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NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance.

Support for this project was provided by National Aeronautics and Space Administration Contracts Nos. NASW-96013 and 01001, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Contract No. 50-DKNA-6-90040, Stennis Space Center Order Nos. NS-7426 and 7570, Environmental Protection Agency Grant No. X-82821401, Department of Transportation Order No. DTRS56-00-P-70077, U.S. Geological Survey Cooperative Agreement No. 00HQAG0204, and Department of the Army Order No. DACA89-99-M-0147. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the sponsors.

The cover was designed by Penny Margolskee.

Cover images (left to right):

  1. Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus image, New York, April 14, 2001.

  2. QuickBird, 60 cm, pansharpened satellite image of the Brooklyn Bridge as it enters Manhattan. Image taken August 2002. Courtesy of DigitalGlobe.

  3. U.S. Geological Survey aerial photograph, Lower Manhattan, April 10, 1997.

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Copyright 2003 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.

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