• food-animal production and, when appropriate, for re-evaluating currently approved veterinary antimicrobial drugs. (Action Item #58)

  • Support demonstration projects to evaluate comprehensive strategies that use multiple interventions to promote appropriate drug use and reduce infection rates, in order to assess how interventions found effective in research studies can be applied routinely and most cost-effectively on a large scale. (Action Item #63)


  • Provide the research community genomics and other powerful technologies to identify targets in critical areas for the development of new, rapid diagnostics methodologies, novel therapeutics, and interventions to prevent the emergence and spread of resistant pathogens. (Action Item #70)

  • In consultation with academia and the private sector, identify and conduct human clinical studies addressing AR issues of public health significance that are unlikely to be studied in the private sector (e.g., novel therapies, new treatment regimens, and other products and practices). (Action Item #75)

  • Identify, develop, test, and evaluate new rapid diagnostic methods for human and veterinary uses with partners, including academia and the private sector. Such methods should be accurate, affordable, and easily implemented in routine clinical settings (e.g., tests for resistance genes, point-of-care diagnostics for patients with respiratory infections and syndromes, and diagnostics for drug resistance in microbial pathogens, including in nonculture specimens). (Action Item #76)

  • Encourage basic and clinical research in support of the development and appropriate use of vaccines in human and veterinary medicine in partnership with academia and the private sector. (Action Item #77)

Product Development

  • Create an Interagency AR Product Development Working Group to identify and publicize priority public health needs in human and animal medicine for new AR products (e.g., innovative drugs, targeted spectrum antibiotics, point-of-care diagnostics, vaccines and other biologics, anti-infective medical devices, and disinfectants). (Action Item #79)

  • Identify ways (e.g., financial and/or other incentives or investments) to promote the development and/or appropriate use of priority AR products, such as novel compounds and approaches, for human and veterinary medicine for which market incentives are inadequate. (Action Item #80)

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