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276 Cumulative Environmental Effects of Oil and Gas Activities on Alaska 's North Slope . . . field (] 977~. The field is located just to the west of the mouth of the Canning River and contains reserves estimated at 5 TCFG and 360 million bb} (] 5. ~ billion gallons). A point worth noting is that in the 2000 area wide State lease sale, one of the bidding groups acquired a very substantial tract of leases in the Kavik-Kemik area. They picked up all the leases, except those held by the discovery wells, which had been surrendered by previous leasees. The possibility of a gas pipeline Tom the North Slope has changed the perception of those discoveries. The winning companies are betting on gas and that the reserves are larger than previously estimated. Twenty of the 35 discoveries are either developed and on production or currently being developed. Northstar located offshore, is an example of the latter. At least seven or eight of these discoveries are satellite fields and would not have been developed if they were not "immediately" adjacent to a large field with an existing infrastructure. Tabasco and the Midnight Sun/Sambuca fields are satellites each of which has OOlP of 30 to 70 million bb! (~.2 to 2.9 billion gallons). Since the first commercial discovery at Prubhoe Bay in 1968, a total of 39 discoveries have been made on State leases and twenty-four, nearly all in the immediate Pru~hoe-Kuparuk area, have been or are being developed. This area has been and will continue to be the primary exploration grounds until or unless large, attractive areas of the National Petroleum Reserve- Alaska and/or the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge become available for leasing. Federal OCS, Beaufort Sea The BeauLort OCS lands were unavailable to the petroleum industry until the joint State/Federal lease sale of ~ 979. This and subsequent sales provided access to waters beyond the three-miTe~ limit, stretching from Point Barrow in the west to the Canadian border in the east. [Leasing The BeauLort OCS has been the site of seven lease sales, commencing with the joint State/Federal sale in ~ 979 and continuing over a 20-year period to the most recent sale held in 1998 (ADNR 2001a, MMS 200 Ic). These sales were helLcl at two to five year intervals, with sales in 1979, 1982, 1984, 1988,1991, 1996, and 1998. The total acreage offered was 54,81 1,200 acres (22,198,500 ha) in ~ 0,] 3 ~ blocks (MM S 200Ic). The total includes previously unoffered lands, reofferings of surrendered leases, and reoffering of previously offered but unleased acreage. The offerings ranged in size from 173,423 acres (70,236 ha) in 46 blocks (1979) to IS,556,776 acres (779,384,592 ha) in 3,417 blocks (19911. Issuance of leases ranged from a low of 24 blocks with 85,776 acres (34,739 ha) in 1979 to a high of 227 leases with 1,207,714 acres (489,124 ha) in ~ 984 (MMS 2001c). The earliest phase of leasing in the late ~ 970s and early 198Os drew the greatest level of interest with approximately 21 percent ofthe offered acreage being leased. The large acreage offerings of the late 198Os and early 199Os (7.28 to 18.56 million acres [2.9 to 7.5 million ha]) drew relatively little interest, with only 3.5 percent of the offered blocks receiving successful high bids. [merest may be on the rise once again. At the most recent sale in 1998, 9.3% of the 920,983 acres (372,998 ha) offered were leased. Interest peaked early not only in terms of the percentage of offerings receiving bids but also in terms of the values bid on the leases. The average per block bit! in the first three sales