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MONITORING INTERNATIONAL LABOR STANDARDS QUALITY OF INFORMATION Summary of a Workshop Margaret Hilton, Editor Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education Policy and Global Affairs Division NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS Washington, DC www.nap.edu
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THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This study was supported by Contract/Grant No. DOL-4653 between the National Academy of Sciences and U.S. Department of Labor. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the U.S. Department of Labor. International Standard Book Number 0-309-08858-5 (book) International Standard Book Number 0-309-50794-4 (PDF) Additional copies of this report are available from the National Academies Press, 500 Fifth Street, N.W., Lockbox 285, Washington, DC 20055; (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313 (in the Washington metropolitan area); Internet, http://www.nap.edu Printed in the United States of America. Copyright 2003 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Cover photo credits: The four cover photos are courtesy of the International Labour Organization, with individual credit as follows: upper left corner, P. DeLoche; upper right corner, A. Khemka; the two remaining photos—left mid-page and bottom left, J. Maillard. Suggested citation: National Research Council. (2003). Monitoring International La bor Standards: Quality of Information, Summary of a Workshop. Margaret Hilton, editor. Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education and Policy and Global Affairs Division. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.
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THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES Advisers to the Nation on Science, Engineering, and Medicine The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Wm. A. Wulf is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts and Dr. Wm. A. Wulf are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council www.national-academies.org
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Acknowledgments This workshop summary has been reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with procedures approved by the Report Review Committee of the National Research Council. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making its published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the process. We thank the following individuals for their review of this report: Ronald G. Ehrenberg, Higher Education Research Institute, Cornell University; Gregory F. Maggio, Overseas Private Investment Corporation; Michael J. Piore, Massachusetts Institute of Technology; and Anil Verma, Centre for Industrial Relations, University of Toronto. Although the reviewers listed above provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the content of the report nor did they see the final draft of the report before its release. The review of this report was overseen by Burt Barnow, Institute for Policy Studies, Johns Hopkins University. Appointed by the National Research Council, he was responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with institutional procedures and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content of this report rests entirely with the author and the institution.
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Contents 1 Introduction 1 2 Challenges in Measuring Labor Market Conditions Across Countries 8 3 Assessing Compliance with Freedom of Association Standards 17 4 Information and Indicators of Forced Labor 30 5 Information and Indicators of Discrimination 37 6 Measuring Child Labor 46 7 Nongovernmental Labor Regulation and Information Disclosure 54 References 65 List of Acronyms 69
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Appendixes A Workshop Speaker Biosketches 71 B Audience List 79 C The Committee on Monitoring International Labor Standards 83 D The International Labour Organization (ILO) Declaration on Fundamental Principles and Rights at Work 85