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C Future Missions RECENTLY LAUNCHED AND UPCOMING MISSIONS WITH U.S. INVOLVEMENT Several missions in which the United States is or will be involved present opportunities for transition to operational service. The European Space Agency (ESA) is also planning Earth observation missions, discussed below, that may provide operational benefits. Table C.1 lists recently launched and upcoming U.S. and international cooperative research missions that can offer operational dividends. FUTURE EUROPEAN SPACE AGENCY “CORE” MISSIONS ESA “Core” missions are ESA-led missions devoted to long-term research goals. Three Mission Advisory Groups (MAG) have been established for these missions. The main objective of the groups is to support the European Space Agency in consolidating the science and mission requirements and to ensure that requirements are compatible with the system specifications. In late 2003, two of the three missions will be selected to go forward to Phase B (design and development). These missions will be eventually implemented (launched) in 2007-2010. EarthCARE (Earth Clouds, Aerosol and Radiation Explorer)—a joint European-Japanese mission, which is to address the need for a better understanding of the interactions between cloud, radiative, and aerosol processes that play a role in climate regulation.
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SPECTRA (Surface Processes and Ecosystem Changes Through Response Analysis)—a mission that will study the role of terrestrial vegetation in the global carbon cycle and its response to climate variability. WALES (Water vApour and Lidar Experiment in Space)—a mission to provide a better understanding of the distribution of atmospheric water vapor in the troposphere and lower stratosphere. Additional information is available online: <http://www.esa.int/export/esaLP/ASESMYNW9SC_earthcare_0.html> <http://www.esa.int/export/esaLP/ASE12YNW9SC_spectra_0.html> <http://www.esa.int/export/esaLP/ASE77YNW9SC_wales_0.html> FUTURE EUROPEAN SPACE AGENCY “OPPORTUNITY” MISSIONS “Opportunity” missions are not necessarily ESA-led and are on a smaller scale than “Core” missions. As part of the second cycle of Earth Explorers Opportunity Missions, three new candidate proposals were selected to enter Phase A (feasibility study) in May 2002. The three missions selected are ACE+, EGPM, and SWARM: ACE+ (Atmospheric and Climate Explorer)—a climatological mission that will measure variations and changes in global atmospheric temperature and water vapor. EGPM (European contribution to Global Precipitation Mission)—a mission element within an international initiative to measure precipitation (e.g., rain, snowfall) all over Earth every 3 hours. SWARM—a constellation of small satellites to study the dynamics of Earth’s magnetic field and its interactions with the Earth system. It is expected that the feasibility studies will be complete by mid-2004, after which two of the three missions will be selected for implementation. The launch of the first mission is envisaged for 2008. Additional information is available online: <http://www.esa.int/export/esaLP/ESAILYJE43D_ace_0.html> <http://www.esa.int/export/esaLP/ESAGKZJE43D_egpm_0.html> <http://www.esa.int/export/esaLP/ESA3QZJE43D_swarm_0.html>
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TABLE C.1 Recently Launched and Upcoming Missions with U.S. Involvement Mission Instruments Descriptiona Launch Date Web Links Advanced Earth Observation System II (ADEOS II) The SeaWinds Radar Scatterometer Global Imager (GLI) Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer (AMSR) Improved Limb Atmospheric Spectrometer (ILAS II) Polarization and Directionality of the Earth’s Reflectances (POLDER) The SeaWinds scatterometer is a specialized microwave radar that measures near-surface wind velocity (both speed and direction) under all weather and cloud conditions over Earth’s oceans. This is a twin sister to the QuikSCAT sensor and will fly on the Japanese ADEOS-II Spacecraft to provide similar observations beyond the QuikSCAT mission. The experiment is a follow-on mission and continues the data series initiated in 1996 by the NSCAT. Launched November 2002 <http://eospso.gsfc.nasa.gov/eos_homepage/mission_profiles/index.php> <http://winds.jpl.nasa.gov/missions/seawinds/seaindex.html> <http://gaia.hq.nasa.gov/ese_missions/launch.cfm?lau_id=16> The SOlar Radiation and Climate Experiment (SORCE) Total Irradiance Monitor (TIM) Spectral Irradiance Monitor (SIM) Solar Stellar Irradiance Comparison Experiment (SOLSTICE) XUV Photometer System (XPS) SORCE is a NASA-sponsored project that will provide Total Irradiance measurements and the full Spectral Irradiance measurements required by climate studies. The spectral measurements include ultraviolet, extreme ultraviolet, and the visible to near infrared. SORCE represents the merging of the EOS Solar Stellar Irradiance Comparison Experiment (SOLSTICE) and the Total Solar Irradiance Mission (TSIM). SORCE observations provide understanding of the roles of Sun’s variations on Earth’s climate and potential impacts on public health. Launched January 2003 <http://eospso.gsfc.nasa.gov/eos_homepage/mission_profiles/index.php> <http://lasp.colorado.edu/sorce/>
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Mission Instruments Descriptiona Launch Date Web Links Meteosat Second Generation (MSG) Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager (SEVIRI) The Geostationary Earth Radiation Budget (GERB) experiment MSG is a joint project between ESA and EUMETSAT. ESA is developing and procuring the first satellite, MSG-1, and procuring MSG-2 and MSG-3 on behalf of EUMETSAT, which is developing the ground segment. EUMETSAT is also procuring the launchers and establishing user needs, and will run the system once it becomes operational. The first satellite, MSG-1 is due for launch on board an Ariane 5 launcher in August 2002. MSG-2 will follow on about 18 months later. MSG-3 will be built and put in storage until it is required to take over as MSG-1 nears the end of its life. Each satellite will have a nominal 7-year lifetime. A fourth MSG satellite of the same design is foreseen to ensure continuity of service until the end of the next decade. Launched August 28, 2002 <http://www.esrin.esa.it/msg/> <http://www.esa.int/export/esaSA/GGGGEHCM8EC_earth_0.html> Ice, Clouds, and Land Elevation Satellite (ICESat) Geo-science Laser Altimeter System (GLAS) ICESat provides a subset of the EOS measurements, primarily land, ice, and sea ice altimetry products with secondary products being cloud/aerosol lidar and land/ vegetation altimetry. In particular the mission determines decadal variation of ice sheet thickness over Greenland and Antarctica, altitude and thickness of clouds, vegetation heights, land topography, and ocean surface and sea ice altimetry. Launched January 2003 <http://icesat.gsfc.nasa.gov/> <http://eospso.gsfc.nasa.gov/eos_homepage/mission_profiles/index/php>
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Mission Instruments Descriptiona Launch Date Web Links ICESat (cont’d) The main scientific objective is to understand the role of polar regions in the Earth’s climate and sea-level variations. Data can be used to measure the impact on coastal zone management from change in sea level, provide improved digital terrain for disaster management, measure invasive species management, aid in carbon management (biomass), and measure air quality. WindSat WindSat is a polarimetric microwave radiometer developed by the U.S. Navy and the National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System (NPOESS) Integrated Program Office (IPO) for measuring ocean surface wind speed and direction. WindSat will demonstrate the viability of using polarimetry to measure the wind vector from space and provide operationally usable tactical information to Navy units. The payload provides risk reduction data that the NPOESS IPO will use in the development of the Conical Microwave Imager Sounder (CMIS). WindSat is the primary payload on the DOD Space Test Program’s Coriolis Mission. Launched June 2003 <http://code8200.nrl.navy.mil/windsat.html>
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Mission Instruments Descriptiona Launch Date Web Links Meteorological Operational Polar Satellites of EUMETSAT (METOP) Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR/3) High Resolution Infrared Radiation Sounder (HIRS/4) Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-4 (AMSU-4) Microwave Humidity Sounder (MHS) Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI) Global Navigation Satellite System Receiver for Atmospheric Sounding (GRAS) METOP will gather essential global information by day and by night, about the atmosphere and the land and ocean surfaces. A primary task is to measure the temperature and the humidity of the global atmosphere, using instruments capable of sounding the atmosphere throughout its depth. A second important task is to obtain global images of clouds and weather systems, and information about the sea and land surfaces, including, in particular, ocean surface winds. Atmospheric ozone will also be monitored. In addition to these instruments, METOP will carry a data collection system to gather information from ground-based systems, support Search and Rescue services, and measure the local space environment. The responsibility for operations in polar orbit will be shared starting in 2005. This will establish the Initial Joint Polar System (IJPS) with NPOESS supporting the afternoon orbit and EUMETSAT responsible for the morning orbit. 2003 (estimated) <http://www.eumetsat.de> <http://earth.esa.int/METOP.html>
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Mission Instruments Descriptiona Launch Date Web Links Aura Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES) High Resolution Dynamics Limb Sounder (HIRDLS) The Aura satellite hosts a suite of scientific instruments designed to make the most comprehensive measurements ever undertaken of atmospheric trace gases. Its objective is to study the chemistry and dynamics of the Earth’s atmosphere with emphasis on the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (0-30 km). The mission will measure ozone, aerosols, and several key atmospheric constituents that play an important role in atmospheric chemistry, air quality, and climate. United Kingdom and the Netherlands are providing instruments for this mission. January 2004 (estimated) <http://eos-chem.gsfc.nasa.gov/> <http://eospso.gsfc.nasa.gov/eos_homepage/mission_profiles/index/php> CloudSAT 94 GHz Cloud Profiling Radar (CPR) CloudSAT will use advanced radar to “slice” through clouds to see their vertical structure, providing a completely new observational capability from space. Current satellites can only image the uppermost layers of clouds. CloudSAT will be one of the first satellites to study clouds on a global basis. It will look at their structure, composition, and effects. This is a cooperative mission with Canada. Data from CloudSAT can be used for air quality determination, weather models, water management, aviation safety, and disaster management. Spring 2004 (estimated) <http://cloudsat.atmos.colostate.edu/> <http://eospso.gsfc.nasa.gov/eos_homepage/mission_profiles/index/php>
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Mission Instruments Descriptiona Launch Date Web Links CryoSat (Europe) The SAR/ Interferometric Radar Altimeter (SIRAL) CryoSat is a radar altimetry mission dedicated to the observation of the polar regions. Its aim is to study possible climate variability and trends by determining the variations in thickness of the Earth’s continental ice sheets and marine sea ice cover. 2004 (estimated) <http://www.esa.int/export/esaLP/ESAOMH1VMOC_cryosat_0.html> Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations (CALIPSO) High resolution wide field camera (WFC), covering 620-670-nm region 2-wavelength (532 nm and 1064 nm) polarization sensitive lidar Imaging Infrared Radiometer (IIR), at 8.7 micron, 10.5 micron, and 12.0 micron CALIPSO will provide key measurements of aerosol and cloud properties needed to improve climate predictions. CALIPSO will fly a 3-channel lidar with a suite of passive instruments in formation with Aqua to obtain coincident observations of radiative fluxes and atmospheric conditions. CloudSat will also fly in formation with CALIPSO to provide a comprehensive characterization of the structure and composition of clouds and their effects on climate under all weather conditions. This comprehensive set of measurements is essential for accurate quantification of global aerosol and cloud radiative effects to understand their role in formation and variation of Earth’s climate. This is a cooperative mission with France. Spring 2004 (estimated) <http://www-calipso.larc.nasa.gov/> <http://eospso.gsfc.nasa.gov/eos_homepage/mission_profiles/index/php> Data from CALIPSO can aid in air quality determination, invasive species management, water management and conservation, early warning for homeland security, public health, and improved weather models.
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Mission Instruments Descriptiona Launch Date Web Links The Advanced Land Observing Satellite (ALOS) (NASDA) Panchromatic Remote-sensing Instrument for Stereo Mapping (PRISM) Advanced Visible and Near Infrared Radiometer type 2 (AVNIR-2) Phased Array type L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (PALSAR) ALOS is a Satellite following the Japanese Earth Resources Satellite-1 (JERS-1) and Advanced Earth Observing Satellite (ADEOS) which will utilize advanced land observing technology. The ALOS will be used for cartography, regional observation, disaster monitoring, and resource surveying. 2004 (estimated) <http://www.nasda.go.jp/projects/sat/alos/index_e.html> Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment III (SAGE III) SAGE III is an improved extension of the successful Stratospheric Aerosol Measurement II (SAM II), SAGE I, and SAGE II experiments. The additional wavelengths and operation during both lunar and solar occultation that SAGE III provides will improve aerosol characterization; improve the gaseous retrievals of O3, H2O, and NO2; add retrievals of temperature, pressure, NO3and OClO; extend the vertical range of measurements; provide a self-calibrating instrument independent of any external data needed for retrieval; and expand the sampling coverage. Launched 2001 <http://www-sage3.larc.nasa.gov> The SAGE III mission on the International Space Station seeks to enhance our understanding of natural and human-derived atmospheric processes by providing high latitude long-term measurements of the vertical structure of aerosols, ozone,
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Mission Instruments Descriptiona Launch Date Web Links SAGE III (cont’d) water vapor, and other important trace gases in the upper troposphere and stratosphere. New Millennium Program’s Earth Observing 3 (NMP/EO3) Geosynchronous Imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometer (GIFTS)— Indian Ocean METOC Imager (IOMI) GIFTS-IOMI incorporates the breakthrough technologies of an innovative atmospheric measuring concept developed at NASA’s Langley Research Center. The GIFTS-IOMI objective is to demonstrate and flight qualify advanced technologies for application to future space missions and to provide better meteorological and atmospheric chemistry data products (results). December 2005 (estimated) <http://nmp.jpl.nasa.gov/eo3/about/about.html> Constellation Observing System for Meteorology, Ionosphere, and Climate (COSMIC) GPS radio occultation receiver Tiny Ionospheric Photometer (TIP) Coherent Electromagnetic Radio Tomography (CERT) Tri-Band Beacon (TBB) transmitter COSMIC is a joint Taiwan-U.S. space mission, with a plan to launch a constellation of six micro-satellites. Each satellite will carry three instruments: a Global Positioning System (GPS) radio occultation (RO) receiver, a Tiny Ionospheric Photometer (TIP), and a Tri-Band Beacon (TBB). The COSMIC constellation will provide up to 3,000 RO soundings that are distributed relatively uniformly around the Earth. The RO measurements can be used to derive the vertical profiles of temperature, moisture, and electron density. The TIP and TBB instruments will provide additional ionospheric measurements. 2005 (estimated) <http://www.cosmic.ucar.edu> <http://www.nspo.gov.tw/e50/menu0304.html>
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Mission Instruments Descriptiona Launch Date Web Links NPOESS Preparatory Project (NPP) NPP will provide NASA with continuation of global change observations following Earth Observing System (EOS) TERRA and Aqua missions. These include measurements for the following: atmospheric and sea surface temperatures, humidity sounding, land and ocean biological productivity, and cloud and aerosol properties. In addition, NPP will provide the National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System (NPOESS) with risk reduction demonstration and validation for 3 of the 4 critical NPOESS sensors, algorithms, and processing (VIIRS, CrIS, and ATMS). December 2005 (estimated) <http://www.ipo.noaa.gov/Projects/npp.html> Landsat Data Continuity Mission (LDCM) LDCM is a joint NASA-United States Geological Survey (USGS) mission to extend the Landsat record of multispectral, 30-meter resolution, seasonal, global coverage of the Earth’s land surface. However, neither NASA nor the USGS will produce, procure, or operate a spacecraft. Rather, science data will be procured from a vendor who fulfills the requirements of the LDCM Data Specification. The means or mechanism for acquiring those data are at the discretion of the vendor, subject to verification by the government that the proposed approach can produce the data and data products specified. Vendor selection is expected during the first half of calendar 2003. 2005 (estimated) <http://ldcm.nasa.gov/> <http://ldcm.usgs.gov/>
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Mission Instruments Descriptiona Launch Date Web Links The Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) Mission (Europe) MIRAS (Microwave Imaging Radiometer using Aperture Synthesis) passive L-band 2D-interferometer The overall objectives of the SMOS mission are to provide global observations of two crucial variables for modeling the weather and climate, Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity. It will also monitor the vegetation water content, snow cover, and ice structure. 2007 (estimated) <http://www.esa.int/export/esaLP/smos.html> Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Dual-frequency Precipitation Radar (DPR)—Primary Satellite GPM Microwave Imager (GMI) Various passive microwave radiometers GPM is a joint mission with the National Space Development Agency (NASDA) of Japan and other international partners. Building upon the success of the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM), it will initiate the measurement of global precipitation, a key climate factor. 2007 (estimated) <http://gpm.gsfc.nasa.gov> Its science objectives are: to improve ongoing efforts to predict climate by providing near-global measurement of precipitation, its distribution, and physical processes; to improve the accuracy of weather and precipitation forecasts through more accurate measurement of rain rates and latent heating; and to provide more frequent and complete sampling of Earth’s precipitation. The Gravity Field and Steady-State Ocean Circulation Mission (GOCE) (Europe) GOCE is intended to provide the unique data set required to formulate global and regional models of Earth’s gravity field and the geoid (its reference equipotential surface) to high spatial resolution and accuracy. It will also advance research in the fields of steady-state ocean circulation, physics of Earth’s interior and leveling systems (based on GPS). 2006 (estimated) <http://www.esa.int/export/esaLP/ESAYEK1VMOC_goce_0.html>
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Mission Instruments Descriptiona Launch Date Web Links Triana Advanced Whole Earth Radiometer A suite of small, next-generation space weather monitoring instruments Scripps EPIC (Earth Polychromatic Imaging Camera) Triana uses the Sun-Earth libration point (1,000,000 km away from Earth) to continuously observe the Earth. This is a cooperative project between the offices of Earth and Space science. To be determined <http://triana.gsfc.nasa.gov/home/> Vegetation Canopy Lidar (VCL) Multi-Beam Laser Altimeter (MBLA) The principal goal of the Vegetation Canopy Lidar (VCL) mission is the characterization of the three-dimensional structure of the Earth. The two main science objectives are: (1) Land cover characterization for terrestrial ecosystem modeling, monitoring and prediction, and climate modeling and prediction, and (2) Global reference data set of topographic spot heights and transects. 2020 <http://www.geog.umd.edu/vcl> aAll mission descriptions are quoted from the Web sites listed in the “Web Links” column and accessed in May 2003.
Representative terms from entire chapter: