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Index A Acoustics, see Noise; Seismic exploration Aeromap analysis and aerial photography, 44, 46, 190-207 exploration activities, historical, 169 road impacts, 80, 81-82, 110, 190-206 (passim) seismic exploration, 81-82, 85, 110, 190-206 (passim) tundra, 44, 46, 190-207 (passim) Air quality, 13, 40-41, 73 bowhead whales, oil spills, 101 burning oil, 13 Clean Air Act, 240 climate warming, ix, 5, 13, 51, 56-60 marine mammals, 105, 106 nonnative plant species, 80 precipitation, 57, 58 projected resource development, 51, 56-60 tundra, 5, 57, 58-60 vegetation, 5, 28, 58 construction activities, 49 cost of pollution, 144 dust, 65, 68, 78, 79, 80, 95 human health, 73, 144, 151, 153 injection wells, 73 oil spills, 101, 103-104 permafrost, 41, 65, 68, 78 polar bears and seals, oil spills, 103-104 regulatory controls, 88, 237-238, 240 research methods, 73 research recommendations, 10, 73, 151, 152 vegetation impacts, 8, 78, 79, 80, 88, 95, 96 climate warming, 5, 28, 58 visual impacts of pollutants, 73 Air transport, 4, 19, 40, 44 airstrips, Aeromap analysis, 193-194, 197-204 (passim) birds, 121, 123 grizzly bears, hunter access, 118 historical perspectives, 171- 172 polar bears and seals, noise, 104 projections, 56 Alaska Department of Environmental Conservation (ADEC), 92, 94, 188, 213,218,219,220,226,227,228, 237-239 Alaska Department of Fish and Game (ADF&G), 127, 235, 236-237 Alaska Department of Natural Resources (ADNR), 92, 93, 95, 176, 188, 235- 236 Alaska Eskimo Whaling Commission, 136, 156 Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act, 4, 22, 33, 133-134, 148, 156, 178 Alaska Natives, 4, 5, 13,20, 133, 132-149, 156-157 see also Arctic Slope Regional Corporation; Human health; Subsistence adaptation effects,8, 132,147-148, 156, 158-159 cash economy, transition to, 49, 132, 146, 147, 158-159 oil production levels, 147, 148 Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR), 134, 136, 139, 140, 145-146, 148, 156 Arctic Slope Regional Corporation (ASRC), 4, 22, 49, 53, 134, 143-144, 147-148, 156, 174, 179-180 coastal communities, 19, 20, 124-135, 136 education, 23, 146-147 food contamination, 1, 13 employment, 4, 20, 23, 103, 142, 143-144, 146-147, 148 cash economy, transition to, 49, 132, 146, 147, 158-159 health, 1, 9-10, 13 whaling, hunter safety, 100, 135, 136, 156 historical perspectives, oil, uses of, 32, 167-168 population growth/composition, 19, 20 social environment, general, 4, 19, 20-23, 132-136 subsistence and other economic emphases, 20 traditional knowledge, 16-17, 18, 56-57, 100, 102, 135, 132, 136, 149, 151, 232-233 Western contacts, 20 277 ice cellars, 56-57, 135 income, 4, 20, 23 landscape, spiritual impacts, 8, 137 leasing, 178 population demographics, 19, 20, 23, 25 racism, 146-147 restoration requirements, 93 socioeconomic factors, 8, 9, 20, 23, 103, 135, 139, 141-143 see also Subsistence; "employment" above adaptation effects, 8, 132, 147-148, 158- 159 cash economy, transition to, 49, 132, 146, 147, 158-159 oil production levels, 147, 148 historical perspectives, 4, 19, 20-23, 132- 136 income, 4, 20, 23 redistribution of wealth, 49 traditional knowledge, 16-17, 18, 56-57, 100, 102, 132, 135, 136, 149, 151, 232-233 wilderness and wildlands, 8, 137, 140; see also "Arctic National Wildlife Refuge" above Alaska Oil and Gas Conservation Commission, 71, 229, 237-238 Alaska Permanent Fund, 144 Algae, 30, 31, 130-132 Animals, see Fish and fisheries; Insects; Wildlife; Wildlife food and feeding; Wildlife habitat; Wildlife reproductive behavior Aquatic ecosystems, 30-31 see also Coastal zones; Fish and fisheries; Freshwater environments; Lakes; Marine environments and organisms; Rivers and streams; Water quality; Wetlands Arctic cisco, 123-125, 128, 129, 130 Arctic Drilling Platform, 185 Arctic Foothills, 25, 28, 29, 39 Arctic foxes, 20, 30, 89, 117, 119 Arctic grayling, 22, 124, 125, 126, 129, 130, 138

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278 Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR), 8, 24, 39, 56, 134, 155-156 caribou, 106, 107, 110, 115-116, 148, 156 economic value, 145-146, 242-245 historical perspectives, discovery/ development of oil, 168, 172, 178- 179 lesser snow geese, 122 legislation, 56 map of, 140 mineral resources, other than hydrocarbon, 56 projections of future oil/gas activities, 51, 52, 54, 56, 145-146, 181 seals, 105 seismic exploration, 178- 179 trails, vegetation impacts, 82, 86, 96, 139 social impacts, Alaska Natives, 134, 136, 139, 140, 145-146, 148, 156 Arctic Ocean, 4, 24, 26, 27, 30 climate warming, 57 Arctic Slope Regional Corporation (ASRC), 4, 22, 49, 53, 134, 143-144, 147-148, 156, 174, 179-180 Areas of special importance, 76, 77, 96, 97 Army Corps of Engineers, 91-92, 128, 230-231, 239, 240 B Barrier islands, 4, 24, 26-27, 225 Barrow Arch, 24, 26, 53, 54, 55, 170, 174, 180, 181, 224 Bears, see Grizzly bears; Polar bears Beaufort Sea, 24, 26, 27, 30-31, 74, 103 benthic communities, 130, 131 coal reserves, 60 fish, 124, 129 geomophology, 25 gravel causeways/islands, 40, 49, 74, 129 historical perspectives, 172, 174, 177 oil spills, 180, 220-224, 225, 226 permitted discharges, 74 phytoplankton, 4, 30-31 projected activities, 52, 54, 60 sea ice structure, 48-49 seals and polar bears, 104, 105, 106 whales, 17, 99, 100, 103 zooplankton, 4, 31, 130, 131 Beluga whales, 4, 57, 99, 105 Benthic invertebrates, 4, 30, 31, 73, 129, 130- 131, 153 Bering Sea, 27 fish, 124 polar beers, 103 seals and walrus, 100, 103 whale populations, 4, 17, 98, 99 Bering Strait, 26, 99 Birds, 30, 31, 118-123 see also Shorebirds; Waterfowl bird mounds, 89 black brants, 121, 122 eiders, 121-122 lesser snow geese, 122 loons,4, 119-120 pingo habitat, 89 INDEX population dynamics, 6, 118-119, 157-158 predators, of birds, 30, 89, 117, 119, 122, 123, 157 raptors, 30, 119, 122-123 snow geese, 122 subsistence hunting, 22 tundra, 30, 119, 120-121 tundra swan, 120-121 Black brants, 121, 122 Bowhead whales, 1, 8, 10, 13, 17, 20, 64, 99-103 oil spills, 10, 100-103, 105 noise, 100-104 (passim), 136, 153 seismic, 100, 102, 103, 135, 136, 144-145, 156 seasonal factors, 99-100, 156 social impacts, 135, 156 stock, numbers, 99 subsistence hunting, 21, 22, 135, 136, 137, 144-145, 157 Bridges, 129, 196, 197, 202, 204, 206 Broad whitefish, 123, 125, 128, 129, 130 Brooks Range, 25, 53-54 birds, 122-123 caribou, 106, 109, 115, 116 coal reserves, 60 Long Term Ecological Research program, 151 natural gas reserves, 53-54, 55 oil reserves, 53, 54 projected developments, 53, 54, 55 wildlife population dynamics, 99 Bureau of Land Management, 54, 62 restoration of sites, 91, 92, 95 wilderness and wildlands, 140, 141 Bureau of Mines, 167 C Caribou, 6, 106-117, 153 Aeromap analysis, 197, 204 Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR), 106, 107, 110, 115-116, 148, 156 Brooks Range, 106, 109, 115, 116 coastal areas, 6, 106, 107, 108, 111, 112, 113, 115-116, 135-136, 148, 156 Colville-Canning Province, 106-116 (passim), 158 exploration activities, 115, 109- 111, 115- 116 seismic, 108-109 forage and foraging, 106-108 (passim), 112- 116 (passim) habitat, 106- 117 (pas sim), 144- 145 infrastructure, 136; see also "pipelines" and "roads" below maps of ranges, 107, 113 mineral developments, not hydrocarbons, 115 National Petroleum Reserve-Alaska, 106, 109, 116 pingo habitat, 89 pipelines, 106, 110-111, 116, 138 crossings, 43, 47, 197, 204 population dynamics, 6, 106-107, 110, 111, 114-115 predators of, 112 Prudhoe Bay, 6, 106, 107, 108, 111, 112, 113, 115, 116 recreational hunting, 108, 138 remote sensing, 47 reproductive behavior, 6, 98, 106-108 (passim), 110-117 (passim), 153, 158 research recommendations, 10, 116-117, 153 roads, 106, 110-111, 116 snow cover, 108 spatial domain, 107, 111, 113, 144-145 subsistence hunting, 20, 22, 106, 108, 135- 136, 138, 144, 148 summer insect harassment, 6, 107, 111, 115, 116, 117 vegetation consumption, 88 Carnivores, see Predators Cartography, see Maps and mapping Causeways, 40, 44, 49, 65, 127-131 (passim), 196 Aeromap analysis, 196-206 (passim) Beaufort Sea, 40, 49, 74, 129 Chukchi Sea, 26, 27, 30, 135, 158, 174, 177, 178, 179 bowhead whales, 99 fish, 124 oil spills, 224 seals and walrus, 103 Clean Air Act, 240 Clean Water Act, 73, 91-92, 150, 239, 240 National Pollution Discharge Elimination System (NPDES), 74-75, 239 Climate, 2, 5, 19 see also Seasonal factors; Snowfall/cover; Temperature factors burning of oil, 13 climate warming, ix, 5, 13, 51, 56-60 ice processes, 5, 57, 58 marine mammals, 105, 106 nonnative plant species, 80 permafrost, 5, 58-60 precipitation, 57, 58 projected resource development, 51, 56-60 transportation, 19, 77, 80 tundra, 5, 57, 58-60 vegetation, 5, 28, 58 Coal, 60-62 reserves, ix, 12 Coalbed methane, 61, 62 Coast Guard, 239 Coastal Zone Management Act, 93, 240 Coastal zones, 1, 3, 4, 30, 238-239 see also Arctic National Wildlife Refuge Alaska Natives, communities, 19, 20, 124- 135, 136 arctic foxes, 117 barrier islands, 4, 24, 26-27, 225 benthic invertebrates, 4, 30, 31, 73, 129, 130- 131 bird mounds, 89 caribou, 6, 106, 107, 108, 111, 112, 113, 115- 116, 135-136, 148, 156 climate warming, 59 Coastal Zone Management Act, 93, 240 deltas, 4, 26, 120, 122, 123, 127 fish, 10, 124-125, 127-129 geomorphology, 24, 25 gravel causeways, see Causeways historical perspectives, discovery of oil, 32,167

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INDEX ice processes, 25 lagoons, 4, 25, 30 lakes and ponds, 19, 25, 30 oil spills, 134-135, 156, 223, 238-239 permafrost, 59-60, 65 pingo habitat, 89 rivers and streams, 25, 26, 30, 31 deltas, 4, 26, 120, 122, 123, 127 seismic trails, 82, 157 subsistence, 20-22, 135-136, 148, 156 vegetation, 28-29, 82, 89, 95 waste disposal, 74 water withdrawals, 10, 48, 49 wave and wind action, 4, 26 wetlands, 3, 4, 19, 91-92, 238, 239 Colville-Canning Province, 155 caribou, 106- 116 (passim), 158 fish, 123-125 (passim), 127, 128, 129, 153 historical perspectives, 172, 175, 177 natural gas reserves, 53 oil reserves, 52, 53, 172 water withdrawals, 153 Communication climatic effects, 19 social isolation, 4, 5, 13, 20, 23, 24, 132, 135, 137-138 Costs and cost-benefit factors, 10-11, 141-146, 159 air pollution, 144 future developments, prediction, 182 market price for oil, 51, 52, 134, 144, 145, 181, 242-245 ice roads and pads, 36-37 rehabilitation of disturbed sites, 9, 93, 94-95, 96, 150 research methods, ix, 10- 11, 132- 133, 145, 150, 152, 242-245 social/living needs, 133-134, 139-140 transportation/cost of living, 4-5, 20, 135 spills, 76 Trans-Alaska Pipeline, 134 Court cases, see Litigation Cultural factors, see Alaska Natives; Social factors and impacts; Subsistence Culverts, 44, 74, 78, 117, 125, 126, 129, 156 Aeromap analysis, 196, 197, 202, 204, 206 Cumulative effects see also Air quality; Alaska Natives; Aquatic ecosystems; Climate; Human health; Oil spills; Spills, other than oil; Terrestrial environment; Vegetation; Wildlife; specific biota, environments, human effects, and oil and gas activities assessment methods, 2, 15 projections, 2, 155 research methods, 2, 13-15 D Dalton Highway, 23, 35, 44, 56, 77, 78, 95, 106, 110, 111, 138, 211 Databases contaminated sites, 94 geographic information systems, 151 spatial, ecosystem and wildlife, 97 Deltas, 4, 26 279 Department of Commerce National Marine Fisheries Service, 17, 240 National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, 13, 17, 240 whales, 17 Department of the Interior see also Bureau of Land Management; Minerals Management Service Bureau of Mines, 167 Environmental Studies Program, 13 outer continental shelf, 13, 54 U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, 74, 88, 96, 104-105, 188, 240, 241 U.S. Geological Survey, 54, 56, 62, 145, 168, 171, 172, 180, 242 Development of oil resources, general, 33, 38- 40, 134 see also Drilling and well operations; Leasing; Reserves; Waste production and disposal birds, 118-122 (passim) fish, 125-129 caribou, 115-116 permafrost, 38, 64 projection of oil/gas development activities, ix, 51-63, 180-182 Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR), 51, 52, 54, 56, 145-146, 181 cost factors, 182 infrastructure, 56, 155 market price for oil, 51, 52, 134, 144, 145, 181, 242-245 regulatory activities, 51, 155 roads, 56, 57 spills, 220 sea ice structure, 48-49 social impacts, 134, 136-147 Diesel fuel, 47, 60, 76, 90, 96, 209 Directional drilling, 68-69, 186 DNR, see Alaska Department of Natural Resources Drilling and well operations, 32, 94, 237 see also Injection wells bowhead whales, noise and waste, 100-104 (passim), 136, 153 caribou, 109 development, 38 directional drilling, 68-69, 186 exploration, 8, 35-38, 42, 44, 46-47, 53, 74, 100, 109, 169, 170, 173-175, 176, 178, 179-180, 185-187 historical perspectives, 35-38, 169, 170, 175, 176, 178, 179-180, 210, 212-213, 225-226 oil spills, 210, 212-213, 224, 225-227 pads, 15, 38, 40, 42, 43, 45, 46-47, 48, 56, 65, 68-69, 74, 77, 78, 90, 95, 96, 129, 139, 188-189 Aeromap analysis, 194-207 (passim) costs, 36-37 ice roads and pads, 10, 35, 36, 44, 56, 88, 89, 96, 97, 127, 153 oil spills, 47, 74, 77, 78, 90, 96, 189, 208, 213, 218, 219 vegetation, 64, 76, 95 water quality, 73 permafrost, 25, 68-70 platforms, 47, 49, 51, 92, 94, 95, 100, 177, 185 sea ice structure, 48-49 technological innovations, 185-187 directional drilling, 68-69, 186 wastes, 37-38, 40, 41-42, 70-71, 74, 78, 188 see also Injection wells bowhead whales, 100 injection, 41, 42, 47, 69, 70-73, 77, 131, 188, 240 rehabilitation, 94 water consumption, general, 40, 47 water withdrawal 9, 10, 69-70, 73, 153 coastal zones, 10, 48, 49 freshwater fish habitat, 126- 127, 130 seawater, 48 wildlife habitat, 10, 98 Earthquakes, 134 Economic factors, ix, 1, 12, 141-147 see also Costs and cost-benefit factors; Employment; Funding; Leasing; Socioeconomic factors; Subsistence Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR), 145-146, 242-245 Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act, 4, 22, 33, 133-134, 148, 156, 178 Arctic Slope Regional Corporation (ASRC), 4, 22, 49, 53, 134, 143-144, 147-148, 156, 174, 179-180 coal production, 12 market price for oil, 51, 52, 134, 144, 145, 181, 242-245 recreation resources, 141-143, 145 redistribution of wealth, 49 research and assessment methods, 2, 132- 133, 145, 242-245 restoration of disturbed sites, 9, 93, 94-95, 96, 150 taxation, 23, 49, 143, 144, 147, 148, 242 state royalties, 133, 143, 144 Westernization, 20 wilderness and wildlands, value of, 141- 143, 145 wildlife values, 98, 140-141, 142; see also Subsistence Education, 23, 49-50 Alaska Natives, 23, 146-147 employment and, 146-147 transmission of disease, arctic foxes, 117 Eiders, 121-122 EISs, see Environmental impact statements Electric power, 40-41, 43 coal-fired generation, transmission lines, 60 transmission lines, Aeromap analysis, 196, 203, 205, 207 Employment, 13, 20, 23, 49, 142, 148 Alaska Natives, 4, 20, 23, 103, 142, 143-144, 146-147, 148 cash economy, transition to, 49, 132, 146, 147, 158-159 oil industry, 23, 142, 143-144, 146-147, 148

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280 Endangered and threatened species, 1, 142, 154 see also Bowhead whales plants, 89-90, 96 wildlife, birds, 120, 121-122 polar beers, 103 population dynamics, 98-99 Endangered Species Act, 121, 154, 240 Enhanced oil recovery, 47, 187-188 Environmental impact statements (EISs), 2, 13, 14, 87, 212, 213 social impacts, 132, 134 Environmental Protection Agency, 150, 239-240 see also National Environmental Policy Act compensatory mitigation, 92 general permit, 74 hazardous waste regulations, 41 National Pollution Discharge Elimination System (NPDES), 74-75, 239 Environmental Studies Program, 13 Exploration, 35-38, 47, 52-56 see also Drilling and well operations; Leasing; Reserves; Seismic exploration Aeromap analysis, 191-207 (passim) caribou, 115, 109-111, 115-116 historical perspectives, 32, 35-38, 132-134, 167-180, 182, 191 seeps, 32, 167-168 projection of oil/gas development activities, ix, 51-63, 180-182 Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR), 51, 52, 54, 56, 145-146, 181 cost factors, 182 infrastructure, 56, 155 market price for oil, 51, 52, 134, 144, 145, 181, 242-245 regulatory activities, 51, 155 roads, 56, 57 spills, 220 sea ice structures, 48-49 seeps, environmental impacts, 73, 77, 119 historical perspectives, 32, 167-168 Exxon Valdez, 100, 134-135 F Federal government, 13 see also Funding; Legislation and regulation; specific departments and agencies Federal Water Pollution Control Act, see Clean Water Act Fish and fisheries, 123- 130, 236, 238 see also Marine mammals; Lakes and ponds; Rivers and streams Arctic cisco, 123-125, 128, 129, 130 Arctic grayling, 22, 124, 125, 126, 129, 130, 138 broad whitefish, 123, 125, 128, 129, 130 coastal zones, 10, 124-125, 127-129 Colville-Canning Province, 123-125 (passim), 127, 128, 129, 153 diadromous, 4, 64, 123-125, 127-129, 130, 236 INDEX drainage patterns, 126 freshwater, 4, 10, 31, 123, 124-130 diadromous species, 4, 64, 123-125, 127- 129, 130, 236 ice processes, 124, 126, 129 lakes and ponds, 4, 10, 31, 10, 123- 127, 129, 130, 153 water withdrawals, 10, 98, 126-127, 129, 130, 153 gravel habitat, 126- 130 (passim) marine,4,31, 123 climate warming, 57 diadromous species, 4, 64, 123-125, 127- 129, 130, 236 predators, 57 migratory, 4, 13, 64, 123-125, 127-129 diadromous species, 4, 64, 123-125, 127- 129, 130, 236 number of species, 4, 31 offshore activities, 123, 124, 125, 128, 129 recreational fishing, 138 seismic exploration, 127, 129 subsistence fishing, 22, 123, 129, 132, 134 waste discharges, 73 Fish and Wildlife Coordination Act, 241 Flooding fish impeded by control structures, 128- 129 icejamming, 4 roads, vegetation impacts, 5, 78, 80, 81, 95 Floodplains gravel mining, 35, 74, 89, 90, 129 river corridor vegetation, 88-89 road excavation, 81 Food, human see also Subsistence cost of, 20 drinking water, 42, 70, 72, 240 food contamination, 1, 13, 151 Forest Resources Practices Act (Alaska), 236 Foxes, 20, 30, 89, 119 Freshwater environments, 3-4, 26, 30, 73-74 see also Hydrology; Ice processes; Lakes and ponds; Rivers and streams climate warming, 58 fish habitat, 4, 10, 31, 123, 124-130 diadromous species, 4, 64, 123-125, 127- 129, 130, 236 ice processes, 124, 126, 129 lakes and ponds, 4, 10, 31, 10, 123- 127, 129, 130, 153 water withdrawals, 10, 98, 126-127, 129, 130, 153 oil spills, 223 water spills, 229 Funding, 13 Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act, 4, 22, 33, 133-134, 148, 156, 178 Alaska Permanent Fund, 144 committee study at hand, 1, 13 polar bears, impacts on, 106 restoration, 95, 96 seals, impacts on, 104, 106 social programs, 133- 134, 139- 140 tax base, 23, 49, 143, 144, 147, 148, 242 state royalties, 133, 143, 144 G Gas, natural, see Coalbed methane; Natural gas Gas hydrate, 62 Geographic information systems, 151 Geography see also Maps and mapping committee study domain, 14, 15, 155-156 extent of Alaska National Wildlife Refuge, 140 extent of Brooks Range Foothills Belt, 53 extent of Colville-Canning Province, 53 extent of North Slope, ix, 2, 3, 12-13, 24, 39 extent of North Slope Borough, 23 extent of outer continental shelf, 54 historical perspectives, 168 marine environments, 26 Geological Survey see U.S. Geological Survey Geology, 3, 24, 25-27, 235, 236 see also Seismic exploration coastal zone geomorphology, 24, 25 historical perspectives, 168-169, 172-173, 174-175, 177-179 subsidence, 28, 65, 70, 72 surface ballooning, 73 Global warming, see Climate Gravel-covered areas, 9, 10, 13, 15 see also Causeways; Roads and gravel pads Aeromap analysis, 44, 46, 190-207 (passim) algae, 131 bird habitat, 89, 119 drainage patterns, 74, 126 fish habitat, 126- 130 (pas sim) historical perspectives, 38, 40, 43-47 islands, artificial, 27, 40, 44, 45, 60, 74, 93, 156 Aeromap analysis, 194, 198, 201, 203, 205, 207 oil spills, 208 mining, 15, 35, 44, 46, 47, 48, 56, 68, 74, 90, 95, 129, 188, 195 floodplains, 35, 74, 89, 90, 129 rivers, 74, 89, 90, 129, 195, 197, 203, 205, 207 pads, 15, 38, 40, 42, 43, 44, 45, 47, 56, 65, 68-69, 74, 77, 78, 90, 95, 96, 129, 139, 188-189 Aeromap analysis, 194-207 (passim) oil spills, 47, 74, 77, 78, 90, 96, 189, 208, 213, 218, 219 permafrost, 25, 64-65, 68-69, 89 pingos, 25, 89 projection of development activities, 56 rehabilitation/restoration, 90-95, 158, 195 tundra, gravel damage, 35, 188-189, 190-207 (passim) vegetation impacts, 64, 76, 77, 78, 95 rehabilitation and restoration, 90-95 waste disposal, reserve pits, 28, 42, 76, 94, 188 Grizzly bears, 4, 117- 118 human safety, 118 pingo habitat, 89 recreational hunting, 118, 138 Guidelines and Principles for Social Impact Assessment, 132

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INDEX H Health, see Human health Heated buildings, 65, 68 Herbivores, 4, 30, 31, 58, 88 see also Caribou; Muskoxen Historical perspectives, 15, 32-50, 167- 182 see also Projections Aeromap analysis, 197-207 air transport, 171-172 Alaska Natives, see also "social environment" below oil, uses of, 32, 167-168 population growth/composition, 19, 20 social environment, general, 4, 19, 20-23, 132-136 subsistence and other economic emphases, 20 traditional knowledge, 16-17, 18, 56-57, 100, 102, 135, 132, 136, 149, 151, 232-233 Western contacts, 20 Beaufort Sea, 172, 174, 177 caribou herd size, 6 coastal zones, 32, 167 Colville-Canning Province, 172, 175, 177 cumulative effects, assessment methods, 2, 15 drilling and well operations, 35-38, 169, 170, 175, 176, 178, 179-180, 210, 212- 213, 225-226 exploration, 32, 35-38, 132-134, 167-180, 182, 191 seeps, 32, 167-168 gravel-covered areas, 38, 40, 43-47 infrastructure, 5, 32-46 (passim), 49, 155-156 leasing, 33, 35, 49-50, 172-179 (passim) mapping, 168-169 National Historic Preservation Act, 241 National Petroleum Reserve-Alaska, 32, 33, 39, 44, 46, 172, 174, 177 oil and gas activities, overview, ix, 1, 5, 12, 20, 22-23, 32-50, 167-182, 208 Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR), 168, 172, 178-179 oil spills, 48, 100, 134, 208-215, 225-227 production levels, ix, 1, 12 recreational fishing/hunting, 138 research, ix, 90-91 restoration of disturbed sites, 90-91 road impacts on vegetation, 77-78, 80-81 saline spills, 229-230 seismic exploration, 169, 173-174, 177-179 seismic trails, vegetation impacts, 81 social environment, 4, 19, 20-23, 132- 136 population growth/composition, 19, 20 subsistence activities, 20, 21-22, 135 technological innovation, ix, 46-47, 169, 174- 175 whaling, 20, 21-22, 99 Horizontal drilling, see Directional drilling Human environment, see Economic factors; Education; Employment; Social factors and impacts; Socioeconomic factors; Subsistence Human health, 139-140, 148, 149 air pollutants, 73, 144, 151, 153 281 drinking water, 42, 70, 72, 240 bear interactions, 103, 118 research recommendations, 9- 10, 149, 151- 152 subsistence food contamination, 1, 13, 151 transmission of disease, arctic foxes, 117 whaling, subsistence hunter safety, 100, 135, 136, 156 Hunting, 5, 138 see also Subsistence elevated pipelines, 68 recreational, 77, 118, 138, 139, 171 arctic foxes, 20 caribou, 108, 138 fishing, 138 grizzly beers, 118, 138 road access, 77, 118 seals and polar bears, 103, 104 whaling, commercial, 17, 18, 20, 21-22, 99, 100 Hydrology, see Flooding; Freshwater environments; Ice processes; Lakes and ponds; Rivers and streams l Ice processes, 3-4 see also Permafrost caribou foraging, 108 climate change, 5, 57, 58 climate warming, 56-57 coastal, 25 diadromous fish, 124 freshwater fish, 124, 126, 129 lakes and ponds, 24, 25, 26, 73-74 oil spills, 7, 9, 74, 130, 158, 218, 220-222, 223, 227 sea ice, 27, 30, 57, 59-60, 74, 105 seals and polar bears, 104 subsistence hunting, 103 traditional ice cellars, 56-57, 135 Ice roads and pads, 10, 35, 36-37, 44, 48, 56, 88, 89, 96, 97, 127, 153 Ice-wedge polygons, 24, 25, 58, 65-67, 79 Infrastructure, general, 5, 9, 32-50 (passim), 155- 156, 235-241 see also Aeromap analysis and aerial photography; Drilling and well operations; Pipelines; Rehabilitation and restoration; Roads and gravel pads; Ships, including tankers; Storage facilities; Technological innovation; Transportation caribou, 136 climate change, 5, 59 electric power, 40-41, 43, 60, 196, 203, 205, 207 heated buildings, 65, 68 historical perspectives, 5, 32-46 (passim), 49, 155-156 maps, 6-7, 33-34, 36, 37, 39, 113 North Slope Borough, capital improvements, 23 permafrost, 3, 25, 59, 64-65, 68-69 platforms, 47, 49, 51, 92, 94, 95, 100, 177, 185 projections, 56, 155 social impacts, 132, 133, 136-147, 156-157 tax revenues, 147-148 terminal facilities, 40, 208, 238 wilderness, impacts on, 5, 140-141, 148 zones of influence, 9, 42, 152-153, 158 Injection wells, 40, 69, 70, 72, 228, 229, 240 air pollutant releases, 73 marine environment, 72-73 natural gas, 209 permafrost, 71, 72, 188 spills, 70, 71-72, 73, 228, 229 surface ballooning, 73 waste disposal, 41, 42, 47, 69, 70-73, 77, 131, 188, 240 Insects, 4 bird predators of, 30 regulatory controls, 236 summer harassment of caribou, 6, 107, 111, 115, 116, 117 tundra, other, 29-30 International perspectives, market price for oil, 51, 52, 134, 144, 145, 181, 242-245 International Tundra Experiment, 58 International Whaling Commission (IWC), 17 Invertebrates, 98, 153 see also Benthic invertebrates; Zooplankton K Kelp, 4, 31, 130 L Lagoons, 4, 25, 30 Lakes and ponds, 3, 24, 26, 73-74 birds, 119, 120 coastal, 19, 25, 30 drainage patterns, 74 freshwater fish, 4, 10, 31, 10, 123-127, 129, 130, 153 ice processes, 24, 25, 26, 73-74 Long Term Ecological Research program, 151 permafrost, 25, 68, 72 road construction and use, 80 seasonal factors, 26, 73-74 waste injection, 72 water withdrawals, 10, 98, 126-127, 129, 130, 153 Landscape, see Rehabilitation and restoration; Visual resources Leasing, 132, 140, 148, 235, 236, 237, 241 historical perspectives, 33, 35, 49-50, 172-179 (passim) restoration of sites and, 95 schedules, 52 state lands, 5, 133, 143, 144, 172 Legislation and regulation, 5, 9, 11, 235-241 see also Environmental Protection Agency; Leasing air quality, 88, 237-238, 240 Alaska Department of Environmental Conservation (ADEC), 92, 94, 188, 213,218,219,220,226,227,228, 237-239

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282 INDEX Alaska Department of Fish and Game (ADF&G), 127, 235, 236-237 Alaska Department of Natural Resources (ADNR), 92, 93, 95, 176, 188, 235- 236 Alaska Eskimo Whaling Commission, 136, 156 Alaska National Interest Lands Conservation Act, 140 Arctic National Wildlife Refuge, 56 Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act, 4, 22, 33, 133-134, 148, 156, 178 Alaska Oil and Gas Conservation Commission, 71, 229, 237-238 Army Corps of Engineers, 91-92, 128, 230- 231,239,240 causeway construction, 128 Clean Air Act, 240 Clean Water Act, 73, 91-92, 150, 239, 240 National Pollution Discharge Elimination System (NPDES), 74-75, 239 Coastal Zone Management Act, 93, 240 Coast Guard, 239 committee recommendations, 8- 11 (passim) Endangered Species Act, 121, 154, 240 environmental impact statements (EISs), 2, 13, 14, 87, 212, 213 Fish and Wildlife Coordination Act, 241 floodplain developments, 129 Forest Resources Practices Act (Alaska), 236 gravel mining, 129 information dissemination, 49 marine discharges, 74-75 marine mammals, 103, 104, 136, 241 Marine Mammal Protection Act, 103, 104, 241 Marine Protection, Research, and Sanctuaries Act, 241 Migratory Bird Treaty Act, 241 National Historic Preservation Act, 241 National Ocean Pollution Planning Act, 240 National Petroleum Reserve-Alaska Production Act, 141 Naval Petroleum Production Act, 171 off-road travel, 7, 35 Oil Pollution Act, 214, 226 oil reserve claims under laws governing other minerals, 167 oil spills, 74, 213, 214, 215, 238, 215, 216, 218, 225-227, 237-239 projections of future oil/gas activities, 51, 155 Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, 41, 188 restoration requirements, 8, 91-93, 95, 96, 158 Safe Drinking Water Act, 72, 240 saline spills, 228 seismic exploration, 7, 84, 127, 153, 156 Solid Waste Disposal Act, 240 Statehood Act (Alaska), 172 storage facilities, 237, 238 Toxic Substances Control Act, 240 Trans-Alaskan Pipeline Authorization Act, 134 tundra travel permits, 84 U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS), 74, 88, 96, 104-105, 188, 240, 241 waste disposal, 41, 42, 70, 71, 72, 74, 91-92, 128, 188, 230-231, 237, 239, 240 water withdrawals, 10, 127, 129, 236 wetland restoration, 91-92, 238, 239 wilderness, 140-141 Wilderness Act, 140-141 wildlife, 56, 103, 104, 121, 136, 154, 235, 236-237, 238, 240, 241 Alaska Department of Fish and Game (ADF&G), 127, 235, 236-237 Alaska Eskimo Whaling Commission, 136, 156 Arctic National Wildlife Refuge, 56 Endangered Species Act, 121, 154, 240 Fish and Wildlife Coordination Act, 241 Migratory Bird Treaty Act, 241 marine mammals, 103, 104, 136, 241 U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS), 74, 88, 96, 104-105, 188, 240, 241 Lesser snow geese, 122 Lichens, 77, 88, 96, 97, 108 Light Automated Drilling Systems, 187 Litigation oil spills, 225, 237 restoration requirements, 93, 94 Long Term Ecological Research program, 151 Loons, 4, 119- 120 Mammals, 30 see also Caribou; Grizzly bears; Polar bears; Marine mammals arctic foxes, 20, 30, 89, 119 muskoxen, 4, 48, 117 Maps and mapping Aeromap analysis and aerial photography, 44, 46, 190-207 exploration activities, historical, 169 road impacts, 80, 81, 110 seismic exploration, 81-82, 85 Arctic coast, 168 caribou ranges, 107, 113 coal and coalbed methane, 61 field and units, 39 historical perspectives, 168-169 North Slope region, 3, 12 oil production activities and facilities, 6-7, 33- 34,36,37,39, 113 Marine environments and organisms, 4, 26-27, 72-75 see also Coastal zones; Fish and fisheries; Marine mammals algae, 30, 31, 130-132 benthic invertebrates, 4, 30, 31, 73, 129, 130- 131, 153 climate warming, 57-58 injection wells, 72-73 kelp, 4, 31, 130 phytoplankton, 4, 30-31, 57, 130 spills, 74 zooplankton, 4, 31, 57, 130, 131 Marine Mammal Protection Act, 103, 104, 241 Marine mammals, general, 4, 9, 99-106 see also Bowhead whales; Polar bears; Seals; Whales climate warming, 105, 106 Marine Mammal Protection Act, 103, 104, 241 noise, 13, 48, 99, 103, 104 research recommendations, 10, 98, 103, 106, 153 subsistence hunting, other than whales, 20, 22, 103 Marine Protection, Research, and Sanctuaries Act, 241 Measurement-while-drilling, 186- 187 Metals, reserves, 62-63 Methodology, see Research methods; Technological innovation Migratory Bird Treaty Act, 241 Migratory species, 1, 13 see also Bowhead whales; Caribou; Marine mammals; Seals; Waterfowl; Whales birds, general, 118-119, 241; see also Waterfowl; specific species under Birds construction of infrastructure, 49 fish, 4, 13, 64, 123-125, 127-129 diadromous, 4, 64, 123-125, 127-129, 130, 236 freshwater use and redistribution, 48 population dynamics, 98-99 Mineral resources, not hydrocarbons see also Coal; Natural gas Arctic National Wildlife Refuge, 56 Arctic Slope Regional Corporation (ASRC), 143-144, 147-148 caribou, impacts on, 115 coalbed methane, 61, 62 gas hydrate, 62 metals, 62-63, 115 offshore, 60, 63 oil reserve claims under laws governing other minerals, 167 Minerals Management Service, 54, 91, 92, 177 oil spill estimates, 220 restoration of sites and, 91, 92, 95 Moose, subsistence hunting, 22 Mosses, 65, 77, 78, 88, 95, 220 Multilateral drilling, 186 Muskoxen, 4, 48, 117 N National Environmental Policy Act, 2, 13-14, 33, 240 see also Environmental impact statements social impacts, 132, 134 National Historic Preservation Act, 241 National Marine Fisheries Service, 240 whales, 17 National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, 240 National Marine Fisheries Service, 17, 240 Outer Continental Shelf Environmental Assessment Program, 13 National Ocean Pollution Planning Act, 240 National Petroleum Reserve-Alaska base metals, 62 caribou, 106, 109, 116 freshwater fish, 127 historical perspectives, 32, 33, 39, 44, 46, 172, 174, 177

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INDEX loons, 120 projected oil/gas activities, 52, 54-55, 62, 180 reserves in place, 52 restoration, 91, 92 road access, 138 seismic exploration, 178, 183 trails, 87, 157 wildlands, 141 wildlife population dynamics, general, 99 National Petroleum Reserve-Alaska Production Act, 141 National Pollution Discharge Elimination System (NPDES), 74-75, 239 National Science Foundation, 151 Native Alaskans, see Alaska Natives Natural gas Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR), 51, 52, 54, 56 Brooks Range, 53-54, 55 injection wells, 209 pipelines, 40, 56 production, 209 projections of future activities, 51-55 (passim), 60, 181 reserves, ix, 12, 52, 53-56 spills, 69, 73 tax revenues, 147 Naval Arctic Research Laboratory, 170-171 Naval Petroleum Production Act, 171 Naval Petroleum Reserve, 32, 168, 169-170 Noise see also Seismic exploration air transport, 104 birds, 121, 123 bowhead whales, 100-104 (passim), 136, 153 seismic exploration, 100, 102, 103, 135, 136, 144-145, 156 construction, 49 marine mammals, general, 13, 44, 99, 103, 104 offshore activities, 5, 13, 48, 99, 103, 104, 153 seismic disturbance, 5-6, 10, 13, 48, 99, 100, 102, 103, 104, 105, 135, 136, 144-145, 156, 183 polar beers, 104 seals and polar bears, 103, 104 vessels, 58 whales, 10, 13, 17, 100-104 (passim), 136, 153 seismic exploration, 100, 102, 103, 135, 136, 144-145, 156 o Off-road travel, 10, 40, 44, 153 ice roads and pads, 10, 35, 36-37, 44, 56, 88, 89, 96, 97, 127, 153 regulatory measures, 7, 35 roadless construction, 188-189 Rolligons, 185 seismic trail networks, 5, 7, 10, 44, 48, 81-88, 96, 153 coastal zones, 82, 157 historical perspectives, 81 seasonal closures, 85-86 283 social impacts, 139 tundra impacts, 5, 10, 13, 48, 157 Aeromap analysis, 197-206 (passim) vegetation impacts, 5, 77-78, 84, 86, 139 wilderness, 139 Offshore activities, 8, 51, 54, 156, 167, 174, 175, 176, 177, 185 see also Causeways; Coastal zones; Ice processes; Marine environments and organisms; Ships, including tankers; specific bodies of water fish, 123, 124, 125, 128, 129 islands, artificial, 27, 40,44, 45, 60,74, 93, 156 Aeromap analysis, 194, 198, 201, 203, 205, 207 oil spills, 208 minerals other than hydrocarbons, 60, 63 National Pollution Discharge Elimination System, 74-75, 239 noise, 5, 13, 48, 99, 103, 104, 153 seismic disturbance, 5-6, 10, 13, 48, 99, 100, 102, 103, 104, 105, 135, 136, 144-145, 156, 183 oil spills, 9, 105, 152, 156, 158, 208, 212, 215, 218-223, 226 ships, 58, 100-101, 134, 203, 208, 235 wind and wave action, 212, 215, 223, 226 Outer Continental Shelf (OCS), federal 404 program, 91 historical perspectives, 175-177 projected activities, 54 pipelines, 68, 180, 208-209, 212 platforms, 47, 49, 51, 92, 94, 95, 100, 177, 185 rehabilitation of damage, 90 sea ice, 27, 30, 57, 59-60, 74, 105 seeps, environmental impacts, 73, 77, 119 historical perspectives, 32, 167-168 social impacts, 134-135, 139-140, 148, 156, 158; see also "whaling, subsistence" below vegetation impacts, 77, 90, 91, 93, 95 whales, 17, 99 see also "noise" above oil spills, 9, 10, 100-103, 105, 152 whaling, commercial, 17, 18, 20, 21-22, 99, 100 whaling, subsistence, 17-18, 21, 22, 99, 135- 136, 137, 144-145, 148, 153, 156, 157 hunter safety, 100, 135, 136, 156 wind and wave action, 27 oil spills, 212, 215, 223, 226 Oil Pollution Act, 214, 226 Oil shale, 168 Oil spill remediation, 7, 74, 100, 152, 216-220, 222, 223 benthic communities, 130 bioremediation, 77, 217, 219, 223 bowhead whales, 103 burning, 13, 77, 92, 218-219 chemical dispersants, 130, 219, 220, 222, 223, 226 coastal zones, 134-135, 156, 223, 238-239 cost of, 76 historical perspectives, 48, 100, 134, 208-215, 225-227 ice factors, 7, 9, 74, 130, 158, 218, 220-222, 223, 227 mechanical, 74, 217, 218, 219, 222 pumping, 219 remote sensing, 47, 184, 189, 219 social impacts, 134 thermal remediation, 77, 218-219, 222, 223; see "burning" and "ice factors" above Oil spills, 6-7, 9, 47-48, 69, 73, 74, 96, 152, 158, 208-227 see also Oil spill remediation; Spills, other than oil benthic communities, 130 Beaufort Sea, 180, 220-224, 225, 226 bowhead whales, 10, 100- 103 Exxon Valdez, 100, 134 ice processes, 7, 9, 74, 130, 158, 218, 220- 222, 223, 227 litigation, 225, 237 offshore activities, 9, 105, 152, 156, 158, 208, 212, 215, 218-223, 226 ships, 58, 100-101, 134, 203, 208, 235 pipeline, 6-7, 47-48, 76, 158, 189, 208-220, 223-224, 225-226 plankton, 130 polar bears and seals, 103- 104, 105, 106 prevention, technological innovation, 214, 215-216, 217, 225-227 regulatory/statutory measures, 74, 213, 214, 215, 238, 215, 216, 218, 225-227, 237-239 remote sensing, 47, 184, 189, 219 research methods/recommendations, 152, 210, 214, 220 seasonal factors, 217-218, 221-223; see also "ice processes" above social impacts, 96, 134-135, 158 storage facilities, 208, 209, 212, 213, 216, 226, 238 technological innovation, 216-220, 225-227; see various techniques above tundra, 77, 213-214, 217-220 (passim), 223- 224 vegetation impacts, 76, 77, 90, 217-218, 224 vessels, 58, 100-101, 134, 203, 208, 235 well operations, 210, 212-213, 224, 225-227 whales, 9, 10, 100-103 wind and wave action, 212, 215, 223, 226 Outer Continental Shelf see Offshore activities; Beaufort Sea; Bering Sea; Prudhoe Bay federal 404 program, 91 historical perspectives, 175-177 projected activities, 54 Outer Continental Shelf Assessment Project, 13 p Peat, 65, 78, 192, 197, 200-207 (passim) Permafrost, 3, 24-25, 64-69, 56, 95 see also Tundra active layer, 24, 58, 59, 64, 65, 68, 78, 84 air pollution, 65, 68, 78

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284 climate warming, 5, 57, 58-60 coastal zones, 59-60, 65 development activities, thawing, 38, 64, 78 drilling and well operation, 25, 68-70 gravel-covered areas, 25, 64-65, 68-69 heated buildings, 65, 68 ice-wedge polygons, 24, 25, 58, 65-67, 79 infrastructure, general, 3, 25, 59, 64-65, 68-69 pipelines, 71, 72, 188 injection wells, 71, 72, 188 lakes and ponds, 25, 68, 72 oil spills, 65 pingos, 25, 89, 96, 97 Prudhoe Bay, 24, 25, 59-60, 69 research methods, 64, 65 roads, 5, 25, 64-65, 68, 77-81 (passim), 95, 96-97 saltwater spills, 65 seasonal factors, 64-69 subsidence, permafrost thaws, 65, 70, 72 thermokarst, 3, 7, 25, 65 roads, 5, 68, 77-81 (passim), 95, 96-97 waste disposal, injection wells, 71, 72, 188 water quality, 71, 72, 188 Phytoplankton, 4, 30-31, 57, 130 Pingos, 25, 89, 96, 97 Pipelines, 3, 5, 42, 43, 44, 49, 157, 236 see also Trans-Alaska Pipeline Aeromap analysis, 196-204 (passim), 206 caribou, 106, 110-111, 116, 138 crossings, 43, 47, 197, 204 coal transport, 60 gathering lines, 40, 53, 208 hunting, elevated lines, 68 offshore, 68, 180, 208-209, 212 oil spills, 6-7, 47-48, 76, 158, 189, 208-220, 223-224, 225-226 natural gas, 40, 56 permafrost, 65, 68 projected developments, 55, 56 saline spills, 47, 228-230 technological innovation, 47, 54, 189 visual resources, 68 Plankton, see Phytoplankton; Zooplankton Plants, see Vegetation Platforms, 47, 49, 51, 92, 94, 95, 100, 177, 185 Polar bears, 4, 6, 31, 48, 103-106 human safety, 103 Ponds, see Lakes and ponds Population dynamics see also Wildlife population dynamics human population composition/growth, 19, 20,23 Precipitation, 24 see also Snowfall/cover Predators, 6, 20, 30, 64, 157 see also Arctic foxes; Hunting; Marine mammals; Polar bears; Subsistence of birds, 30, 89, 117, 119, 122, 123, 157 of caribou, 112 of insects, 30 raptors, 30, 119, 122-123 river corridors, 88 Production levels, ix, 1, 12 see also Pipelines; Ships, including tankers; Storage facilities INDEX Aeromap analysis, 191-207 (passim) projection of oil/gas development activities, ix, 51-63, 180-182 Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR), 51, 52, 54, 56, 145-146, 181 cost factors, 182 infrastructure, 56, 155 market price for oil, 51, 52, 134, 144, 145, 181, 242-245 regulatory activities, 51, 155 roads, 56, 57 spills, 220 restoration of sites and, 95 social adaptation, 147, 148 Production phase, general, 40-42 see also Drilling and well operations; Injection wells; Pipelines; Ships, including tankers; Storage facilities arctic foxes, 117 birds of concern, 118- 123 bowhead whales, noise, 100 caribou, 111, 115-116 fish, 125-129 historical perspectives, 32, 33, 40-42 loons, 120 projection of oil/gas development activities, ix, 51-63, 180-182 Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR), 51, 52, 54, 56, 145-146, 181 cost factors, 182 infrastructure, 56, 155 market price for oil, 51, 52, 134, 144, 145, 181, 242-245 regulatory activities, 51, 155 spills, 220 spills, 47, 208-210 technological innovations, enhanced oil recovery, 47, 187-188, 187-189 Projections see also Historical perspectives; Reserves air transport, 56 Arctic Slope Regional Corporation (ASRC), 180 Beaufort Sea, 52, 54, 60 climate change, 51, 56-60 climate warming, ix, 5, 13, 51, 56-60 marine mammals, 105, 106 nonnative plant species, 80 permafrost, 5, 58-60 precipitation, 57, 58 projected resource development, 51, 56-60 tundra, 5, 57, 58-60 cumulative effects, general, 2, 155 fish habitat, 129 grizzly bears, 117-118 National Petroleum Reserve-Alaska, 52, 54- 55, 62, 180 natural gas, 51-55 (passim), 60, 181 oil/gas development activities, ix, 51-63, 180- 182 Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR), 51, 52, 54, 56, 145-146, 181 cost factors, 182 infrastructure, 56, 155 market price for oil, 51, 52, 134, 144, 145, 181, 242-245 regulatory activities, 51, 155 roads, 56, 57 spills, 220 other mineral resources, 60-63 seal and polar bear populations, 104-105 uncertainty, 10, 153-154, 182 Prudhoe Bay, 5 see also Beaufort Sea arctic foxes, 117 caribou, 6, 106, 107, 108, 111, 112, 113, 115, 116 fish, 124, 128-129, 130 fluid withdrawal, 69 geomorphology, 24, 25 injection of wastes, 71 historical perspectives, 12, 32, 35, 155, 168, 173, 174, 175, 177, 182, 213, 223, 225, 227 loons, 120 oil spills, 213, 223, 225, 227 permafrost, 24, 25, 59-60, 69 pingos, 89 research recommendations, 9, 151 restoration requirements, 92-93, 94 road network, 43-44, 77, 78, 79 saline spills, 230 social environment, 133, 134, 156 technological innovations, 54, 188 vegetation, air quality, 88, 96 road disturbance, 77, 78 R Raptors, 30, 119, 122-123 Reclamation, see Rehabilitation and restoration Recreational resources, 5, 138 see also Hunting; Visual resources; Wilderness and wildlands feeding wildlife, 6 fishing, 138 economic value, 141-143, 145 road access, 77, 118 Regulatory issues, see Legislation and regulation Rehabilitation and restoration, 7-8, 9, 13, 150 see also Oil spill remediation Bureau of Land Management, 91, 92, 95 compensatory mitigation, 92 contaminated sites, 94-95 costs, 9, 93, 94-95, 96, 150 defined, 90 gravel-covered areas, 90-95, 158, 195 fish habitat, 126, 129 historical perspectives, 90-91 litigation, 93, 94 Minerals Management Service, 91, 92, 95 muskoxen, 117 National Petroleum Reserve-Alaska, 91, 92 production levels and, 95 regulatory measures, 8, 91-93, 95, 96, 158 wetlands, 91-92, 238, 239 research methods, 90-91, 150, 151 roads, 92 tundra, 90, 95 unrestored sites, 7-8, 49, 59, 94-95, 148, 158

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INDEX vegetation, 76, 78, 80, 84, 86-87, 90-95, 96, 97, 219 wetlands, 91-92, 238, 239 Reindeer, 20, 110 Remote sensing, 47, 184, 189, 219 Reproductive behavior, see Wildlife reproductive behavior Research methods, 13 see also Environmental impact statements; Projections; Statistical analyses Aeromap analysis, 44, 46, 190-207 air quality measurement, 73 climate warming, 56-57, 58 committee study at hand, ix-x, 1-2, 10-11, 13, 14, 51, 64, 65, 132-133, 155 cost-benefit analyses, ix, 10- 11, 132- 133, 145, 150, 152, 242-245 cumulative effects, general, 2, 13-18 economic assessments, 2, 132-133, 145, 242- 245; see also "cost-benefit analyses" above historical perspectives, ix, 90-91 market price effects, 145, 242-245 oil spills, 152, 210, 214, 220 permafrost, 64, 65 projections of future oil/gas activities, 51, 52, 56-57, 155 uncertainty, 10, 153-154, 182 rehabilitation of disturbed sites, 90-91, 150, 151 seismic exploration, 86-87, 150 social and socioeconomic impacts, 9, 132- 133, 149 traditional knowledge, 16-17, 18, 56-57, 100, 102, 132, 135, 136, 149, 151, 232-233 uncertainty, 10, 153-154, 182 Research recommendations, 8-10, 150-154 air quality monitoring, 10, 73, 151, 152 caribou, 10, 116-117, 153 cost-benefit analysis, 152 fish, 130 marine mammals, 10, 98, 103, 106, 153 human health impacts, 9-10, 149, 151-152 oil spills, 152, 210, 214, 220 peer review, 151 rehabilitation of disturbed sites, 150, 151, 152 seismic exploration, 88, 10, 116, 153 social and economic impacts, 149, 151-152, 152 traditional knowledge, 151, 232-233 tundra, 151 uncertainty, 10, 153-154, 182 vegetation, 88, 96-97 waste injection, 73 water withdrawals, 153 wildlife impacts, 98, 150 Reserves see also Leasing coal, ix, 12 metals, 62-63 natural gas, ix, 1, 12, 52, 53-56 oil, 51, 52-56, 145, 172 see also National Petroleum Reserve- Alaska Naval Petroleum Reserve, 32, 168, 169-170 reserve claims under laws governing other minerals, 167 tundra, 5, 77-78, 82-84, 95, 157 Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), 41, 188 Restoration, see Rehabilitation and restoration Rivers and streams, 3, 26, 74 coastal zones, 25, 26, 30, 31 deltas, 4, 26, 120, 122, 123, 127 diadromous fish, 4, 64, 123-125, 127-129, 130, 236 freshwater fish, 4, 10, 31, 123-130 (passim), 236 flooding, general, fish impeded by control structures, 128- 129 icejamming, 4 roads, vegetation impacts, 5, 78, 80, 81, 95 floodplains gravel mining, 35, 74, 89, 90, 129 river corridor vegetation, 88-89 road excavation, 81 gravel mining, 74, 89, 90, 129, 195, 197, 203, 205, 207 icejamming and flooding, 4 ice processes, other, 26 loons, 120 pipeline spills, 47 seasonal factors, 4, 26 vegetation, 88-89 flooding, 5, 78, 80, 81, 95 water withdrawals, 10, 98 Roads and gravel pads, 5, 9, 40, 157 see also Causeways; Off-road travel Aeromap analysis and aerial photography, 80, 81-82, 110, 190-206 (passim) Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR), 82, 86, 96, 139 bridges, 129, 196, 197, 202, 204, 206; see also Causeways; "culverts" below caribou, 106, 110-111, 116 coal transport, 60 culverts, 44, 74, 78, 117, 125,126,129, 156,196 fish habitat, 125- 126, 129 Dalton Highway, 23, 35, 44, 56, 77, 78, 95, 106, 110, 111 drainage patterns, 74 dust, 65, 68, 78, 79, 80, 81, 95 flooding, vegetation impacts, 5, 78, 80, 81, 95 historical perspectives, 35-37, 38, 40, 42-45, 57 hunter/recreationist access, 77, 118, 138 ice roads and pads, 10, 35, 36, 44, 48, 56, 88, 89, 96, 97, 184-185 lakes and ponds, 80 National Petroleum Reserve-Alaska, 138 peat, 65, 78, 192, 197, 200-207 (passim) permafrost, 5, 25, 64-65, 68, 77-81 (passim), 95, 96-97 projections, 56, 57 restoration requirements, 92 roadless construction, 185, 188- 189; see also Off-road travel seismic trail networks, 5, 7, 10, 44, 48, 81-88, 96, 153 coastal zones, 82, 157 historical perspectives, 81 social impacts, 137-139 isolation, 4, 5, 13, 20, 23, 24, 132, 135, 137-138 285 vegetation impacts, 64, 77-88, 89, 95, 96, 97 Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR), 82, 86, 96, 139 flooding, vegetation impacts, 5, 78, 80, 81, 95 historical perspectives, 77-78, 80-81 waste disposal on, 42 S Safe Drinking Water Act, 72, 240 Saline spills, 47, 48, 76-77, 228-231 Salinity, 27, 59-60, 231 groundwater, waste injection effects, 72 lakes, 73 Satellite remote sensing, 47, 184, 189, 219 Scenic areas, see Visual resources Sea ice, 27, 30, 57, 59-60, 74, 105 Seals,4,31,103-106 subsistence hunting, 22 Seasonal factors, ix, 2, 7, 24 see also Climate; Migratory species; Ice processes; Snowfall/cover; Temperature factors; Wildlife reproductive behavior caribou calving, 6, 98, 153 summer insect harassment, 6, 107, 111, 115, 116, 117 bowhead whales, 99-100, 156 climate warming, 56, 57, 58 insects, summer harassment, 6, 107, 111 lakes and ponds, 26, 73-74 marine environment, 27, 30, 75, 77 off-road closures, 85-86 oil spills, 217-218, 221-223 ice processes, 7, 9, 74, 130, 158, 218, 220- 222, 223, 227 permafrost, 64-69 polar beers, 105 rivers and streams, 4, 26 saline spills, 231 sea ice, 27, 57, 100 seismic exploration, 100 subsistence activities, 21, 22, 103 transportation, 19, 77, 80 tundra, 4, 7, 19, 76, 77-78, 80, 84, 85, 95, 217, 218 vegetation, 5, 27-28, 58, 77-78, 84-86 water chemistry, 73 Seawater, see Saline spills; Salinity Seeps environmental impacts, 73, 77, 119 historical perspectives, 32, 167-168 Seismic activity, see Earthquakes Seismic exploration, 7, 42, 44, 46-47, 48 Aeromap analysis, 81-82, 85, 110, 190-206 (passim) Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR), 178- 179 trails, vegetation impacts, 82, 86, 96, 139 bowhead whales, 100, 102, 103, 135, 136, 144-145, 156 caribou, 108-109 fish, 127, 129

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286 historical perspectives, 169, 173- 174, 177- 179 marine mammals, general, 13, 48, 99, 103, 104 muskoxen, 117 National Petroleum Reserve-Alaska, 178, 183 trails, 87, 157 projected resource development activities, 55, 182 regulatory measures, 7, 84, 127, 153, 156 research methods, 86-87, 150 snow cover, 82, 84-86, 97 trail networks, 5, 7, 10, 44, 48, 81-88, 96, 153 coastal zones, 82, 157 historical perspectives, 81 vegetation impacts, 76, 78, 81-88, 96 Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR), 82, 86, 96, 139 whales, 5-6, 13, 100, 102, 103, 135, 136, 144- 145, 156 Shorebirds, 3, 4, 30, 120, 123 Ships, including and tankers, 40, 57-58 bowhead whales, 100, 102, 103 Exxon Valdez, 100, 134-135 noise, 58, 153 oil spills, 58, 100-101, 134, 203, 208, 235 polar bears and seals, 104 Snowfall/cover caribou, snow cover, 108 climate warming, 57, 58 gravel-covered areas, rehabilitation, 90 oil spills, 217, 222 roads, 78, 82 seals, snow cover, 104 seismic exploration, 82, 84-86, 97 transportation, 19, 77, 80 vegetation, snow cover, 82, 84-86, 90, 97 Snow geese, 122 Social factors and impacts, 4-5, 8, 9, 13, 19-23, 132-149, 156-157 see also Alaska Natives; Education; Employment; Human health; Recreational resources; Socioeconomic factors; Transportation; Visual resources adaptation effects, 8, 132, 147-148, 156, 158- 159 cash economy, transition to, 49, 132, 146, 147, 158-159 oil production levels, 147, 148 costs, financial, 133-134, 139-140 transportation/cost of living, 4-5, 20, 135 historic perspectives, 4, 19, 20-23, 132-136 population growth/composition, 19, 20 information dissemination, 49-50 infrastructure, general, 132, 133, 136-147, 156-157 isolation, 4, 5, 13, 20, 23, 24, 132 National Environmental Policy Act, 132, 134 off-road travel, 139 offshore activities, 134-135, 139-140, 148, 156, 158 oil spills, 96, 134-135, 158 population composition, 19, 20, 23 population growth, 19 research methods/recommendations, 9, 132- 133, 149 INDEX transportation, social isolation, 4, 5, 13, 20, 23, 24, 132, 135 wildlife values, 98, 103, 106; see also Subsistence Socioeconomic factors, 1, 2, 8, 13, 136 see also Education; Employment; Taxation Alaska Natives, 8, 9, 20, 23, 103, 135, 139, 141-143 see also Subsistence adaptation effects, 8, 132, 147-148, 158- 159 cash economy, transition to, 49, 132, 146, 147, 158-159 oil production levels, 147, 148 income, 4, 20, 23 redistribution of wealth, 49 cost of living, 20, 135 environmental limitations, 4-5, 19-20 leasing, 49-50 research methods/recommendations, 9, 132- 133, 149 Spills, other than oil, 9, 13, 47-48, 95 see also Oil spill remediation; Oil spills injection wells, 70, 71-72, 73, 228, 229 natural gas, 69, 73 petroleum products, not oil, 47, 76, 90, 96, 209 saline, 47, 48, 76-77, 228-231 tundra, 76 unrestored landscapes, 7-8, 90 vegetation, 64, 76-77, 90, 92, 95-96 Standards, see Legislation and regulation Statehood Act (Alaska), 172 Statistical analyses see also Projections oil spills, 210, 214, 220 uncertainty, 10, 153-154, 182 whale tracking, 17 Storage facilities, 47 regulatory controls, 237, 238 oil spills, 208, 209, 212, 213, 216, 226, 238 saline spills, 228 Streams, see Rivers and streams Subsidence, 38 permafrost thaws, 65, 70, 72 Subsistence, 1, 4-5, 13, 20-22, 132, 134, 139, 141, 142, 144-145 birds, 22 caribou, 20, 22, 106, 108, 135-136, 138, 144, 148 cash economy, transition to, 49, 132, 146, 147, 158-159 coastal areas, 20-22, 135-136, 148, 156 fishing, 22, 123, 129, 132, 134 food contamination, 1, 13, 151 historical perspectives, 20, 21-22, 135 ice factors, 103 inland areas, 21, 22 marine mammals, other than whales, 20, 22, 103 seasonal factors, 21, 22, 103 trapping, 20, 22 whaling, 17-18, 21, 22, 99, 135-136, 137, 144-145, 148, 156, 157 hunter safety, 100, 135, 136, 156 T Tankers, see Ships, including tankers Tanks, see Storage facilities Taxation, 23, 49, 143, 144, 147, 148, 242 infrastructure, 147-148 natural gas, 147 state royalties, 133, 143, 144 Technological innovation, 152, 183-189 see also Research methods; Seismic exploration acoustics, whales, 17 Aeromap analysis, 44, 46, 190-196 Arctic Drilling Platform, 185 coal and natural gas production, 12 coal transport, 60 drilling, 185- 187 directional drilling, 68-69, 186 historical perspectives, ix, 46-47, 169, 174- 175 ice roads and pads, 96, 184- 185 oil spill prevention, 214, 215-216, 217, 225- 227 oil spill remediation, 216-220, 225-227 pipelines, 47, 54, 189 production, enhanced oil recovery, 47, 187- 188 projections of future oil/gas activities, 51, 54 remote sensing, 47, 184, 189, 219 restoration of disturbed areas, 93, 96 road construction, 81, 86, 96, 184- 185, 188- 189 Rolligons, 185 seismic exploration, 81, 86, 87, 183- 184 waste disposal, 188 Temperature factors, 2, 24, 7 see also Climate; Ice processes; Permafrost; Seasonal factors heated buildings, 65, 68 marine environment, 27 oil spills, 77, 218-219, 222, 223 rehabilitation of disturbed sites, 90 social/economic effects, 19 transportation, 19, 77, 80 vegetation, 28-29 snow cover, 82, 84-86, 90, 97 Terminal facilities, 40, 208, 238 see also Storage facilities Terrestrial environment, 4, 5, 24-31, 24-25, 58 see also Coastal zones; Floodplains; Permafrost; Tundra; Wildlife; Wildlife habitat Thermokarst, 3, 7, 25, 65 roads, 5, 68, 77-81 (passim), 95, 96-97 Threatened species, see Endangered and threatened species Tourism, see Recreational resources Toxic Substances Control Act, 240 Trans-Alaskan Pipeline Authorization Act, 134 Trans-Alaska Pipeline, 3, 13, 38, 40, caribou, 106, 111 costs, 134 Environmental impact statements (EISs), 13 historical perspectives, 32, 33, 40-42, 206 maps of, 3, 44 natural gas, 56

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INDEX oil spills, 6-7, 47-48, 76, 208-219, 225, 226, 228, 229 saline spills, 228, 229 social impacts, 132, 133, 134 technological innovations, 54 Transportation, 20, 40-42, 49 see also Air transport; Off-road travel; Pipelines; Roads and gravel paths; Ships, including tankers; Storage facilities; Terminal facilities climatic effects, 19, 77, 80 coal, 60 cost of, 4-5, 20, 135 noise, 49 social isolation, 4, 5, 13, 20, 23, 24, 132, 135 Trapping, 20, 22 Tundra, 3, 7, 26, 29-30, 56, 95 see also Permafrost Aeromap analysis, 44, 46, 190-207 (passim) birds, 30, 119, 120-121 climate warming, 5, 57, 58-60 gravel damage, 35, 188-189, 190-207 (passim) insects, 29-30 summer Wildlife harassment, 6, 107, 111, 115, 116, 117 off-road travel, 5, 10, 13, 48, 157 Aeromap analysis, 197-206 (passim) oil spills, 76, 77, 213-214, 217-220 (passim), 223-224 particulate pollutants, 41 peat, 65, 78, 192, 197, 200-207 (passim) research recommendations, 84 roads, 5, 77-78, 82-84, 95, 157 rivers and streams, 26 saline spills, 230-231 seismic trail networks, 5, 7, 10, 44, 48, 81-88, 96, 153 coastal zones, 82, 157 historical perspectives, 81 seasonal factors, 4, 7, 19, 76, 77-78, 80, 84, 85,95,217,218 vegetation, 3, 4, 5, 28, 29, 64, 77-78, 82-84, 95, 96-97, 217-220 (passim), 224, 230-231 nonacidic tundra, 88, 96, 97 peat, 65, 78, 192, 197, 200-207 (passim) rehabilitation, 90 Tundra swan, 120- 121 U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS), 74, 88, 96, 104-105, 188, 240, 241 U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), 54, 56, 62, 145, 168, 171, 172, 180, 242 V Vegetation, 28-29, 64, 76-97, 236 see also Wildlife food and feeding; Wildlife habitat air pollutants, 8, 78, 79, 80, 88, 95, 96 climate warming, 5, 28, 58 287 areas of special importance, 76, 77, 96, 97 coastal, 28-29, 82, 89, 95 endangered species, 89-90, 96 flooding, roads, 5, 78, 80, 81, 95 floodplains, river corridors, 88-89 gravel pads, 64, 76, 77, 78, 95 rehabilitation and restoration, 90-95 herbivores, 4, 30, 31, 58, 88; see also Caribou; Muskoxen kelp, 4, 31, 130 lakes, 30 mosses, 65, 77, 78, 88, 95, 220 nonnative plant species, 77, 80, 95 off-road travel, 5, 77-78, 84, 86, 139 offshore activities, 77, 90, 91, 93, 95 oil spills, 64, 76-77, 90, 92, 95-967, 217-220 (passim), 224; see also "spills, other than oil" below peat, 65, 78, 192, 197, 200-207 (passim) phytoplankton, 4, 30-31, 57, 130 pingo habitat, 25, 89, 96, 97 restoration of disturbed sites, 76, 78, 80, 84, 86-87, 90-95, 96, 97, 219 river corridors, 88-89 road construction and use, 64, 76 Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR), 82, 86, 96, 139 flooding, 5, 78, 80, 81, 95 historical perspectives, 77-78, 80-81 saline spills, 48, 76-77, 230-231 seasonal factors, 5, 27-28, 58, 77-78, 84-86 seismic exploration, 76, 78, 81-88, 96 Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR), 82, 86, 96, 139 snow cover, 82, 84-86, 90, 97, 64, 76-77, 217- 220 (passim), 224 spills, other than oil, 64, 76-77, 90, 92, 95-96; see also "oil spills" above temperature factors, 28-29 snow cover, 82, 84-86, 90, 97 tundra, 3, 4, 5, 28, 29, 64, 65, 77-78, 82-84, 90, 95, 96-97, 217-220 (passim), 224, 230-231 nonacidic tundra, 88, 96, 97 wildlife habitat, 25, 89, 96, 97, 123 herbivores, 4, 30, 31, 58, 88, 123; see also Caribou; other specific species Visual resources, 5, 8, 49, 137-141, 148, 157 air pollutants, 73 economic value, 141-143, 145 off-road vehicles 139 pipelines, elevated, 68 roads, elevated, 68 seismic exploration, 139 unrestored landscapes, 7-8, 49 W Waste production and disposal, 41-42, 49 bowhead whales, 100 coastal zones, 74 drilling, 37-38, 40, 41-42, 70-71, 74, 78, 188 see also Injection wells bowhead whales, 100 rehabilitation, 94 fish habitat, 73 gravel reserve pits, 28, 42, 76, 94, 188 injection, 41, 42, 47, 69, 70-73, 77, 131, 188, 240 permafrost, 71, 72, 188 regulatory measures, 41, 42, 70, 71, 72, 74, 91-92, 128, 188, 230-231, 237, 239, 240 restoration of sites, 93, 94 on roads, 42 technological innovation, 188 Water consumption, 48, 153 see also Water withdrawals drilling, 40, 47 ice roads, 36, 48, 127, 153 Waterfowl, 3, 4, 31, 98, 122 Water injection, see Injection wells Water quality, 73-74, 150 see also Aquatic ecosystems; Fish and fisheries; Freshwater environments; Marine environments and organisms; Spills, other than oil Clean Water Act, 73, 91-92, 150, 239, 240 drinking water, 42, 70, 72, 240 ice roads and pads, 73 legislation and regulation, 150, 237, 239-240 saline spills, 47, 48, 76-77, 228-231 salinity, 27, 59-60, 72, 73, 231 seeps, environmental impacts, 73, 77, 119 historical perspectives, 32, 167-168 waste injection, 41, 42, 72-73 water treatment, 41 Water withdrawals, 9, 10, 69-70, 73, 153 coastal zones, 10, 48, 49 freshwater fish habitat, 10, 98, 126-127, 129, 130, 153 lakes and ponds, 10, 98, 126-127, 129, 130, 153 rivers, 10, 98 seawater, 48 wildlife habitat, 10, 98 Wave action, 4, 26 coastal zones, 4, 26 oil spills, 212, 215, 223, 226 Wells, see Drilling and well operations Wetlands, 3, 4, 74 see also Lakes and ponds coastal, 3, 4, 19, 91-92, 238, 239 regulatory controls, restoration, 91-92, 238, 239 waste injection, 72 Whales, 1,4,5-6, 17-18,31 see also Bowhead whales beluga, 4, 57, 99, 105 commercial whaling, 17, 18, 20, 21-22, 99, 100 historical perspectives, 20, 21-22, 99 oil spills, 9, 10, 100-103, 105, 152 research recommendations, 10 seismic disturbance, 5-6, 10, 13, 100, 102, 103, 135, 136, 144-145, 156 subsistence whaling, 17-18, 21, 22, 99, 135- 136, 137, 144-145, 148, 156, 157 hunter safety, 100, 135, 136, 156 Wilderness Act, 140-141

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288 Wilderness and wildlands, 1, 5, 13, 140-141, 148, 157 see also Arctic National Wildlife Refuge Bureau of Land Management (BLM), 140, 141 defined, 140 economic benefits, 141 - 143, 145 infrastructure, general, 5, 140-141, 148 National Petroleum Reserve-Alaska, 141 off-road vehicles, 139 Wildlife, 1, 98-131, 150, 157-158 see also Birds; Endangered and threatened species; Fish and fisheries; Hunting; Insects; Marine mammals; Migratory species; Predators; Terrestrial environments; Wildlife food and feeding; Wildlife habitat; Wildlife population dynamics; Wildlife reproductive behavior arctic foxes, 20, 30, 89, 117, 119 economic value, 98, 140-141, 142; see also Subsistence endangered and threatened species, birds, 120, 121-122 polar beers, 103 population dynamics, 98-99 herbivores, 4, 30, 31, 58, 88; see also Caribou; Muskoxen invertebrates, 98, 153; see also Benthic invertebrates muskoxen, 117 noise, 98 aircraft, 98 seismic exploration, 98 oil spills, 64, 76-77, 98 regulatory measures, 56, 103, 104, 121, 136, 154, 235, 236-237, 238, 240, 241 Alaska Department of Fish and Game (ADF&G), 127, 235, 236-237 INDEX Alaska Eskimo Whaling Commission, 136, 156 Arctic National Wildlife Refuge, 56 Endangered Species Act, 121, 154, 240 Fish and Wildlife Coordination Act, 241 Migratory Bird Treaty Act, 241 marine mammals, 103, 104, 136, 241 U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS), 74, 88, 96, 104-105, 188, 240, 241 research recommendations, 98, 150 roads, animal behavior, 5, 77, 98 social value of, 98, 103, 106; see also Subsistence zooplankton, 4, 31, 57, 130, 131 Wildlife food and feeding, 6, 29, 31, 48, 98, 157 see also Herbivores; Predators; Wildlife population dynamics birds, 118-119, 122-123 bowhead whales, 99, 100, 102, 103 caribou, 106-108 (passim), 112-116 (passim) grizzly beers, 118 polar beers, 103, 104, 105 seals, 104 Wildlife habitat, 64, 98- 131 see also Fish and fisheries; Migratory species; Vegetation; Wildlife food and feeding; Wildlife population dynamics; Wildlife reproductive behavior arctic foxes, 117 birds, species of concern, 118-123 bowhead whales, 99-101 caribou, 106-117 (passim), 144-145 climate change, 5, 58 flooding, roadside, 78 floodplain flow patterns, 74 grizzly bears, 117-118 muskoxen, 117 oil spills, 64, 76-77, 98 pingos, 25, 89, 96, 97 river corridors, vegetative habitat, 88-89 seals and polar bears, 103, 104- 105 Wildlife population dynamics, 98-99, 157-158 see also Wildlife reproductive behavior arctic foxes, 117 birds, 6, 118-119, 157-158 caribou, 6, 106-107, 110, 111, 114-115 fish, 98-99 grizzly bears, 117-118 muskoxen, 117 National Petroleum Reserve-Alaska, 99 polar bear and seals, 104-105 reindeer, 20 whales, 103, 104-105, 106 Wildlife reproductive behavior, 6, 98-99, 157 see also Wildlife population dynamics arctic foxes, 117 birds, 119- 123 (passim), 157 bowhead whales, 99-100 caribou, 6, 98, 106-108 (passim), 110-117 (passim), 153, 158 fish, 123-126 (passim) muskoxen, 117 polar beers, 105-106 raptors, 119 seals, 104, 105-106 Wind, 27 coastal zones, 4, 26 diadromous fish, 124, 128 oil spills, 212, 215, 223, 226 vegetation, 28 z Zones of influence, 9, 42, 152-153, 158 Zooplankton, 4, 31, 130, 131 clmate warming, 57