o o ~ ~ ~ ~ o o o o U) ~ o O U) 3 - b4 ~, ~ ~ ~ ~ .~ o o ~ ~ o ~ ~ ~ ~ In ~ ~ ~ V o 0 0 ~ o o o o o o ~ ~ o o o ~o Ct Ct Ct Cd o o o o o o o o o o o o o ~o o o o o o o o o o ~o o o o o o o ~ ~ o o o ~o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o U) Ct _ U) ~ 'd ;, _ 1 ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ .... o ~ V ~ ~ ~ V, E~ 7 u' ~ .= V, _ Ct O ~ ~o u) o - l o v - l .~ o ~ . - l ~ ~i cd cd cd cd cd cd cd cd cd cd cd cd cd cd cd cd cd cd cd cd cd o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o cd cd cd cd cd cd cd cd cd cd cd cd cd cd cd cd cd cd cd cd cd o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o cd cd cd cd cd cd cd cd cd cd cd cd cd cd cd cd cd cd cd cd cd o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o cd cd cd cd cd cd cd cd cd cd cd cd cd cd cd cd cd cd cd cd cd o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o cd cd cd cd cd cd cd cd cd cd cd cd cd cd cd cd cd cd cd cd cd o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o cd cd cd cd cd cd cd cd cd cd cd cd cd cd cd cd cd cd cd cd cd o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o u) u) u) cF~ u) ~ ~ ~ d) ~ cF~ u) cF~ c~~ c~~ cF .~.~.~-~.~.~-~-~.~-~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ oo o ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ o ~ v ~ ~ ~ ~ x ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ o ~ o' ~ ~ ~ ~ ~

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207 In 0 In o ~ ~ o CM oo o. oo ~ o Ct o oo o. oo ~ o ~o o oo o o o ~ o o o n 0 0 0 0 0 cd \0 0 \0 \0 ~ n In 0 ~o 0 0 In ~ ~ ~ o o ~ CM o oo ~ oo o o oo o o o ~ o o o o n 0 0 0 0 0 cd \0 0 \0 \0 c~ ~ c~ n ~ ~ ~ CM Ct o o oo O oo ~ O O O O O In ~ c~ ~ ~ 0 oo O O O ~ O O O O O ~ ~ ~ O ~ O O ~ ~ 0 oo In O O O O O ~ ~ O o CM o o oo O oo ~ O O O O O In ~ ~ ~ c~ 0 oo O O O O o ~ ~ o 0 0 0 0 ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ o 0 0 0 0 ~ o o o oo O oo In O O O O O O O O ~ In 0 oo O O o ~ ~ 0 0 0 0 0 0 ~ ~ ~ ~ 0 0 0 0 o Cd o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o oo oo ~ . . . . O ~ ~ In o ~ o oo oo o ~ ~ o ~o o , ~ ~ e ~ ~ O e . ~ a j ~ ' ~ ~ ~ ~ ' ~ ' ~ .. ~ . .. ~ .... ~ ..... .E~ .. ~Y ~ ~ ~ V, ~ V ~ ~ ~ ~ V ~ ~ ~ ~ 0 ~ cd ~ ~ 5 ~ C 3 ~ ~ ~ ~