annually. Another 17 VVER-1000 reactors operate outside of Russia, and several others are in the design and construction stage. Spent fuel from VVER-1000 reactors is not currently reprocessed: After 3–5 years of storage in cooling pools at the power plants, the assemblies are shipped to a centralized storage facility at the Krasnoyarsk MCC.

Eleven RBMK-1000 reactors operating in Russia generate 550 MTHM of SNF (about 5,000 fuel assemblies) annually. Two AMB reactors (earlier versions of the RBMK reactor), located at the Beloyarsk nuclear power plant, were decommissioned in 1983 and 1990 (IAEA 2001).

Four EGP-6 reactors (graphite-moderated boiling-water reactors for combined heat and power, each generating 62 MWth) located at one power station in Bilibino are planned to be finally decommissioned in 2004.

Unit 3 of the Beloyarsk nuclear power station is a BN-600 reactor. The BN-600 has operated since 1980, producing roughly 3.8 MTHM of SNF per year (CEG 2000), and is licensed to operate through 2010. The SNF from this reactor is reprocessed at RT-1.

2.1.2 Government-Managed Spent Nuclear Fuel in the Russian Federation

Management of SNF from weapons production, naval vessels, and research reactors is paid for by the federal government.

Weapons-Production Spent Nuclear Fuel

Three dual-purpose reactors (production of plutonium and power) still operate in the Russian Federation: one at the Krasnoyarsk MCC and two (ADE-4 and ADE-5) at the SCC. These reactors continue to operate because the nearby cities need the heat and electricity that the reactors produce. The fuel from these reactors does not accumulate because it is reprocessed at onsite facilities. Roughly 1.5 MTHM of plutonium are generated by these reactors (500 kg each) annually and placed in storage as an oxide (Diakov 1995). Reprocessing of this SNF generates liquid and solid radioactive wastes.

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